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IGNOU BPCE 015 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BPCE 015 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , BPCE 015 Industrial and Organisational Psychology Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : BPCE 015 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU BPCE 015 Assignment 2022-23, BPCE 015 Assignment 2022-23 , BPCE 015 Assignment , BPCE 015 Industrial and Organisational Psychology Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- BACHELOR OF ARTS Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for BACHELOR OF ARTS Programme for the year 2022-23. IGNOU BDP stands for Bachelor’s Degree Program. Courses such as B.A., B.Com, and B.Sc comes under the BDP category. IGNOU BDP courses give students the freedom to choose any subject according to their preference.  Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. Study of Political Science is very important for every person because it is interrelated with the society and the molar values in today culture and society. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23, ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .

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IGNOU BPCE 015 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU BPCE 015 Solved Assignment 2022-2023  Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

All questions are compulsory.

Section A

Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks

1.What are the different causes of stress?

The kids won’t stop screaming, your boss has been hounding you because you turned a report in late, and you owe the IRS thousands of dollars you don’t have. You’re seriously stressed out.
Stress is actually a normal part of life. At times, it serves a useful purpose. Stress can motivate you to get that promotion at work, or run the last mile of a marathon. But if you don’t get a handle on your stress and it becomes long-term, it can seriously interfere with your job, family life, and health. More than half of Americans say they fight with friends and loved ones because of stress, and more than 70% say they experience real physical and emotional symptoms from it.Read on to learn why you get stressed out, and how that stress might be affecting your health.
Causes of Stress
Everyone has different stress triggers. Work stress tops the list, according to surveys. Forty percent of U.S. workers admit to experiencing office stress, and one-quarter say work is the biggest source of stress in their lives.
Causes of work stress include:
  • Being unhappy in your job
  • Having a heavy workload or too much responsibility
  • Working long hours
  • Having poor management, unclear expectations of your work, or no say in the decision-making process
  • Working under dangerous conditions
  • Being insecure about your chance for advancement or risk of termination
  • Having to give speeches in front of colleagues
  • Facing discrimination or harassment at work, especially if your company isn’t supportive
  • The death of a loved one
  • Divorce
  • Loss of a job
  • Increase in financial obligations
  • Getting married
  • Moving to a new home
  • Chronic illness or injury
  • Emotional problems (depression, anxiety, anger, grief, guilt, low self-esteem)
  • Taking care of an elderly or sick family member
  • Traumatic event, such as a natural disaster, theft, rape, or violence against you or a loved one

Sometimes the stress comes from inside, rather than outside. You can stress yourself out just by worrying about things. All of these factors can lead to stress:

  • Fear and uncertainty. When you regularly hear about the threat of terrorist attacks, global warming, and toxic chemicals on the news, it can cause you to feel stressed, especially because you feel like you have no control over those events. And even though disasters are typically very rare events, their vivid coverage in the media may make them seem as if they are more likely to occur than they really are. Fears can also hit closer to home, such as being worried that you won’t finish a project at work or won’t have enough money to pay your bills this month.
  • Attitudes and perceptions. How you view the world or a particular situation can determine whether it causes stress. For example, if your television set is stolen and you take the attitude, “It’s OK, my insurance company will pay for a new one,” you’ll be far less stressed than if you think, “My TV is gone and I’ll never get it back! What if the thieves come back to my house to steal again?” Similarly, people who feel like they’re doing a good job at work will be less stressed out by a big upcoming project than those who worry that they are incompetent.
  • Unrealistic expectations. No one is perfect. If you expect to do everything right all the time, you’re destined to feel stressed when things don’t go as expected.
  • Change. Any major life change can be stressful — even a happy event like a wedding or a job promotion. More unpleasant events, such as a divorce, major financial setback, or death in the family can be significant sources of stress.

Your stress level will differ based on your personality and how you respond to situations. Some people let everything roll off their back. To them, work stresses and life stresses are just minor bumps in the road. Others literally worry themselves sick.

