IGNOU BPY 007 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BPY 007 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , BPY 007 Ethics Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : BPY 007 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU BPY 007 Assignment 2022-23, BPY 007 Assignment 2022-23 , BPY 007 Assignment , BPY 007 Ethics Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- BACHELOR OF ARTS Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for BACHELOR OF ARTS Programme for the year 2022-23. IGNOU BDP stands for Bachelor’s Degree Program. Courses such as B.A., B.Com, and B.Sc comes under the BDP category. IGNOU BDP courses give students the freedom to choose any subject according to their preference.  Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. Study of Political Science is very important for every person because it is interrelated with the society and the molar values in today culture and society. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23, ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .


IGNOU BPY 007 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

1. Give Answer of all five questions.
2. All five questions carry equal marks
3. Answer to question no. 1 and 2 should be in about 400 words each.
4. If any question has more than one part, please attempt all parts.

1. What is the problem of Akrasia? How Augustine tries to view and resolve this problem? Do you think he was successful in resolving this problem?


Write an essay on Gandhi’s moral philosophy.

Gandhism is a body of ideas that describes the inspiration, vision, and the life work of M.K. Gandhi. It is particularly associated with his contributions to the idea of nonviolent resistance, sometimes also called civil resistance.

The term “Gandhism” also encompasses what Gandhi’s ideas, words, and actions mean to people around the world and how they used them for guidance in building their own future. Gandhism also permeates into the realm of the individual human being, non-political and non-social. A Gandhian can mean either an individual who follows, or a specific philosophy which is attributed to, Gandhism.[1]

However, Gandhi did not approve of the term ‘Gandhism’. As he explained:

“There is no such thing as “Gandhism” and I do not want to leave any sect after me. I do not claim to have originated any new principle or doctrine. I have simply tried in my own way to apply the eternal truths to our daily life and problems…The opinions I have formed and the conclusions I have arrived at are not final. I may change them tomorrow. I have nothing new to teach the world. Truth and non-violence are as old as the hills.”

In the absence of a “Gandhism” approved by Gandhi himself, there is a school of thought that one has to derive what Gandhism stands for, from his life and works. One such deduction is a philosophy based on “truth” and “non-violence” in the following sense. First, one should acknowledge and accept the truth that people are different at all levels (“truth”). Second, one should never resort to violence to settle inherent differences between human beings at any level: from between two people to two nations to two races or two religions (“non-violence”).


Although Gandhi’s thought is unique in its own right, it is not without ideological parents. Gandhi has in his own writings specified the inspiration for his saying certain things. It can be said that it is his exposure to the West, during his time in London, that compelled him to look at his position on various religious, social, and political affairs.

Soon after his arrival in London, he came under the influence of Henry Stephens Salt, who was not yet the famous campaigner and social reformer that he would later become. Salt’s first work, A plea for vegetarianism turned Gandhi towards the question of vegetarianism and food habits. It was also around this time that Gandhi joined vegetarian societies in London. Salt eventually became Gandhi’s friend too. Talking of the significance of Salt’s work, historian Ramachandra Guha said in his work Gandhi before India: “For our visiting Indian, however, the Vegetarian Society was a shelter that saved him. The young Gandhi had little interest in the two great popular passions of late nineteenth-century London, the theatre and sport. Imperial and socialist politics left him cold. However, in the weekly meetings of the vegetarians of London he found a cause, and his first English friends.” Salt’s work allowed Gandhi for the first time to take part in collective action. Salt later went on to write a biography of Henry David Thoreau, who had a profound impact on Gandhi. Although Thoreau’s 1854 book Walden could as well have moved Gandhi, it was his 1849 essay Civil Disobedience that was of greater importance. Gandhi was already in the midst of a form of civil disobedience in South Africa when he read Thoreau. Not only did he adopt the name for the kind of struggle that he would become a champion of, but also adopted the means of breaking laws in order to call for their reform. In 1907, Thoreau’s name first appeared in the journal that Gandhi was then editing, Indian Opinion, where Gandhi called Thoreau’s logic ‘incisive’ and ‘unanswerable’.

