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IGNOU BPSC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-2023
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Important Note – IGNOU BPSC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
There are three Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions in the
Answer the following in about 500 words each in section I and Each question carries 20 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in section II and Each question carries 10 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in section III and Each question carries 6 marks
SECTION – I
Q.1. Explain different theoretical approaches of globalisation.
The World We Live In
In 1993, South African photojournalist Kevin Carter took a picture depicting an emaciated Sudanese girl struggling towards a nearby feeding center, while a vulture waited for her to die so it could eat her. The photograph sent shock waves across the world. Fourteen months later, Carter won the Pulitzer Prize for the photograph. Nobody ever knew what eventually happened to the child, although at the time, the photographer had chased the vulture away and the child had completed her trek to the feeding center. Three months after receiving the Pulitzer Prize, Kevin committed suicide due to depression.
The story highlights how an event can, in no time, affect people of faraway lands. This is the world today; it is fast and changing. People struggle against time to achieve their goals. This struggle often leaves little room for them to think and care for other people. And this process has been expedited by the effects of globalization.
Globalization and Its Significance
The Roles of Capital and the Market Economy in Globalization: The economy is the most significant motivating force behind globalization, although politics, technology, education, media, and culture also play their parts. The effect on human life is certain. Global institutions like the United Nations (UN), World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) and individual countries and societies derive their strength from their economic power, which enables them to make or influence decision-making on the world stage. Behind the government, rich individuals or groups in the developed countries exert influence on decision-making, both within their own countries and at the global level, on issues ranging from politics, conflicts and wars to development in the social sectors, such as education and health services. Anderson and Cavanagh (2000) found that, of the top 200 business corporations of the world, 94 maintain “government relations” offices that are located on or within a few blocks of the lobbying capital of the world, Washington, DC’s K Street Corridor.
The Top 200 MNCs and World Capital Ownership: Who owns the capital of the world? According to Anderson and Cavanagh, among the largest 100 economies in the world, 51 are multinational corporations (MNCs), whereas only 49 are countries. The analysis is based on a comparison of the corporate sales of MNCs and the GDPs of the countries. The study further shows that, out of the 200 largest economies of the world, 144 are MNCs. The combined sales of the top 200 corporations are bigger than the combined economies of all the countries of the world, minus the largest 10. The income of MNCs is 18 times higher than the combined annual income of the 1.2 billion people of poor countries (24 percent of the total world population). The study has found that the growth of sales of top 200 corporations is faster than overall global economic activity. Between 1983 and 1999, their profits grew by 362 percent whereas their combined sales grew from 25 percent to 27.5 percent of the world GDP.
According to the UN Committee on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), MNCs account for 70 percent of the total world foreign trade, which is US $7 trillion.
Most of these MNCs belong to the rich countries; therefore, it is natural that MNCs and their respective countries should safeguard their mutual economic, political, and cultural interests under the cloak of globalization. Economies are the catalysts of the globalization process, and they are represented by MNCs and transnational corporations (TNCs), which maintain the highest stakes and stand to gain the maximum benefits.
MNCs and TNCs: Emergence, Stakes and Strategy
Emergence: Trade between nations has existed since ancient times but its scope used to be limited. With the Industrial Revolution and the introduction of fast means of communication and transportation, transnational trade has expanded at great speed. Subsequently, the MNCs have emerged.
Collaboration with Media: In recent times, the emergence of media giants with increasing power and influence over human minds, and their collaboration with other MNCs, driven by mutual interest of the two, has profoundly intensified MNCs’ influence. The process has evolved and developed with modern ways and means that have added to its significance as well as its speed, scope and quantum.