When you are in a stressful situation, your body launches a physical response. Your nervous system springs into action, releasing hormones that prepare you to either fight or take off. It’s called the “fight or flight” response, and it’s why, when you’re in a stressful situation, you may notice that your heartbeat speeds up, your breathing gets faster, your muscles tense, and you start to sweat. This kind of stress is short-term and temporary (acute stress), and your body usually recovers quickly from it.But if your stress system stays activated over a long period of time (chronic stress), it can lead to or aggravate more serious health problems. The constant rush of stress hormones can put a lot of wear and tear on your body, causing it to age more quickly and making it more prone to illness.If you’ve been stressed out for a short period of time, you may start to notice some of these physical signs:
  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Upset stomach
  • Irritability
When stress becomes long-term and is not properly addressed, it can lead to a number of more serious health conditions, including:
  • Depression
  • High blood pressure
  • Abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia)
  • Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis)
  • Heart disease
  • Heart attack
  • Heartburn, ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome
  • Upset stomach — cramps, constipation, and diarrhea
  • Weight gain or loss
  • Changes in sex drive
  • Fertility problems
  • Flare-ups of asthma or arthritis
  • Skin problems such as acne, eczema, and psoriasis

Managing your stress can make a real difference to your health. One study showed that women with heart disease lived longer if they underwent a stress management program.

2 Elucidate the different steps of behavioural management.

The ultimate goal of education is to mold young people into well-rounded individuals. That often includes making sure that the teaching and learning process flows as smoothly as possible. In theory, your role as a teacher is to plan and deliver your lessons, and everything will fall into place. Unfortunately, theory doesn’t always apply in the real world. Truth be told, getting children to settle down and behave as expected is often a job and a half.

That’s where positive behavioral management strategies shine.

Let’s talk about some behavior management strategies you can tap into to enhance student behavior and allow teaching and learning to proceed as planned.

1. Maintain a Routine

Having a set routine is an important behavior management tool that helps to establish guidelines and behavior expectations. A routine ensures that students know what’s coming next, so you’ll spend less time giving out instructions—freeing up time to do the real work. Include the students in establishing a class schedule that works for everyone and give them responsibility for some routine tasks. Don’t leave out the notoriously disruptive students in your schedule—more often, a sense of responsibility can help reduce behavior issues. When a student starts to slide out of your planned routine, use non-verbal cues like hand gestures to remind students of what they should be doing. Avoid verbal cues to keep the lesson flow uninterrupted.

2. Set Rules Together With Students

Just like a routine, rules help improve student behavior. However, if the classroom teachers set the rules themselves, the class may reject them. That’s why it’s important to have an audience with your class to help set the rules. When children take ownership of the rules, peer pressure works in your favor to enforce them and improve behavior management. Also, have a guideline for how infractions will be dealt with. These guidelines help remove the feeling of being punished, so students will know what to expect when they’re called out about their behavior. Remember to enforce the guidelines impartially and consistently. If you slack on the enforcement even once, you create a loophole that everyone will want to take advantage of. It’s also important to remember not to discipline the whole class for one student’s infractions. For example, disrupting class proceedings to deal with one student. This will likely alienate the whole class, who will feel wrongfully punished.

3. Create Stimulating Lessons

Imagine sitting through a meeting where the facilitator drones on for hours on end? You will probably start fiddling with your keys or just zone out right in the middle of it. That’s exactly how students feel when lessons aren’t exciting. Monotonous classes are sure to bring out the worst in your students. To get rid of bad behavior, make your class activities as exciting and stimulating as possible. Structure your activities to engage and involve your learners throughout the lesson. Strive to allow your students to uncover knowledge with practical activities. Most importantly, vary your teaching methods, use plenty of aids and make the work as interactive and fun as you can. You can draw the attention of younger students by incorporating games and using plenty of actions in your learning time. With older students, try to stay relatable, for example, by referencing modern music or movies.

4. Use Positive Language

Negative language has a way of reinforcing the wrong behavior. Typically, kids like to do what they are told not to do. So, rather than create a vicious cycle of behavior challenges, use positive language. For example, instead of saying, “stop throwing those paper airplanes,” you can say instead, “can we all focus and pay attention, please.” Positive language makes the students feel respected, leading to better behavior. Plus, positive language will encourage the kids to start speaking positively. For example, instead of saying, “this work is too hard for me,” they will begin to say, “I can try my best.” It’s also important to keep your body language positive. Smile more and frown less often. Model the behavior you want to see in your students. Studies have shown that students learn from the language and behavior that educators display.

Some of the outcomes of positive language approaches include:

  • A safe learning environment
  • A sense of responsibility
  • Self-discipline
  • Self-motivation

5. Develop a Relationship With Your Students

Get to know your students individually. Take time to find out their interests and dislikes. If your lessons are centered around what the learners like, you will find it easier to keep them engaged. Also, knowing your students will help you identify some triggers to behavioral problems. For example, if a student suddenly starts lashing out and talking over you in a lesson, they may be going through some personal problems at home or facing issues like bullying at school. If you know a bit about the child, you may be able to figure out the root of the problem. Instead of punishing the bad behavior, you can talk to the student or point them in the direction of help; for example, get them to see the school counselor. One way of developing a good relationship with your class is by speaking positively about them to their parents and administrators. Use notes and calls to update their parents on their positive behavioral changes. Or have the principal or a senior administrator drop in to commend their good behavior. Your students are more likely to feel like you are looking out for them and continue to improve.