Gandhi’s residence in South Africa itself sought inspiration from another Western literary figure – Leo Tolstoy.[5] Leo Tolstoy’s critique of institutional Christianity and faith in the love of the spirit greatly moved him. He would after becoming a popular political activist write the foreword to Tolstoy’s essay, A letter to a Hindu. Gandhi exchanged letters with Tolstoy and named his ashram Tolstoy Farm. In Gandhian thought, Tolstoy’s 1894 book The Kingdom of God Is Within You sits alongside A plea and Civil Disobedience.

Tolstoy Farm was Gandhi’s experiment of his utopian political economy – later to be called ‘Gram Swaraj’. One key source of this concept was John Ruskin’s 1862 book Unto This Last in which Ruskin critiques the ‘economic man’ (this was written after Ruskin’s retreat from Art criticism for which he was well-known). Gandhi tried in all his Ashrams a system of self-sufficiency and decentralised economies. Gandhi was gifted this book by his close associate Henry Polak in South Africa. The philosophy of Ruskin urged Gandhi to translate this work into Gujarati.

Pacifism and Ahimsa

The concept of nonviolence (ahimsa) and nonviolent resistance has a long history in Indian religious thought and has had many revivals in Christian, Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim, and Jain contexts. Gandhi explains his philosophy and way of life in his autobiography, The Story of My Experiments with Truth. He was quoted as saying that:

“What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans, and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty and democracy?”
“It has always been easier to destroy than to create”.
“There are many causes that I am prepared to die for but no causes that I am prepared to kill for”.

In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi issued two public appeals for Indians to enlist in the British Indian Army to fight in the First World War. He asserted that fighting in the war would provide Indians necessary self-defense skills that had been eroded by the deep-seated influence of India’s ascetic culture, which he disdained.

This advocacy of violence led some of his staunchest supporters, including his nephew, Maganlal Gandhi, to question whether Gandhi was forsaking his non-violent ideals. In a July 1918 letter replying to his nephew, Gandhi stated that any conception of non-violence that prohibited self-defense was erroneous. To support this argument, Gandhi criticized the ethics of love and absolute ahimsa (non-violence) he observed in the teachings of Swaminarayan and Vallabhacharya. According to Gandhi, this love was mere “sentimentalism”, and its concomitant absolute ahimsa “robbed us of our manliness” and “made the people incapable of self-defence”. Gandhi wrote that Swaminarayan and Vallabhacharya had not grasped the essence of non-violence. Instead Gandhi argued for a non-violence that would “permit [our offspring] to commit violence, to use their strength to fight”, since that capacity for violence could be used for the benefit of society, like in “restraining a drunkard from doing evil” or “killing a dog…infected with rabies”.

By 1924, however, Gandhi’s criticism of Swaminarayan and his ethical teachings had turned into admiration. While arguing in a Navjivan newspaper editorial that it was a duty to resort to violence for self-defense against Afghani terrorists, Gandhi admitted that he could not personally adopt this approach because he had chosen the path of love even against his enemies. Gandhi explained that, according to the Hindu scriptures, a single such self-controlled person could eradicate violence from the hearts of one’s opposition. It was through this power of love that Gandhi asserted, “what was accomplished in Gujarat by one person, Sahajan and [Swaminarayan], could not be accomplished by the power of the State”. Moreover, he said that “The Age of Sahajanand has not come to an end. It is only devotion and self-control like his that are wanted”. Ultimately, Gandhi said that while he was attempting Swaminarayan’s approach himself, he did “not have the strength of heart to act upon” it the way that Swaminarayan had successfully done.

2. Do you think that Moral Principles are universal in nature? Evaluate Subjectivist, Deontologist and relativist views on this subject matter.


What is moral dilemma? Explain with examples.

moral dilemma is also called an ethical dilemma and refers to a situation where an individual needs to make a choice but faces a conflicting situation between one or more alternatives. Ideally, the choice they make presents a dilemma because every available option may be wrong or incorrect. This creates a situation where there is a conflict of morals or ethics. Moral dilemmas are important as they help individuals interrogate their moral standing and who they are in terms of the choices they make when presented with conflicting options or situations.

