IGNOU BSOC 102 SOCIOLOGY OF INDIA- I Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU BSOC 102 SOCIOLOGY OF INDIA- I Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU BSOC 102 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU BSOC 102 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.

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IGNOU BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field. IGNOU BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment A

Q1. Who are the Indologists? Discuss their contribution to the understanding of Indian society.

Indologists are scholars who specialize in the study of Indian culture, history, religion, and society. They come from various academic disciplines, such as anthropology, linguistics, history, and philosophy, and they apply their knowledge and expertise to better understand various aspects of Indian civilization.

The contributions of Indologists to the understanding of Indian society are immense. Some of the key contributions are as follows:

  • Language and literature: Indologists have made significant contributions to the study of Indian languages and literature. They have translated and analyzed classical texts such as the Vedas, Upanishads, and Mahabharata, which provide insights into Indian philosophy, spirituality, and social norms.
  • History: Indologists have contributed to the understanding of Indian history by analyzing and interpreting historical texts and archaeological evidence. They have shed light on important historical events such as the Indus Valley Civilization, the rise of Buddhism, and the Mughal Empire.
  • Religion and philosophy: Indologists have made significant contributions to the study of Indian religion and philosophy. They have analyzed the various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and have provided insights into the evolution of these religions and their impact on Indian society.
  • Art and architecture: Indologists have also contributed to the study of Indian art and architecture. They have analyzed and interpreted the various styles of Indian art, such as the Mauryan, Gupta, and Mughal periods, and have provided insights into the symbolism and meaning of Indian art and architecture.
  • Society and culture: Indologists have contributed to the understanding of Indian society and culture by analyzing various aspects of Indian society, such as caste, gender, and family structure. They have also studied the impact of colonialism and globalization on Indian society and culture.

In conclusion, Indologists have played a vital role in the study and understanding of Indian society. Their contributions have enriched our understanding of Indian civilization and have helped to bridge the gap between Eastern and Western cultures.

Q2. Describe the different types of industries in India with examples.

India has a diverse economy with a wide range of industries. Here are some of the major industries in India, along with examples of companies:

  • Agriculture: Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy, employing around 50% of the workforce. India is the world’s second-largest producer of food grains, fruits, and vegetables. Examples of companies include Godrej Agrovet, Jain Irrigation, and Rallis India.
  • Manufacturing: Manufacturing is a key industry in India and contributes around 17% of the GDP. The sector includes textile, pharmaceuticals, automobile, electronics, and more. Examples of companies include Tata Motors, Hindustan Unilever, and Mahindra & Mahindra.
  • Information technology: India has emerged as a global hub for IT services, including software development, IT consulting, and business process outsourcing. Examples of companies include Tata Consultancy Services, Infosys, and Wipro.
  • Banking and finance: Banking and finance are among the fastest-growing industries in India. The sector includes commercial banks, investment banks, insurance companies, and more. Examples of companies include HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank, and State Bank of India.
  • Healthcare: The healthcare industry in India has witnessed significant growth in recent years, and the sector includes hospitals, pharmaceuticals, and medical devices. Examples of companies include Apollo Hospitals, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, and Sun Pharmaceutical Industries.
  • Tourism and hospitality: India is a popular tourist destination and the tourism and hospitality industry contributes significantly to the country’s economy. The sector includes hotels, restaurants, travel agencies, and more. Examples of companies include Taj Hotels, MakeMyTrip, and Yatra.com.
  • Real estate: The real estate industry in India has seen tremendous growth in the past decade, and the sector includes residential and commercial real estate. Examples of companies include DLF, Godrej Properties, and Oberoi Realty.

These are just a few examples of the diverse range of industries in India.

Assignment B

Q3. Compare the Missionary perspective with that of the Orientalist and the Indologists.

The Missionary perspective, the Orientalist perspective, and the Indologist perspective are three distinct approaches to studying and understanding non-Western cultures and societies. While there may be some overlap between these perspectives, there are also significant differences.

The Missionary perspective is rooted in the Christian missionary movement, which sought to spread Christianity to non-Western societies. From this perspective, the primary focus is on converting non-Christians to Christianity, with the goal of saving their souls. This perspective often emphasizes the perceived moral and spiritual shortcomings of non-Christian cultures and societies, and can sometimes be accompanied by a sense of superiority or even paternalism.

