IGNOU BPCC 106 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23, IGNOU BPCC 106 DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 If you are interested in pursuing a course in radio production and direction, IGNOU BPCC 106 can be an excellent choice. In this article, we will take a closer look at what IGNOU BPCC 106 is all about and what you can expect to learn from this course.
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IGNOU BPCC 106 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23 is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) under the School of Journalism and New Media Studies. As the name suggests, it is a course on “Production and Direction for Radio.” The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of radio production and direction and covers various topics related to this field. IGNOU BPCC 106 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 1 IGNOU BPCC 106 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 1.1 Q1. Describe the key concepts in Jungian psychoanalytical psychology.
- 1.2 Q2. Discuss the main tenets of social constructionism.
- 1.3 Q3. Freud’s method of research
- 1.4 Q4. Feminist psychology
- 1.5 Q5. Nativism vs Empiricism
- 1.6 Q6. Criticism of Functionalism
- 1.7 Q7. The Elements of Consciousness (Titchener)
- 1.8 Q8. Contribution of Ebbinghaus
IGNOU BPCC 106 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23
Q1. Describe the key concepts in Jungian psychoanalytical psychology.
Jungian psychoanalytical psychology, also known as analytical psychology, was developed by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung. This school of psychology emphasizes the importance of exploring the unconscious mind and its role in shaping our behavior, thoughts, and emotions.
The following are some of the key concepts in Jungian psychoanalytical psychology:
- The Collective Unconscious: Jung believed that the unconscious mind contains not only personal experiences and memories but also inherited experiences that are shared by all humans. He referred to this shared experience as the collective unconscious, which contains universal symbols, images, and archetypes that are expressed in myths, fairy tales, and other cultural forms.
- Archetypes: Jung believed that archetypes are universal patterns of behavior and thought that are present in the collective unconscious. They represent fundamental human experiences and emotions such as the hero, the shadow, the anima/animus, and the self. Archetypes can be found in dreams, myths, and other cultural expressions.
- Individuation: Jung saw individuation as the process of integrating the conscious and unconscious aspects of the psyche to achieve wholeness and self-realization. This involves exploring and integrating the shadow (the unconscious parts of ourselves that we may not want to acknowledge), discovering the anima/animus (the opposite gender aspect of ourselves), and connecting with the self (the core of our being).
- Complexes: Jung believed that complexes are groups of thoughts, emotions, and memories that are linked by a common theme. They can be positive or negative and can affect our behavior and emotions. For example, a person with a mother complex may have unresolved issues with their mother that affect their relationships with other women.
- Active Imagination: Jungian therapy often involves the use of active imagination, a technique that involves engaging with the unconscious through creative visualization, meditation, or dream work. This technique can help individuals explore their inner world, confront their fears and anxieties, and discover new insights about themselves.
Overall, Jungian psychoanalytical psychology emphasizes the importance of understanding the unconscious and its role in shaping our behavior and emotions. By exploring the collective unconscious, archetypes, complexes, and other aspects of the psyche, individuals can achieve greater self-awareness and personal growth.
Social constructionism is a theoretical framework in the social sciences that posits that the reality of the world is socially constructed rather than objectively existing. Social constructionists argue that individuals and groups create meaning and understanding through their interactions with each other and their environment, and that this meaning-making process shapes the way they view the world and their place in it.
Here are some of the main tenets of social constructionism:
- Reality is socially constructed: Social constructionists argue that what we consider to be “reality” is not objectively given, but is instead constructed through our interactions with others and our environment. This means that there is no objective reality “out there” that we can simply observe and describe; instead, we actively participate in creating the reality we experience.
- Language is central to meaning-making: Social constructionists believe that language plays a central role in shaping our understanding of the world. Through language, we create and reinforce social norms, values, and beliefs, and construct meaning around our experiences.
- Knowledge is situated and contextual: Social constructionists argue that knowledge is not objective or universal, but rather is situated in particular contexts and social interactions. This means that what we know and understand is shaped by the social and cultural contexts in which we live, and that different people and groups may have different understandings of the same phenomenon.
- Power and privilege shape social construction: Social constructionists emphasize the role of power and privilege in shaping social reality. They argue that dominant groups in society have the power to shape cultural norms, values, and beliefs, and that these norms, values, and beliefs are often constructed in ways that maintain the power and privilege of dominant groups.
- Social change is possible: Finally, social constructionists argue that because social reality is constructed, it is also changeable. By challenging dominant cultural norms and values, individuals and groups can work to create new meanings and understandings of the world, and to create more equitable and just societies.
Q3. Freud’s method of research
Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, developed a method of research that was primarily based on his clinical observations of patients. He believed that by examining the experiences, thoughts, and behaviors of his patients, he could uncover unconscious conflicts and repressed emotions that were the root causes of their psychological problems.