Lobbying: Given their huge capital resources and production capacities, MNCs are able to dictate their own terms in economic dealings. For the sale of their enormous production, MNCs require access to large markets; tariff issues, access restrictions and similar “barriers to trade” are hurdles in this access. What MNCs need is a global system for the free flow of their goods. They therefore use their sheer economic weight to influence international trade rules. With their huge resources, they employ lobbyists with the highest expertise and influence at international trade organizations. In all, there are approximately 15,000 lobbyists based in Brussels, or roughly one for each staff member of the European Commission, the executive body that negotiates on the European Union’s behalf in the WTO. Some 70 percent of these lobbyists represent business interests. Their expenditures in Brussels alone are estimated to be between € 750 million and € 1 billion. Moreover, an estimated 17,000 lobbyists representing different MNCs are working in Washington, DC. The pharmaceutical industry alone spent US$ 1 billion on lobbying in the US in 2004. The rich North, influenced by such lobbying, makes decisions in favor of the MNCs, irrespective of the economic, social or cultural consequences for the poor of the world.
Entry in Host Countries: Having poor economic infrastructure and little capital, developing countries very easily agree to host MNCs. At times, their weak regulatory positions are subsequently exploited by MNCs.
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Q.2. . Describe the functions and impacts of MNC and TNC in the process of globalisation.
All theories of globalization have been put hereunder in eight categories: liberalism, political realism, Marxism, constructivism, postmodernism, feminism , Trans-formationalism and eclecticism. Each one of them carries several variations.
1. Theory of Liberalism:
Liberalism sees the process of globalisation as market-led extension of modernisation. At the most elementary level, it is a result of ‘natural’ human desires for economic welfare and political liberty. As such, transplanetary connectivity is derived from human drives to maximise material well-being and to exercise basic freedoms. These forces eventually interlink humanity across the planet.
They fructify in the form of:
(a) Technological advances, particularly in the areas of transport, communications and information processing, and,
(b) Suitable legal and institutional arrangement to enable markets and liberal democracy to spread on a trans world scale.
Such explanations come mostly from Business Studies, Economics, International Political Economy, Law and Politics. Liberalists stress the necessity of constructing institutional infrastructure to support globalisation. All this has led to technical standardisation, administrative harmonisation, translation arrangement between languages, laws of contract, and guarantees of property rights.
But its supporters neglect the social forces that lie behind the creation of technological and institutional underpinnings. It is not satisfying to attribute these developments to ‘natural’ human drives for economic growth and political liberty. They are culture blind and tend to overlook historically situated life-worlds and knowledge structures which have promoted their emergence.
All people cannot be assumed to be equally amenable to and desirous of increased globality in their lives. Similarly, they overlook the phenomenon of power. There are structural power inequalities in promoting globalisation and shaping its course. Often they do not care for the entrenched power hierarchies between states, classes, cultures, sexes, races and resources.
2. Theory of Political Realism:
Advocates of this theory are interested in questions of state power, the pursuit of national interest, and conflict between states. According to them states are inherently acquisitive and self-serving, and heading for inevitable competition of power. Some of the scholars stand for a balance of power, where any attempt by one state to achieve world dominance is countered by collective resistance from other states.
They concentrate on the activities of Great Britain, China, France, Japan, the USA and some other large states. Thus, the political realists highlight the issues of power and power struggles and the role of states in generating global relations.
At some levels, globalisation is considered as antithetical to territorial states. States, they say, are not equal in globalisation, some being dominant and others subordinate in the process. But they fail to understand that everything in globalisation does not come down to the acquisition, distribution and exercise of power.
Globalisation has also cultural, ecological, economic and psychological dimensions that are not reducible to power politics. It is also about the production and consumption of resources, about the discovery and affirmation of identity, about the construction and communication of meaning, and about humanity shaping and being shaped by nature. Most of these are apolitical.
Power theorists also neglect the importance and role of other actors in generating globalisation. These are sub-state authorities, macro-regional institutions, global agencies, and private-sector bodies. Additional types of power-relations on lines of class, culture and gender also affect the course of globalisation. Some other structural inequalities cannot be adequately explained as an outcome of interstate competition. After all, class inequality, cultural hierarchy, and patriarchy predate the modern states.
