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IGNOU BPCE 013 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks
1. Define motivation and discuss the characteristics and theories of motivation.
Introduction to Motivation:
Abraham Lincoln, until past forty, was a failure in almost all activities he undertook. When asked about the change he said, ‘My father taught me to work but did not teach me to love my work. I hit that accidentally, when I was past forty’. This ‘love or will to do’ (called motivation) depends on the strength of people’s motives. Motives are the expressed needs and could be conscious or subconscious. They are always directed towards goals.
Motivating people to perform better and thus to achieve organizational objectives has been the greatest challenge to managers. Why do some people perform better than others? Why does the same person act differently at different times? These and many other questions related to work performance have been confronting managers continuously.
Motivating people to perform, higher than their normal physical and mental capacities, and to keep them satisfied is a very complex function of management.
Definition of Motivation:
Motivation is an inspirational process which impels the members of the team to pull their weight effectively to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out the tasks properly that they have accepted, and generally to play an effective part in the job that the group has undertaken.
In the words of Michael Jucious, ‘motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course of action, to push the right button to get a desired reaction’.
S. Zedeek and M. Blood define, ‘Motivation is a predisposition to act in a specific goal-directed way’.
Following are the importance of motivation in an organization:
1. Greater efficiency:
Motivation enhances the efficiency of the employees and of organization. When employees are motivated, they can perform with commitment and dedication.
2. Reduction in absenteeism and labour turnover:
Motivated employees may not remain absent or leave the organization. They develop a sense of belonging towards the organization and thus improve their overall performance.
3. Team spirit:
Motivation improves team spirit of employees, and this improves the work environment and the overall performance of the employee and the organization.
4. Reduction in wastages and breakages:
Motivated employees take great care in handling machines and other resources. This will reduce wastages and breakages, thus resulting in higher benefits to the organization.
5. Cordial relations:
Motivation enables cordial and healthy relationship in the organization. Motivation helps reduce labour grievances and disputes. It ensures sound relations between the management and the labour. It improves the overall efficiency of the organization.
6. Promotion of innovation:
Motivated employees use their initiative to find out innovative ways in the performance of their operations. Such employees are more creative and help the organization to gain the competitive advantage.
7. Optimum use of resources:
Motivation leads to greater employee involvement and lesser wastages. This leads to optimum utilization of resources.
8. Corporate image:
Motivated employees are more loyal to the organization. They work with a sense of commitment and dedication. This improves the overall performance of the employee, which enables better results for the company. This results in better relations with all the stakeholders.
Characteristics/Features of Motivation:
1. Interaction between the individual and the situation:
Motivation is not a personal trait but an interaction between the individual and the situation.
2. Goal-directed behaviour:
Motivation leads to an action that is goal oriented. Motivation leads to accomplishment of organizational goals and satisfaction of personal needs.
3. Systems oriented:
Motivation is influenced by two forces:
a. Internal forces:
These forces are internal to the individual, i.e., their needs, wants and nature.
b. External forces:
These forces are external to the individual, which may be organizational related such as management philosophy, organizational structure, and superior-subordinate relationship, and also the forces found in the external environment such as culture, customs, religion and values.
4. Positive or negative:
Positive motivation or the carrot approach offers positive incentives such as appreciation, promotion, status and incentives. Negative motivation or stick approach emphasizes penalties, fines and punishments.
5. Dynamic and complex in nature:
Human behaviour is highly complex, and it becomes extremely difficult to understand people at work. Motivation is a dynamic and complex process.
Motivation also involves factors that direct and maintain goal-directed actions. Although, such motives are rarely directly observable. As a result, we must often infer the reasons why people do the things that they do based on observable behaviors.1
Learn the types of motivation that exist and how we use them in our everyday lives. And if it feels like you’ve lost your motivation, do not worry. We also share a few ways to develop or improve your self-motivation levels.
ypes of Motivation
The two main types of motivation are frequently described as being either extrinsic or intrinsic.
- Extrinsic motivation arises from outside of the individual and often involves external rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition, or praise.
- Intrinsic motivation is internal and arises from within the individual, such as doing a complicated crossword puzzle purely for the gratification of solving a problem.2
Motivation serves as a guiding force for all human behavior. So, understanding how motivation works and the factors that may impact it can be important for several reasons.
