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IGNOU BPCC 114 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPCC 114 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks in Assignment two.
1. Explain the factors influencing counseling process.
The counselling context
The term ‘counselling context’ does not refer here to the physical location where counselling takes place (which we call the counselling environment) but relates to the social, cultural, economic, religious and political factors of the place where you work, and the communities in which the people you will counsel, live. This section examines how these different factors may influence the counselling context.
It is important for you to be aware of the different factors that have an effect on the counselling context within the community you work. In the previous sessions we highlighted how important it is to assess and understand the woman’s own knowledge, skills and individual situation. It is also important to assess and understand the wider cultural and social context in which you work.
Economic status refers to one’s financial status and is strongly related to health and educational status. So in general, most people with a low economic status (e.g. a low income) are also likely to have a lower educational and health status.
On the other hand, those with a higher economic/financial status will have better access to education and health services and will have higher status in these areas. It is important to take into account the socio-economic status of a woman, couple or family because this status will affect the decisions they have to make as well as the needs they have. For example, a woman who is poor may not have money to attend a health facility (either for child care, transport or where she must pay user fees). Similarly if a woman has a low educational status she may not appreciate the benefits of birth in a health facility and her low health status may mean she is at higher risk of poor health outcomes for both her and her baby. Educational status is also related to literacy. You need to know the literacy level of people that you counsel so that you do not give them complex advice or instructions in words which are unfamiliar to them, materials that they cannot read, or forms which they are unable to understand or complete.
Try open-ended questions as you try to form an alliance:
“I’d like to get to know you a little more; perhaps you can tell me something about yourself and your home situation?”
At other times you will have to be more direct e.g. “What level of education did you finish?”
How does your household earn its income?”
It can help you to form an alliance with the woman if you are open with her about why you want to know this information. Tell her that knowing this type of information will help you to tailor the service you provide to her specific needs.
Social and cultural context
Culture is a term we use to describe the values, beliefs, practices and ways in which a community or society lives. It also includes the way the people express themselves, communicate, and interact with one another. The social context refers to how people are organized, in terms of family groupings (do they live in extended or nuclear /traditional families? or do husbands have several wives?) It also refers to group interactions and hierarchies within communities. For example, are there group leaders, chiefs, or headmen or women, and what role do they play? The cultural and social context affects all aspects of life, from how people greet one another, to how they interact in the household and how they make decisions.
Issues such as religion or social status affect peoples’ ideas or feelings and this can influence communication and counselling. The cultural and social context can be expressed differently depending on the setting such as the home, schools, the workplace, or the health service. Your professional training took place within a particular perspective on health and you may feel it is the most appropriate way of approaching health issues. Other communities and cultures have their own ways of talking about health which may be different from yours. Thus it is important to reflect on what these different beliefs and values are, as they will have an impact on the way in which you interact with women and their families and the way they interact with you.
Pregnancy and birth are normally very social and cultural events and thus tied to many specific beliefs and practices. In order to better support a pregnant woman and her family, it is important to know these beliefs and practices. Some may be very good for the woman and her baby, others may not be beneficial but also do no harm; you can build upon these beliefs and practices, and try to incorporate them into your practice and service. Other beliefs and practices may cause harm. You will need to discuss these with the women and her family and the broader community to see how they can be changed.
You can divide the group into 3 smaller groups and have each group look at a different aspects, e.g., one group looks at antenatal, another group looks at childbirth and the third group looks at postnatal practices. Then bring them back together as one larger group to discuss their findings.
Within different cultures or social systems there can be ceremonies or ways to mark important events such as childbirth. For example, pregnant women may be expected to act or behave in certain ways. They may be given medicines or special foods. There may be ceremonies or activities to mark the arrival of the new baby, or practices carried out during labour and birth.
Understanding the context in which you are working and counselling is very important. This activity looks at local practices to help you to assess some important aspects of your context. Consider talking to women and community groups to help you answer these questions.
Write down in your notebook all the local practices and beliefs that you have come across regarding pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum/postnatal period. Ask women or groups if there are any other practices and beliefs you should add.
For each one of the practices you have identified, consider whether it is good for the health of the woman and/or baby, if it is harmless or harmful. Organize your list of practices under the three headings:
Helpful Harmless Harmful
You may need to find out more information to be able to make your classification. A helpful practice is one that supports the advice and information that you give to women (for example, exclusive breastfeeding), a harmless practice is one that does not contribute to improving the health status of the mother or newborn but also does not have a damaging effect (for example, beliefs/rituals surrounding the care of the placenta after birth). Harmful practices cover anything which might carry a risk of infection, loss of blood, transmission of an STI or make the mother or newborn weak. Harmful practices may also delay the woman’s access to appropriate care (for example, beliefs that announcing the onset of labour will result in an evil spell being cast). The following questions may help you as you think about this.
- Does the practice involve animal or human waste? For example, a common practice of rubbing manure onto the baby’s umbilical cord can cause dangerous infections.