3. Theory of Marxism:
Marxism is principally concerned with modes of production, social exploitation through unjust distribution, and social emancipation through the transcendence of capitalism. Marx himself anticipated the growth of globality that ‘capital by its nature drives beyond every spatial barrier to conquer the whole earth for its market’. Accordingly, to Marxists, globalisation happens because trans-world connectivity enhances opportunities of profit-making and surplus accumulation.
Marxists reject both liberalist and political realist explanations of globalisation. It is the outcome of historically specific impulses of capitalist development. Its legal and institutional infrastructures serve the logic of surplus accumulation of a global scale. Liberal talk of freedom and democracy make up a legitimating ideology for exploitative global capitalist class relations.
The neo-Marxists in dependency and world-system theories examine capitalist accumulation on a global scale on lines of core and peripheral countries. Neo-Gramscians highlight the significance of underclass struggles to resist globalising capitalism not only by traditional labour unions, but also by new social movements of consumer advocates, environmentalists, peace activists, peasants, and women. However, Marxists give an overly restricted account of power.
There are other relations of dominance and subordination which relate to state, culture, gender, race, sex, and more. Presence of US hegemony, the West-centric cultural domination, masculinism, racism etc. are not reducible to class dynamics within capitalism. Class is a key axis of power in globalisation, but it is not the only one. It is too simplistic to see globalisation solely as a result of drives for surplus accumulation.
It also seeks to explore identities and investigate meanings. People develop global weapons and pursue global military campaigns not only for capitalist ends, but also due to interstate competition and militarist culture that predate emergence of capitalism. Ideational aspects of social relations also are not outcome of the modes of production. They have, like nationalism, their autonomy.
4. Theory of Constructivism:
Globalisation has also arisen because of the way that people have mentally constructed the social world with particular symbols, language, images and interpretation. It is the result of particular forms and dynamics of consciousness. Patterns of production and governance are second-order structures that derive from deeper cultural and socio-psychological forces. Such accounts of globalisation have come from the fields of Anthropology, Humanities, Media of Studies and Sociology.
Constructivists concentrate on the ways that social actors ‘construct’ their world: both within their own minds and through inter-subjective communication with others. Conversation and symbolic exchanges lead people to construct ideas of the world, the rules for social interaction, and ways of being and belonging in that world. Social geography is a mental experience as well as a physical fact. They form ‘in’ or ‘out’ as well as ‘us’ and they’ groups.
They conceive of themselves as inhabitants of a particular global world. National, class, religious and other identities respond in part to material conditions but they also depend on inter-subjective construction and communication of shared self-understanding. However, when they go too far, they present a case of social-psychological reductionism ignoring the significance of economic and ecological forces in shaping mental experience. This theory neglects issues of structural inequalities and power hierarchies in social relations. It has a built-in apolitical tendency.
5. Theory of Postmodernism:
Some other ideational perspectives of globalisation highlight the significance of structural power in the construction of identities, norms and knowledge. They all are grouped under the label of ‘postmodernism’. They too, as Michel Foucault does strive to understand society in terms of knowledge power: power structures shape knowledge. Certain knowledge structures support certain power hierarchies.
The reigning structures of understanding determine what can and cannot be known in a given socio-historical context. This dominant structure of knowledge in modern society is ‘rationalism’. It puts emphasis on the empirical world, the subordination of nature to human control, objectivist science, and instrumentalist efficiency. Modern rationalism produces a society overwhelmed with economic growth, technological control, bureaucratic organisation, and disciplining desires.
SECTION – II
1. Examine the role and the functions of International Monetary Fund (IMF).
2. Ideology of neoliberalism.
3. How does globalisation affect the states jurisdiction?
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SECTION – II
1. Examine the phenomenon of merger and acquisition (M&M) in the global economy.
2. Examine the organisational structure of World Bank.
3. Digital Globalisation
5. Impacts of Globalisation on Cultures.
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