IGNOU BPC 006 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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IGNOU BPC 006 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

All questions are compulsory.

Section A

Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks

1. Explain schema. Describe the biases in attribution.

The hostile attribution bias (HAB) is the tendency to interpret the behavior of others, across situations, as threatening, aggressive, or both. People who exhibit the HAB think that ambiguous behavior of others is hostile and often directed toward them, while those who do not exhibit the HAB interpret the behavior in a nonhostile, nonthreatening way. Furthermore, people who make the HAB often respond to the other person’s behavior in an aggressive manner because they perceive it as a personal threat. When they respond aggressively, this action is often viewed as inappropriate because the other person’s original behavior was not intended to be aggressive. For example, imagine that Jose accidentally bumps his shopping cart into Melissa’s cart in a busy grocery store. Then Melissa mistakenly assumes that Jose aggressively bumped her cart to get ahead of her in the aisle. If Melissa then intentionally hits Jose’s cart, she has reacted in an aggressive manner that was inappropriate to the situation.

An important point is that individuals who show the HAB often misperceive the intent of the other individual’s behavior as aggressive or harmful to themselves or another person, wrongly believing that the person meant to cause harm in performing the action. This biased judgment of the other’s intent represents a disruption in normal cognitive processing of events. Nicki Crick and Kenneth Dodge developed the social information processing model, which describes the steps that are experienced when people cognitively process information in social interactions. Crick and Dodge have also conducted several studies that have identified how aggressive children show different patterns of information processing than nonaggressive children. Once these cognitive patterns are developed, they are considered to be relatively stable through adulthood.

Hostile Attribution Bias and Social Information Processing

According to the social information processing model and other cognitive theories, children process and act on information from the social environment through sequential steps, including (a) absorption of social stimuli (encoding of social cues), (b) assignment of meaning to the stimuli (interpretation), (c) determination of goals, (d) accessing of possible responses, (e) selection of a response, and (f) performance of a behavioral act. Progression through these steps usually occurs rapidly.

Aggressive children have been found to experience disruptions at most of the stages, particularly at the encoding, interpretation, and response generation stages. They tend to focus their attention on threatening social cues (such as potentially angry facial expressions of the person talking to them), interpret that information in a hostile manner, and generate aggressive responses. An important theoretical concept that affects how people encode, interpret, and utilize information is schemas.

Hostile Attribution Bias and Aggressive Schemas

Processing social information is cognitively demanding; therefore, humans use schemas—mental frameworks of beliefs about people, events, and objects—to rapidly understand stimuli. Schemas are automatically activated (brought to mind) when the schema is available in memory and information relevant to that schema is encountered. Schemas direct people’s attention to particular information and guide their interpretation of it, even to the extent that they may fill in missing pieces by utilizing the schema. Schemas can also act like a filter; people tend to pay attention to information that is consistent with their schemas and ignore inconsistent information.

People who exhibit the HAB appear to have more elaborate and complex aggressive information in their schemas for various events and concepts than do nonaggressive people. For example, in contrast to a nonaggressive person, an aggressive person’s schema for bars might include that they are places where people get into fights, which may cause the person to perceive more threats and act aggressively in bars.

Because they have many stored memories of hostile situations, people who exhibit the HAB may also more easily bring to mind and apply hostility-related schemas to social situations. Consistent with the way that schemas function, a person with hostility-related schemas would initially attend to more hostile social cues and fail to pay attention to nonhostile cues. The schema would also be used to interpret ambiguous cues. To illustrate, a person with a hostile schema for bars will enter a bar with this schema easily accessible. Once the schema is activated, that person will tend to notice individuals who act in a potentially hostile way, pay more attention to hostile than nonhostile cues, and interpret ambiguous behavior (such as the poke of an elbow in a crowd) as hostile.

Schemas frequently have self-confirming effects. Crick and Dodge defined reactive aggression as occurring when ambiguous social information is misinterpreted as more threatening than it is and the person tends to respond aggressively to it, often to defend him- or herself or to retaliate against perceived provocation. Reactive aggression therefore incorporates the HAB process, as individuals displaying a HAB generate aggressive responses to the other’s behavior and respond aggressively. This response, in turn, is perceived by others as aggressive and can result in a hostile reaction. Ultimately, the person with a HAB experiences a confirmation of their original, but distorted, belief, and the hostile schema is strengthened.