- Does the practice involve allocating different amounts of food, work or rest? For example, some cultures routinely give women less to eat than men. This could be potentially harmful to a pregnant or breastfeeding woman. But a cultural practice which encourages a woman who recently gave birth to rest in bed can be helpful.
- Does the practice involve sexual intercourse? For example, sexual cleansing where a woman with STIs has sex with a traditional medicine practitioner is unlikely to do any good, and can transmit STIs/HIV if condoms are not used. However, sexual intercourse between a woman and her husband during pregnancy is harmless, unless one or both of the couple are HIV-positive and are not using condoms.
- Does the practice involve taking blood from the woman outside of the health service? For example, taking blood from pregnant women to cleanse her of demons could be harmful as there is risk of infection and too much blood could be taken.
- Does the practice involve local herbs, remedies or medications? For example, taking local remedies to stimulate contractions could be harmful, but other herbs or foods to promote better nutrition might be harmless or helpful depending on the ingredients.
- Does the practice involve delays in reaching a skilled attendant? For example, the belief that infidelity causes obstructed labour may result in reluctance to give birth in a health facility.
Think about how you might incorporate some of the helpful and harmless practices into your advice and counselling with pregnant women and their families. Think about how you will discuss the harmful practices with women, their partners and their families and the community so you can improve your mutual understanding.
2. What is person-centred therapy? Explain the techniques or strategies used in it.
Person-centered therapy was a major departure from the popular theories of the time, namely psychodynamic and behavior therapy. These therapies focused on human behavior that the client was not consciously aware of. Rogers, on the other hand, thought that people wanted to focus on the aspects of their life that were part of their self-awareness. In other words, the client knows what is bothering them and just needs the appropriate environment to process it.
Why Person-Centered Therapy May Not Get Enough Credit
Most current popular therapeutic approaches focus on the actions of the client. Subsequently, numerous self-help resources have been developed for individuals to work on themselves within these orientations. Take cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), for instance. There are hundreds of worksheets and exercises that people can use if they wish to practice the CBT orientation. In contrast, person-centered therapy concentrates on what the therapist does to promote a certain environment within the therapeutic milieu. It does not lend itself to specific activities that can be marketed to potential clients. Plus, these therapist techniques tend to be more general, rather than specific acts that can be easily replicated. As a result, person-centered therapy is not discussed as often as a specific treatment modality. But make no mistake. The principles of person-centered therapy have become mainstays of how to conduct psychotherapy. Almost all therapists use at least some client-centered techniques when performing therapy. They just may not realize they are doing it.
Techniques of Person-Centered Therapy
While some may argue that a person-centered therapist does not use techniques as much as they develop a therapeutic atmosphere, there are certain behaviors a therapist must perform to create the optimal environment. Let’s look at some techniques a therapist uses in person-centered therapy.
Unlike most therapies, where a clinician may have an agenda for a particular session, Rogers advocated for a person-centered session where the therapist lets the client lead. It is the client’s journey and it is believed they are experts about their own lives. Thus, the therapist is seen as an equal collaborator, rather than an authority who knows how to guide a person toward self-actualization. This is the reason that Rogers referred to a person in therapy as a client rather than a patient. Although it may be tempting to offer guidance, it is important that the client is taking responsibility for their own life.
Unconditional Positive Regard
One of the most important aspects of the person-centered therapy technique is that the therapist must exhibit unconditional positive regard for the client. In short, this means that they accept and care for the client as they are. This does not mean that the therapist always has to agree with the client but it does mean that they refrain from judgment. It is essential that the client feels valued by the therapist. You might note that this resembles aspects of positive psychology.
The development of self-concept was key to Rogers. In order to be functioning at an optimal level, he thought that a person must balance their ideal self with how they experience their real self. When that is achieved, they obtain what he termed congruence. He believed congruence was necessary to become a highly functioning person and achieve life goals. It is thought that a client is usually in a state of incongruence when they enter therapy and a major part of their work is to achieve congruence.
To that end, Rogers believed that a therapist must be genuine with clients. He thought that their behavior and thoughts needed to match. In other words, the client should see the client’s authentic self. In order to be effective, a client needs to believe that what a therapist is saying is the truth. This is a major diversion from much of psychodynamic psychology, where therapists were encouraged to hide their true selves from patients. Being genuine allows the therapist and client to build trust and model a healthy relationship. If a therapist is not exhibiting congruence, a client will not be able to achieve a similar state.
It is essential that a therapist exhibit empathy while applying person-centered therapy techniques. Empathy is the ability to put yourself in someone else’s shoes and relate to their experience. It should be noted that empathy is different from sympathy. Empathy is showing understanding for a person while sympathy is feeling bad for them. If a client does not feel understood they will not feel safe with the therapist and will be unable to be genuine and exhibit their true self.
Accept Negative Emotions
Remaining positive, supportive, and non-judgmental with a client can be difficult. There are times when a client is going to express negative emotions that elicit a reaction. At times a client may even direct negative emotions toward the therapist. A therapist needs to remember that person-centered therapy techniques are based on creating a safe environment for a client where they feel they can share information without negativity and judgment. A therapist needs to learn to not take words personally, especially from a client that is experiencing personal issues.