Understanding motivation can:
- Increase your efficiency as you work toward your goals
- Drive you to take action
- Encourage you to engage in health-oriented behaviors
- Help you avoid unhealthy or maladaptive behaviors, such as risk-taking and addiction
- Help you feel more in control of your life
- Improve your overall well-being and happiness
2. Describe the physiological basis of emotion.
Emotions are often confused with feelings and moods, but the three terms are not interchangeable. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), emotion is defined as “a complex reaction pattern, involving experiential, behavioral and physiological elements.” Emotions are how individuals deal with matters or situations they find personally significant. Emotional experiences have three components: a subjective experience, a physiological response and a behavioral or expressive response.
Feelings arise from an emotional experience. Because a person is conscious of the experience, this is classified in the same category as hunger or pain. A feeling is the result of an emotion and may be influenced by memories, beliefs and other factors.
A mood is described by the APA as “any short-lived emotional state, usually of low intensity.” Moods differ from emotions because they lack stimuli and have no clear starting point. For example, insults can trigger the emotion of anger while an angry mood may arise without apparent cause.
Defining emotions is a task that is not yet complete. Many researchers are still proposing theories about what makes up our emotions, and existing theories are constantly being challenged. Still, there’s a good basis of knowledge to analyze when exploring the topic.
The Process Of Emotion
While there is debate about sequence, there is general agreement that emotions, as mentioned earlier, are made up of three parts: subjective experiences, physiological responses and behavioral responses. Let’s look at each of these parts in more detail.
All emotions begin with a subjective experience, also referred to as a stimulus, but what does that mean? While basic emotions are expressed by all individuals regardless of culture or upbringing, the experience that produces them can he highly subjective.
Subjective experiences can range from something as simple as seeing a color to something as major as losing a loved one or getting married. No matter how intense the experience is, it can provoke many emotions in a single individual and the emotions each individual feel may be different. For example, one person may feel anger and regret at the loss of a loved one while another may experience intense sadness.
We all know how it feels to have our heart beat fast with fear. This physiological response is the result of the autonomic nervous system’s reaction to the emotion we’re experiencing. The autonomic nervous system controls our involuntary bodily responses and regulates our fight-or-flight response. According to many psychologists, our physiological responses are likely how emotion helped us evolve and survive as humans throughout history.
Interestingly, studies have shown autonomic physiological responses are strongest when a person’s facial expressions most closely resemble the expression of the emotion they’re experiencing. In other words, facial expressions play an important role in responding accordingly to an emotion in a physical sense.
The behavioral response aspect of the emotional response is the actual expression of the emotion. Behavioral responses can include a smile, a grimace, a laugh or a sigh, along with many other reactions depending on societal norms and personality.
While plentiful research suggests that many facial expressions are universal, such as a frown to indicate sadness, sociocultural norms and individual upbringings play a role in our behavioral responses. For example, how love is expressed is different both from person to person and across cultures.
Behavioral responses are important to signal to others how we’re feeling, but research shows that they’re also vital to individuals’ well-being. A study in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology found that while watching negative and positive emotional films, suppression of behavioral responses to emotion had physical effects on the participants. The effects included elevated heart rates. This suggests that expressing behavioral responses to stimuli, both positive and negative, is better for your overall health than holding those responses inside. Thus, there are benefits of smiling, laughing and expressing negative emotions in a healthy way.
The physiological and behavioral responses associated with emotions illustrate that emotion is much more than a mental state. Emotion affects our whole demeanor and our health. Furthermore, our ability to understand others’ behavioral responses plays a huge role in our emotional intelligence, which will be discussed in more detail later.
Emotions And Psychology
Theories and hypotheses about emotions date back centuries. In fact, basic or primary emotions are referenced in the Book of Rights, a first-century Chinese encyclopedia. Emotion is much harder to measure and properly define than many other human responses. Much of the study that has been done in emotional psychology is about basic emotions, our psychological and behavioral responses, and the role of emotional intelligence in our lives.
Basic And Complex Emotions
In emotional psychology, emotions are split into two groups: basic and complex.