Freud’s method of research involved a process called free association, where patients were encouraged to say whatever came to mind without censorship or judgment. Through this process, Freud believed that he could identify the unconscious thoughts and feelings that were driving the patient’s behavior. He also used dream analysis as a means of uncovering unconscious conflicts and desires.
Freud also believed that childhood experiences played a significant role in shaping an individual’s personality and behavior. Therefore, he often asked his patients about their childhood experiences and relationships with their parents.
Freud’s method of research was criticized by some for being too subjective and lacking in empirical evidence. However, it remains an influential approach in the field of psychology and has been built upon by subsequent researchers and theorists.
Q4. Feminist psychology
Feminist psychology is a branch of psychology that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s as a reaction to the traditional, male-dominated approach to psychology. Feminist psychology seeks to understand and address the ways in which gender and power shape individuals’ experiences, identities, and mental health.
Feminist psychologists critique traditional psychological theories and methods for their assumption of gender neutrality and their neglect of women’s experiences. They argue that gender is a fundamental aspect of identity and that it interacts with other social identities, such as race, class, and sexuality, to shape individuals’ experiences and mental health.
Feminist psychology also emphasizes the importance of social and political contexts in understanding individuals’ experiences and mental health. It recognizes that social structures, such as patriarchy and sexism, can create power imbalances and inequalities that affect individuals’ well-being.
Feminist psychologists use a range of methods to study gender and psychology, including qualitative research methods, such as interviews and focus groups, and quantitative methods, such as surveys and experiments. They also prioritize participatory research methods, which involve collaboration with research participants to ensure that their perspectives and experiences are central to the research process.
Overall, feminist psychology seeks to challenge traditional psychological theories and methods and to promote a more inclusive, equitable, and socially just approach to understanding and promoting mental health.
Q5. Nativism vs Empiricism
Nativism and Empiricism are two philosophical approaches to understanding human knowledge and learning.
Nativism holds that certain knowledge and abilities are innate, meaning that they are present in the human mind from birth or before birth. This view emphasizes the role of genetics and biology in shaping human cognition and behavior. Nativists believe that humans are born with a set of innate knowledge structures, which are triggered by environmental stimuli and developed over time through experience.
Empiricism, on the other hand, holds that all knowledge and abilities come from experience. This view emphasizes the role of the environment and external stimuli in shaping human cognition and behavior. Empiricists believe that humans are born as a blank slate or “tabula rasa,” and all knowledge and abilities are acquired through experience and sensory perception.
These two philosophical views have been debated for centuries and continue to be discussed in various fields, including psychology, linguistics, and philosophy. While some researchers argue that both innate knowledge and experience play a role in human learning and cognition, others believe that one approach is more valid than the other.
Q6. Criticism of Functionalism
“The Elements of Consciousness” is a book written by Edward Titchener, a British psychologist, and structuralist. The book was published in 1908 and presents Titchener’s theory of consciousness, which is based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into basic elements.
Titchener believed that consciousness was made up of three basic elements: sensations, images, and affections. Sensations are the basic building blocks of consciousness and are the result of sensory stimulation. Images are mental representations of sensory experiences, and affections are the emotional or affective component of conscious experience.
According to Titchener, each of these elements could be studied in isolation and analyzed in terms of their qualities, such as intensity, duration, and quality. He believed that by breaking down consciousness into these basic elements, it would be possible to gain a better understanding of how the mind works and how it processes information.
Titchener’s theory of consciousness was influential in the early development of psychology, particularly in the area of structuralism. However, it has been criticized for its reductionism and its focus on introspection as a method of studying consciousness. Many modern psychologists and neuroscientists believe that consciousness is a much more complex phenomenon that cannot be reduced to basic elements.
Q8. Contribution of Ebbinghaus
Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) was a German psychologist who made significant contributions to the field of experimental psychology, particularly in the study of memory.
Ebbinghaus is best known for his groundbreaking work on memory and forgetting, which he published in his seminal book “Über das Gedächtnis” (“Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology”) in 1885. In this book, Ebbinghaus presented the results of his experiments on memory, which showed that forgetting occurs rapidly in the first few hours after learning and then levels off over time. He also introduced the concept of the “forgetting curve,” which describes the rate at which information is forgotten over time.
Ebbinghaus also developed the method of using nonsense syllables to study memory, which allowed him to eliminate the influence of prior knowledge on memory performance. He used this method to study various aspects of memory, such as the effects of repetition, meaningfulness, and interference.
In addition to his work on memory, Ebbinghaus also made important contributions to the field of perception. He conducted experiments on visual illusions and depth perception, which helped to establish the field of psychophysics.
Overall, Ebbinghaus is considered one of the pioneers of experimental psychology, and his work on memory and perception continues to influence research in these fields today.
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