The Orientalist perspective, as popularized by scholars such as Edward Said, refers to the way in which Western scholars and intellectuals have historically portrayed and understood the cultures and societies of the Middle East and Asia. From this perspective, the West is seen as fundamentally different and superior to the East, with Eastern societies portrayed as exotic, mysterious, and primitive. This perspective can be seen as perpetuating Western colonialism and imperialism, and can be criticized for perpetuating stereotypes and perpetuating power imbalances.

The Indologist perspective, on the other hand, is focused on the scholarly study of the cultures and societies of the Indian subcontinent. From this perspective, the focus is on understanding and analyzing the history, literature, and culture of India and its neighboring regions. This perspective is often associated with academic disciplines such as anthropology, history, and religious studies, and seeks to understand non-Western cultures on their own terms, rather than through a Western lens.

Overall, while there may be some similarities and overlaps between these three perspectives, they represent fundamentally different approaches to understanding non-Western cultures and societies, with varying degrees of historical baggage and potential biases.

Q4. Who are the subalterns and when did the subaltern studies emerge in India?

The term “subaltern” refers to people who are socially, politically, and economically marginalized, oppressed, and excluded from mainstream society. The concept was initially developed by Italian Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci and was further expanded upon by Indian historian Ranajit Guha.

The Subaltern Studies Group, also known as the Subaltern Studies Collective, emerged in India in the 1980s as a group of historians and scholars who aimed to challenge dominant narratives of Indian history and explore the experiences and perspectives of subaltern groups. The group sought to understand the ways in which subaltern groups, such as peasants, workers, and marginalized communities, shaped Indian history and how their histories were often ignored or misrepresented by mainstream narratives.

The Subaltern Studies Group’s work has been influential in the fields of history, anthropology, cultural studies, and postcolonial studies. Their approach has also been criticized for being overly focused on elite Western theory and for neglecting the agency and voices of the subaltern groups they seek to represent.

Q5. How does the informal economy differ from the formal economy? Explain

The informal economy and formal economy differ in various aspects, including their nature, scope, and operations. Here are some key differences:

  • Definition: The formal economy comprises all the legal economic activities that are registered and monitored by the government, while the informal economy refers to the economic activities that are unregulated, unregistered, and untaxed.
  • Size: The formal economy is usually much larger in size than the informal economy. In developed countries, the formal economy typically accounts for more than 90% of the total economic activity. In contrast, the informal economy is more significant in developing countries, where it may account for a significant portion of the total economic activity.
  • Taxation: The formal economy is taxed by the government, whereas the informal economy is not. As a result, the government loses a significant amount of revenue from the informal economy.
  • Labor laws: The formal economy is subject to labor laws that protect workers’ rights, such as minimum wage, working conditions, and social security benefits. In contrast, the informal economy has no such protection, and workers are often vulnerable to exploitation.
  • Technology: The formal economy usually employs modern technology, such as computers, automation, and sophisticated machinery. In contrast, the informal economy relies on low-tech methods, such as manual labor and traditional skills.
  • Market access: The formal economy has better access to markets, credit, and other resources than the informal economy, which operates mostly in the local or subsistence level.

In summary, the formal economy is regulated, taxed, and protected by the government, while the informal economy operates outside the formal system, with limited regulation, and it is characterized by a lack of protection for workers and lower productivity levels.

Assignment C

Q6. What is jajmani system?

The Jajmani system is a traditional social system found in rural parts of India, particularly in the northern and central regions. The system is based on the exchange of goods and services between different castes or occupational groups. In this system, each caste group is expected to provide specific services and goods to other castes, and in return, they receive various goods and services from the other castes.

For example, a Brahmin family might be expected to perform priestly duties for a village, while in return, they would receive food and other goods from the other caste groups in the village. Similarly, a blacksmith might be expected to provide agricultural tools and other metalwork to the village, while in return, they would receive food and other goods from the other caste groups.

The Jajmani system is based on the idea of interdependence and mutual cooperation between different castes. While the system has been criticized for perpetuating caste-based discrimination and inequality, it has also been praised for its ability to promote social harmony and ensure that each caste has a defined role and place within the larger community.

Q7. Define the concept of tribe.