6. Adjust Your Scoring Methods

Getting an F on an assignment is demoralizing. Typically, students who get poor marks are disruptive in class and deliberately fall short of behavior expectations to deflect from the real issue. If you are dealing with a similar scenario in your class, use a less standard scoring method for grading classwork. For example, instead of grading a paper with a specific score, simply put check marks where they got it right and point out areas of improvement. This unconventional grading can help reduce the overwhelming feeling of poor grades. You may also turn it into a game. Use points to grade papers and give some rewards when a student reaches a specific number of points. Treating scores like a fun game helps motivate students to focus and improve their scores.

Developing a Positive Behavior Management System for Your School

Many years ago, the trusted classroom management approach was authoritarian. Teachers routinely meted out punishment or used stern warnings to keep the class in line. But this method has been proven to have many shortcomings.

▶ Discover our Classroom Management Programs

For one, it breeds an atmosphere of fear, hindering kids from making progress in their studies. Secondly, studies have shown negative long-term effects like behavioral problems, low self-esteem, or depression.

That’s why turning to positive behavior management techniques is critical. Positive behavior focuses on understanding your students, becoming a role model, and promoting wholesome behavioral development.

Imagine this scenario: a child is hanging from a tree cursing at his grandma, refusing to get into school. The principal’s office is bursting at the seams with pupils in trouble for one infraction or the other, and it’s not even time for recess yet!

Sounds incredible?

That’s what Dr. Michael Perry had to deal with in his first year as principal at Critzer Elementary in Virginia.

But then, Positive Action came to his aid with a curriculum designed to instill positive behavioral change, plus training for educators in using positive behavioral management in the classroom.

The result was a phenomenal decrease in behavioral problems, safe classrooms, and thriving learners.

Four years later, Critzer is profoundly transformed. The school is fully accredited, meeting and exceeding federal, state, and local standards. It ranks among the highest academic performing schools in its district, and half-way through this year there have only been two suspensions.”

If you’re facing behavioral problems in your school, turn to Positive Action.

Positive Action offers a full curriculum package, counselor kits, and school climate kits designed to help teachers, students, and school leaders to implement positive behavior management systems.

For a comprehensive turnaround of your school, contact Positive Action today.

Positive Action’s programs are tried and tested.

Most importantly, all packages are engaging, easy to use, and set to transform the classroom and school environment to help shape your learners into well-behaved positive thinkers, and well-adjusted individuals.

3. Explain the different types of psychological tests that can be used in industries and organizations.

Discussing types of psychological tests, in general, can be complicated. Indeed, determining the best psychological tests used in the workplace can seem a daunting task.
The Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology — better known as SIOP — says that there are hundreds of psychological tests available to help employers in making decisions. But there are, essentially, just three different types of psychological tests used in the workplace. Once you know what types of psychological tests are available, and best for your business, or more specifically what types of psychological tests for an industrial setting or psychological test for employment are best suited for a small business, choosing the right one will be immeasurably easier.
Many local and international companies in both the private and public sector use pre-employment tests, as well as tests within their workforce as well, often a psychological test for employment, such as aptitude and personality tests, says the Institute of Psychometric Coaching. According to the Institute:

“These tests are as the most effective method to measure (a candidate’s) ‘fit’, or match, for a position (they) apply for. These tests tell employers what they need to know, not just what (the job applicant) wants to share with them.”