Basic emotions are associated with recognizable facial expressions and tend to happen automatically. Charles Darwin was the first to suggest that emotion-induced facial expressions are universal. This suggestion was a centerpiece idea to his theory of evolution, implying that emotions and their expressions were biological and adaptive. In fact, emotions have been observed in animals by researchers for several years, suggesting that they’re pivotal to survival in other species as well. Basic emotions are likely to have played a role in our survival throughout human evolution, signaling to those around us to react accordingly.
Emotional psychologist Paul Ekman identified six basic emotions that could be interpreted through facial expressions. They included happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust. He expanded the list in 1999 to also include embarrassment, excitement, contempt, shame, pride, satisfaction and amusement, though those additions have not been widely adapted.
List Of The Six Basic Emotions
Similarly, in the 1980s, psychologist Robert Plutchik identified eight basic emotions which he grouped into pairs of opposites, including joy and sadness, anger and fear, trust and disgust, and surprise and anticipation. This classification is known as a wheel of emotions and can be compared to a color wheel in that certain emotions mixed together can create new complex emotions.
More recently, a new study from the Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology at the University of Glasgow in 2014 found that instead of six, there may only be four easily recognizable basic emotions. The study discovered that anger and disgust shared similar facial expressions, as did surprise and fear. This suggests that the differences between those emotions are sociologically-based and not biologically-based. Despite all the conflicting research and adaptations, most research acknowledge that there are a set of universal basic emotions with recognizable facial features.
3. Define stress. Discuss the description and types of stress and stressors.
What is stress?
Stress is a situation that triggers a particular biological response. When you perceive a threat or a major challenge, chemicals and hormones surge throughout your body.
Stress triggers your fight-or-flight response in order to fight the stressor or run away from it. Typically, after the response occurs, your body should relax. Too much constant stress can have negative effects on your long-term health.
Is all stress bad?
Stress isn’t necessarily a bad thing. It’s what helped our hunter-gatherer ancestors survive, and it’s just as important in today’s world. It can be healthy when it helps you avoid an accident, meet a tight deadline, or keep your wits about you amid chaos.
We all feel stressed at times, but what one person finds stressful may be very different from what another finds stressful. An example of this would be public speaking. Some love the thrill of it and others become paralyzed at the very thought.
Stress isn’t always a bad thing, either. Your wedding day, for example, may be considered a good form of stress.
But stress should be temporary. Once you’ve passed the fight-or-flight moment, your heart rate and breathing should slow down and your muscles should relax. In a short time, your body should return to its natural state without any lasting negative effects.
On the other hand, severe, frequent, or prolonged stress can be mentally and physically harmful.
And it’s fairly common. When asked, 80 percent of Americans reported they’d had at least one symptom of stress in the past month. Twenty percent reported being under extreme stress.
Life being what it is, it’s not possible to eliminate stress completely. But we can learn to avoid it when possible and manage it when it’s unavoidable.
Stress is a normal biological reaction to a potentially dangerous situation. When you encounter sudden stress, your brain floods your body with chemicals and hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol.
That gets your heart beating faster and sends blood to muscles and important organs. You feel energized and have heightened awareness so you can focus on your immediate needs.
When you sense danger, the hypothalamus at the base of your brain reacts. It sends nerve and hormone signals to your adrenal glands, which release an abundance of hormones.
These hormones are nature’s way of preparing you to face danger and increase your chances of survival.
One of these hormones is adrenaline. You might also know it as epinephrine, or the fight-or-flight hormone. In rapid fashion, adrenaline works to:
- increase your heartbeat
- increase your breathing rate
- make it easier for your muscles to use glucose
- contract blood vessels so blood is directed to the muscles
- stimulate perspiration
- inhibit insulin production
While this is helpful in the moment, frequent adrenaline surges can lead to:
- damaged blood vessels
- high blood pressure, or hypertension
- higher risk of heart attack and stroke
- weight gain
Although adrenaline is important, it isn’t the primary stress hormone. That’s cortisol.
As the main stress hormone, cortisol plays an essential role in stressful situations. Among its functions are:
- raising the amount of glucose in your bloodstream
- helping the brain use glucose more effectively
- raising the accessibility of substances that help with tissue repair
- restraining functions that are nonessential in a life-threatening situation
- altering immune system response
- dampening the reproductive system and growth process
- affecting parts of the brain that control fear, motivation, and mood
All this helps you deal more effectively with a high-stress situation. It’s a normal process and crucial to human survival.