The concept of tribe refers to a social group consisting of individuals who share a common ancestry, history, culture, language, and often a geographic territory. Tribes are usually characterized by a strong sense of solidarity and identity, which is often reinforced through social and cultural practices such as rituals, customs, and traditions.

Tribes have existed throughout human history, and they are still present in various forms around the world today. While some tribes have managed to preserve their traditional way of life and culture, others have undergone significant changes due to factors such as modernization, globalization, and colonization.

In general, tribes play an important role in shaping the social, political, and economic dynamics of the societies they belong to. They also provide a sense of belonging and identity to their members and are often associated with strong family ties and intergenerational relationships.

Q8. Discuss briefly the impact of globalisation on tribes in India.

The impact of globalization on tribes in India has been complex and varied. On one hand, globalization has brought increased economic opportunities and access to modern amenities to some tribal communities. On the other hand, it has also led to the loss of traditional livelihoods, cultural erosion, and displacement of indigenous communities.

One of the most significant impacts of globalization on tribes in India has been the encroachment of their land and resources. Globalization has led to the expansion of industries such as mining, forestry, and agriculture, which often involve the displacement of indigenous communities from their ancestral lands. This has resulted in the loss of traditional livelihoods and cultural practices that are tied to the land.

Moreover, globalization has also brought changes in the lifestyle, social structure, and belief system of tribal communities. Access to modern technology, education, and media has exposed them to new ideas, values, and norms. This has led to the erosion of their traditional beliefs and practices, and in some cases, a loss of their unique identity.

On the positive side, globalization has also provided new opportunities for tribes to engage in economic activities beyond their traditional subsistence economies. Increased access to markets, education, and technology has enabled some communities to diversify their income streams, such as by selling handicrafts or other goods to tourists. This has also allowed them to access modern amenities like healthcare, education, and transportation.

In conclusion, the impact of globalization on tribes in India has been a mixed bag. While it has brought new opportunities for economic development, it has also posed significant challenges to their way of life, cultural identity, and land rights. It is crucial to ensure that the benefits of globalization are equitably shared and that indigenous communities’ rights and interests are protected.

Q9. How does Emile Durkheim describe the relation between religion and society?

Emile Durkheim, one of the founding fathers of sociology, believed that religion played an essential role in the functioning of society. Durkheim argued that religion was not just an individual belief system, but a social institution that created and reinforced social solidarity.

According to Durkheim, religion served as a collective representation of society’s values, beliefs, and norms. Through shared religious practices and beliefs, individuals in society could come together and reinforce their sense of belonging and common identity. Durkheim called this sense of shared identity and purpose “collective conscience.”

Durkheim also believed that religion helped to regulate individual behavior and morality by setting forth guidelines and expectations for how people should behave. These guidelines were often codified in religious texts and reinforced through religious rituals and traditions.

In addition, Durkheim argued that religion played an important role in promoting social cohesion and stability by providing a sense of meaning and purpose to individuals’ lives. By offering a shared sense of the transcendent and connecting individuals to something larger than themselves, religion helped to prevent feelings of isolation and alienation that could lead to social unrest.

Overall, Durkheim saw religion as an essential aspect of society, serving to bind individuals together, regulate behavior, and provide a sense of meaning and purpose to people’s lives.

Q10. List the four types of economy based on the way scarce resources are distributed in 6

The four types of economy based on the way scarce resources are distributed in a society are:

  • Traditional Economy: In a traditional economy, resources are allocated based on long-standing customs, beliefs, and traditions passed down from generation to generation. This type of economy is often found in rural or tribal societies, where individuals follow traditional roles and work together to meet basic needs.
  • Command Economy: In a command economy, the government or a central authority makes all economic decisions, including what goods and services are produced, how they are produced, and how they are distributed. This type of economy is often associated with communist or socialist systems, where the state owns and controls the means of production.
  • Market Economy: In a market economy, resources are allocated through the interactions of buyers and sellers in a free market. Prices are determined by supply and demand, and individuals and businesses are free to make their own economic decisions. This type of economy is often associated with capitalism, where private ownership and entrepreneurship are encouraged.
  • Mixed Economy: In a mixed economy, resources are allocated through a combination of market forces and government intervention. This type of economy seeks to balance the benefits of a market economy, such as efficiency and innovation, with the benefits of government intervention, such as social welfare programs and environmental protection. Many modern economies, including the United States and Canada, are considered mixed economies.

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