From an employer’s perspective, or from the perspective of a small business owner or manager, a psychological test for employment can help determine whether a job applicant will make a good addition to the company. Hiring an employee can be an expensive process for a small business, and hiring the wrong employee can be a disaster.
Employers also administer these psychological tests to employees who are already part of the company workforce. For example, the Myers-Briggs (discussed in more detail below) is one of the psychological tests used for an industrial setting, to “increase employees’ understanding of individual differences and to promote better communication between members of work teams,” according to Leslie A. Miller and Robert L. Lovler in “Foundations of Psychological Testing.”
A psychological test for employment gives the business owner a chance to determine, as the Institute notes, whether the applicant is a good fit for the company. Does he have the right temperament or aptitude? Does he have the endurance or mental attitude to do a competent job for the company? There are various types of psychological assessments to help answer these questions before a company hires a new employee.
A psychological test administered to workers who are already employed at a company helps employers to no only foster better communication among employees but also determine which employees to promote and to what positions, as well as what what teams to place them on. Knowing the types of workplace assessments available can be a key component in helping a company hire or promote the right employees for their workplace needs and business culture.
What Are the Different Types of Psychological Tests for the Workplace?
Often called a pre-employment test, a psychological test for employment is a type of psychological assessment. According to SIOP, all types of psychological tests or all types of psychological tests for an industrial setting boil down to three areas:
  • Biographical data instruments, which often seek information on a candidate’s leadership and teamwork skills, interpersonal skills, extraversion, and creativity through the use of questions about education, training, work experience, and interests to predict success on the job.  “Some biographical data instruments also ask about an individual’s attitudes, personal assessments of skills, and personality,” says SIOP.   
  • Cognitive ability tests, also called aptitude tests, which typically use questions or problems to measure a candidate’s ability to learn quickly, and use logic, reasoning, reading comprehension and other mental abilities that are important for success in many different jobs.  These tests “assess a person’s aptitude or potential to solve job-related problems by providing information about their mental abilities,” says SIOP.
  • Personality tests, which try to measure a person’s extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to new experiences, optimism, agreeableness, service orientation, stress tolerance, emotional stability, and initiative or proactivity.  “Personality tests typically measure traits related to behavior at work, interpersonal interactions, and satisfaction with different aspects of work,” says SIOP.
The psychological tests for the workplace may go by various names, and some tests may combine elements from one or more of the above-listed types of tests, but most types of psychological assessments or types of workplace assessments fall into these categories.
What Are the Characteristics of Psychological Tests?
Psychological tests for the workplace are a subsection of all psychological tests, which themselves have specific characteristics. There are actually five characteristics of nearly all psychological tests, says Psychology, an online (and free) platform to help students and professionals share current information about psychology.
Aman Sharma, in an article titled, “5 Main Characteristics of a Good Psychological Test,” published on the Psychology Discussion website, notes that the characteristics of psychological tests are:
  1. Objectivity: The test should be free of judgement regarding the ability, skill, knowledge, trait or potentiality to be measured and evaluated, say Sharma.
  2. Reliability: The test should deliver consistent results when administered to various individuals or groups over various periods of time. This means the test should be “trustworthy,” says Sharma.
  3. Validity: The test should measure what it intends to measure. “For example, when an intelligent test is developed to assess the level of intelligence, it should assess the intelligence of the person, not other factors,” says Sharma.
  4. Norms: The test should measure the average performance of a group (such as a group of applicants). It gives a picture of the average standard of a particular sample, says Sharma. For a small business, for example, the firm’s owner or managers would want to be sure the test shows which candidates are among the average (or norm), as well as above the norm.
  5. Predictability: The test must be predictable in the time required for completion, says Sharma.  The test should not be too lengthy and difficult to answer as well as score.
This last characteristic is particularly important for a business administering a psychological test for employment. A human resource department, for example, should know about how long an average, and even an above-average, applicant would take to complete the test.
How to Take a Psychological Test for a Job
It can be helpful for a small business to understand how an applicant would take a psychological test for a job. In other words: What would be the process of taking such a test from the job applicant’s perspective?
A psychological test for a job, often called a psychometric test, is a standard, scientific method used to measure a person’s mental capabilities and behavioral style, says the Institute of Psychometric Coaching These tests are designed to measure candidates’ suitability for a role based on the required personality characteristics and aptitude. In other words, a psychological test for a job is designed, as noted, to see how well a candidate would fit in a business organization and how well she might be expected to both perform on the job and fit well into the company’s culture.
Korn-Ferry, the world’s No. 1 executive recruiting firm, says psychometric assessments, or psychological tests for a job, offer a deeper understanding of job candidates and identify the right person for the job. Gary Burnison, Korn-Ferry CEO, says in his 2018 book, Lose the Resume/Land the Job, that the best way for a candidate to take a psychological test for a job is to prepare ahead of time by taking his own self-assessment tests.

Section B

Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks

4. What are the different strategies of organizational intervention at group level?
5. Point out the different functions of Human Resource.
6. Describe the different methods of training used in organizations.
7. What are the different factors that influence employees’ job satisfaction?
8. Explain the various component systems of Human Resource Development (HRD)

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Section C

Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks

9. Difference between primary and secondary motives.
10. Definition and meaning of learning.
11. Issues of employee privacy.
12. Meaning of graveyard shift.
13. Outcomes of emotional labour.
14. Concept of role conflict.
15. Attributes of emotional intelligence.
16. Method of assessing interest of prospective employee.
17. Relevance of organizational change.
18. Schedules of reinforcement.

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IGNOU BPCE 015 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
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  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
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