A Philosophical Debate

Historically, there have been moral dilemma debates with different philosophical approaches. Contributions from Gratian of Bologna and Thomas Aquinas and their schools of thought take center stage in the moral dilemma discussion. The earlier debate stems from Gratian, who spoke of the absence of genuine moral dilemmas. In his argument, Gratian talks about an all-knowing being, referring to God, who ensures that any choice situation has at least one right act presented to a person. Gratian adds that all cases of personally felt confusion are a result of ignorance. The Gratian school of thought mentions that it is a fallacy to rely on the principle which states that a person should pick the lesser of two evils. This, according to Gratian, is because there is always one option that is good, and the lesser evil principle is like the devil’s ploy that encourages the thought that it is okay to pick evil sometimes. The Gratian school of thought seems to suggest that a moral dilemma can exist when an individual is torn between right and wrong.

The other debate stems from Thomas Aquinas who came up with the moral philosophy that is known as natural law ethics, and argued that it is necessary that everyday reasoning be led by obvious principles, such as ensuring that evil acts are not to be committed. Aquinas simply tries to bring out a moral philosophy that justifies human behavior, noting that human beings have a desire to be happy and doing good helps them achieve this goal. Therefore, the moral dilemma in this case is rooted in virtual acts that lead to happiness.


One way to explain moral dilemma debates and the actions chosen by people can be found by examining the trolley/cart problem. The trolley/cart problem is a thinking experiment presenting an ethical dilemma in a fictional scenario whereby a bystander has the choice to save five people who are about to be hit and killed by a trolley/cart, but to do so, the bystander must divert the trolley/cart to kill one individual. The moral dilemma presented here is that it might look obvious that the demise of five people would be worse when compared to the death of one person. Conversely, in order to redirect the trolley/cart, a person has to make an active decision and knowingly place one innocent individual in the direction of the trolley/cart. However, moral dilemma debates seem to suggest that it is possible to solve a moral dilemma by making the best choice out of the alternatives. The Gratian school of thought believes every moral dilemma has a right and wrong meaning that can be resolved by making the right choice.

Moral Dilemma Definition

A moral dilemma is a situation wherein a person is required to make a difficult choice. Any choice they make may have repercussions, but they must make a choice. This situation presents what is called a moral conflict. The morals of an individual can come in handy in this situation to guide them in making a decision. Morals refer to the values held by a person and the principles of what is right or wrong that they hold dear. This stems from the morality of an individual, which means the distinction of actions, decisions, and purposes between those that are noted as appropriate and those that are inappropriate. This is known as an individual dilemma, or a situation where a difficult choice must be made between alternatives, especially ones that are equally disagreeable as guided by morality. The following are the characteristics of a moral dilemma;

  • A person is expected to do two or more actions. It is possible for a person to do these actions, but not at the same time.
  • At times there is an appropriate and an inappropriate choice. The problem is knowing which is the best choice.
  • In some cases, someone can get hurt, making the choice even harder to make.
  • At times, what is at stake is a legal issue, e.g., witnessing an acquaintance stealing and the choice to ignore the theft or report it.

3. Answer any two of the following questions in about 200 words each. 2*10= 20

a) Write a note on gender violence.
b) “Suicide is morally wrong.” Give different kinds of arguments to prove this thesis.
c) Critically evaluate the scholastic understanding of human act.
d) Write an essay on the role of reason and emotion in morality.

4. Answer any four of the following questions in about 150 words each. 4*5= 20

a) Write a note on the role of intention of the agent in the domain of moral act?
b) Write a short essay on the idea of Free Will.
c) Explain briefly Ethical Principles of Jainism Moral Philosophy.
d) What are the constituent elements of a human act?
e) “Terrorism is a threat to Social Ethics.” Analyze this proposition.
f) Write a note on Aristotle’s idea of golden path.

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5. Write short notes on any five of the following in about 100 words each. 5*4= 20

a) Arya Satya
b) Prajna
c) Ahimsa
d) Aparigraha
e) Virtue
f) Svadharma
g) Purushartha
h) Applied Ethics

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IGNOU Instructions for the BPY 007 Ethics Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BPY 007 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.

GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

IGNOU BPY 007 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BPY 007 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BPY 007 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BPY 007 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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BPY 007 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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