Active listening is a bit of a misnomer. Yes, you are listening to the client. In fact, truly listening to the client without exhibiting judgment is a fundamental part of person-centered therapy. But, active listening is not just listening. It is listening in such a way as to let the client know that you understand what is being said. Here are some critical aspects of active listening:
Body Language – One way to show a client you are paying attention is through body language. You want to maintain eye contact, lean slightly forward, and keep an open style of communication (e.g., arms and legs uncrossed).
Reflection – Another part of active listening is verbally responding to what is being said. In many therapies, the therapist is trying to interpret what the client means and see it through their own lens. In person-centered therapy, you do not try and change the meaning but rather simply reflect the client in an effort to further understanding.
Paraphrase – It is quite easy to misunderstand a client’s meaning. The goal in active listening is to clarify what is being said so you know you are hearing what they want you to hear. One way of doing this is to paraphrase their comments to ensure you are understanding their meaning.
Tone – Your tone of voice is an important consideration in person-centered therapy. Your tone should remain even and supportive. Large inflections may be interpreted by the client as a judgment or a lack of empathy.
Open-Ended Questions – When you ask a client a question you have a choice: direct them toward a certain answer or leave it open-ended. In person-centered psychotherapy, open-ended questions are superior. They are not leading, allowing the client to remain in control of their session. In addition, open-ended questions tend to elicit more information.
Affirmations – Affirmations can be both verbal and non-verbal. “I appreciate what you are telling me” is an example of a verbal affirmation. Even a small phrase like “go on” tells a client you are interested in what they have to say. A non-verbal affirmation can be something as simple as a head nod.
3. Explain the key concepts of choice theory and describe the significance of reality therapy.
Core ideas of reality therapy
Reality therapy applies the main principles of choice theory. It aims to help you recognize the reality of your choices and choose more effective behaviors. The key concepts include:
BehaviorBehavior is a central component of reality therapy. It’s categorized into organized behaviors and reorganized behaviors.
Organized behaviors are past behaviors that you created to satisfy your needs. The therapist will help you recognize any ineffective organized behaviors.
After identifying ineffective behaviors, you’ll work on changing them into more effective behaviors or making completely new ones. These are called reorganized behaviors.
By presenting behaviors as choices, reality therapy can help you better manage your life experiences and actions, according to advocates of the technique.
ControlThe choice theory suggests that a person is only controlled by themselves. It also states that the idea of being controlled by external factors is ineffective for making change.
This concept emerges in reality therapy, which states that behavioral choices are determined by internal control. A reality therapist works to increase your awareness of these controllable choices.
ResponsibilityIn reality therapy, control is closely linked to responsibility. According to Dr. Glasser, when people make poor choices, they are irresponsibly trying to fulfill their needs.
Based on this notion, reality therapy aims to increase your accountability of your behavior.
ActionAccording to reality therapy, your actions are part of your overall behavior. It also maintains that you can manage your actions. Hence, the therapist will focus on modifying actions to change behavior.
The method involves evaluating your current actions, how well they’re satisfying your needs, and planning new actions that will meet those needs.
Present momentReality therapy states that present behavior and actions aren’t influenced by the past. Instead, it claims that current behavior is determined by the present unmet needs. It uses a “here and now” approach to responsibility and action.
You can use reality therapy for many different scenarios and relationships, including:
- individual therapy
- family therapy
- marriage counseling
- relationships with colleagues
Traditional psychiatry and psychotherapy aim to understand the underlying causes of a person’s problems. They also focus on unconscious thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
Reality therapy, on the other hand, emphasizes the present. The goal is to change current behavior in order to address mental health conditions and improve relationships.
Dr. Glasser believed that disconnects with others are at the core of a person’s dissatisfaction and often mental and physical symptoms.
Additionally, reality therapy rejects the idea of mental illness. Dr. Glasser believed that people aren’t mentally ill, they just choose inappropriate behaviors to satisfy their needs instead.
Not all health professionals accept reality therapy. Some criticize it due to its:
- Opposition of mental illness. Dr. Glasser claimed that mental illness doesn’t exist, which has received pushback from the psychiatric community.
- Potential to impose views. A reality therapist helps people develop new actions. Some say this allows the therapist to impose their values and judgments.
- Anti-medication stance. Dr. Glasser stated that medication is never required to treat mental health conditions. Critics say he could have mentioned the benefits of conventional therapy over drugs, instead of dismissing them entirely.
- Disregard of the unconscious. Some people say that reality therapy fails to recognize the power of our unconscious.
- Limitation to the present. Reality therapy doesn’t aim to understand past conflicts, unlike traditional forms of therapy.
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4. Action Research Model
5. Strategies to manage the organizational resistance for change.
6. Functions of Communication
7. Process Theories of motivation
8. Work Situation Characteristics
9. Relevance of Work Values for an Effective Organization
10. Characteristics of the Field of OB Today
11. Contemporary Issues and Challenges.
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