But if your cortisol levels stay high for too long, it has a negative impact on your health. It can contribute to:
- weight gain
- high blood pressure
- sleep problems
- lack of energy
- type 2 diabetes
- mental cloudiness (brain fog) and memory problems
- a weakened immune system, leaving you more vulnerable to infections
It can also have a negative impact on your mood.
There are several types of stress, including:
- acute stress
- episodic acute stress
- chronic stress
Acute stress happens to everyone. It’s the body’s immediate reaction to a new and challenging situation. It’s the kind of stress you might feel when you narrowly escape a car accident.
Acute stress can also come out of something that you actually enjoy. It’s the somewhat-frightening, yet thrilling feeling you get on a roller coaster or when skiing down a steep mountain slope.
These incidents of acute stress don’t normally do you any harm. They might even be good for you. Stressful situations give your body and brain practice in developing the best response to future stressful situations.
Once the danger passes, your body systems should return to normal.
Severe acute stress is a different story. This kind of stress, such as when you’ve faced a life-threatening situation, can lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other mental health problems.
Episodic acute stressEpisodic acute stress is when you have frequent episodes of acute stress.
This might happen if you’re often anxious and worried about things you suspect may happen. You might feel that your life is chaotic and you seemingly go from one crisis to the next.
Certain professions, such as law enforcement or firefighters, might also lead to frequent high-stress situations.
As with severe acute stress, episodic acute stress can affect your physical health and mental well-being.
Chronic stressWhen you have high-stress levels for an extended period of time, you have chronic stress. Long-term stress like this can have a negative impact on your health. It may contribute to:
- cardiovascular disease
- high blood pressure
- a weakened immune system
Chronic stress can also lead to frequent ailments such as headaches, an upset stomach, and sleep difficulties. Gaining insights into the different types of stress and how to recognize them may help.
Causes of stress
Some typical causes of acute or chronic stress include:
- living through a natural or manmade disaster
- living with chronic illness
- surviving a life-threatening accident or illness
- being the victim of a crime
- experiencing familial stressors such as:
- an abusive relationship
- an unhappy marriage
- prolonged divorce proceedings
- child custody issues
- caregiving for a loved one with a chronic illness like dementia
- living in poverty or being homeless
- working in a dangerous profession
- having little work-life balance, working long hours, or having a job you hate
- military deployment
There’s no end to the things that can cause a person stress because they’re as varied as people are.
Whatever the cause, the effect on the body can be serious if left unmanaged.
Just as we each have different things that stress us out, our symptoms can also be different.
Although you’re unlikely to have them all, here are some things you may experience if you’re under stress:
- chronic pain
- insomnia and other sleep problems
- lower sex drive
- digestive problems
- eating too much or too little
- difficulty concentrating and making decisions
You might feel overwhelmed, irritable, or fearful. Whether you’re aware of it or not, you may be drinking or smoking more than you used to.
Stress headaches, also known as tension headaches, are due to tense muscles in the head, face, and neck. Some of the symptoms of a stress headache are:
- mild to moderate dull head pain
- a band of pressure around your forehead
- tenderness of the scalp and forehead
Many things can trigger a tension headache. But those tight muscles could be due to emotional stress or anxiety.
A stomach ulcer — a type of peptic ulcer — is a sore on the lining of your stomach that’s caused by:
- infection with helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
- long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- rare cancers and tumors
Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks
4. Define emotion and discuss the theories of emotion.
5. Differentiate between emotion and feeling.
6. Discuss the Alderfer’s ERG theory.
7. Explain the signs of arousal and anxiety.
8. Explain the treatment and prevention of stress and anxiety.
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IGNOU BPCE 013 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BPCE 013 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
IGNOU BPCE 013 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks
9. Psychogenic Needs.
10. Emotion of love and affection.
11. Need for Achievement.
12. Method to increase intrinsic motivation.
13. Aggressive motivation.
14. Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS).
15. Stress and Emotion.
16. Marten’s Multidimensional Anxiety Theory.
17. Components of emotions.
18. Attribution theory
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