Development of Aggressive Schemas

Hostile schemas form through repeated exposure to and experiences with aggressive responses to interpersonal conflict. Children who are aggressive, or who experience hostile situations frequently in their daily lives, are expected to have more well-established and accessible hostility-related schemas. Such children may include those who are exposed to community and/or marital violence, watch violent television, and play violent video games. Research has shown that children who frequently experience violent situations, even who play violent video games, show the HAB. Adults who have aggressive personalities and who experience physical pain have also been found to perceive ambiguously hostile information as more aggressive than did aggressive and nonaggressive individuals who did not experience pain. Therefore, certain violent or uncomfortable situations may induce the HAB, especially in people with aggressive personalities.

Hostile Attribution Bias Implications

The reduction of exposure to and positive experiences with aggressive resolutions of conflict should reduce the HAB and aggressive responses that result from this biased processing. Therefore, reduction in aggressive children’s access to violent media and to witnessing reinforcing or positive outcomes to aggression should reduce the accessibility of hostile event schemas, or at least reduce the likelihood of acting upon them. Interventions that help people to control their anger during conflict and to think of nonaggressive solutions have been shown to be effective in reducing aggressive responses in children who display reactive aggression.

2. Differentiate attitude from related concepts. Explain the formation of attitudes.

An attitude is a positive, negative, or mixed evaluation of an object expressed at some level of intensity. It is an expression of a favorable or unfavorable evaluation of a person, place, thing, or event. These are fundamental determinants of our perceptions of and actions toward all aspects of our social environment. Attitudes involve a complex organization of evaluative beliefs, feelings, and tendencies toward certain actions.

Attitude is the manner, disposition, feeling, and position about a person or thing, tendency, or orientation, especially in mind.

According to Gordon Allport, “An attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations with which it is related.”

Frank Freeman said, “An attitude is a dispositional readiness to respond to certain institutions, persons or objects in a consistent manner which has been learned and has become one’s typical mode of response.”

Thurstone said, “An attitude denotes the total of man’s inclinations and feelings, prejudice or bias, preconceived notions, ideas, fears, threats, and other any specific topic.”

Anastasi defined attitude as “A tendency to react favorably or unfavorably towards a designated class of stimuli, such as a national or racial group, a custom or an institution.”

According to N.L. Munn, “Attitudes are learned predispositions towards aspects of our environment. They may be positively or negatively directed towards certain people, service, or institution.”

“Attitudes are an ‘individual’s enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations, emotional feelings, and action tendencies toward some object or idea.” — David Krech, Richard S. Crutchfield, and Egerton L. Ballackey.

Attitude can be described as a tendency to react positively or negatively to a person or circumstances.

Thus the two main elements of attitude are this tendency or predisposition and the direction of this predisposition.

It has been defined as a mental state of readiness, organized through experience, which exerts a directive or dynamic influence on the responses.

These can also be explicit and implicit.

Explicit attitudes are those that we are consciously aware of and that clearly influences our behaviors and beliefs. Implicit attitudes are unconscious but still affect our beliefs and behaviors.

Psychologists Thomas, which imposes limits as a level attitude trend, is positive and negative, associated with psychology.

Object psychology here includes symbols, words, slogans, people, institutions, ideas, etc.

Characteristics of Attitude are;

  1. Attitudes are the complex combination of things we call personality, beliefs, values, behaviors, and motivations.
  2. It can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very unfavorable.
  3. All people, irrespective of their status or intelligence, hold attitudes.
  4. An attitude exists in every person’s mind. It helps to define our identity, guide our actions, and influence how we judge people.
  5. Although the feeling and belief components of attitude are internal to a person, we can view a person’s attitude from their resulting behavior.
  6. Attitude helps us define how we see situations and define how we behave toward the situation or object.
  7. It provides us with internal cognitions or beliefs and thoughts about people and objects.
  8. It can also be explicit and implicit. Explicit attitude is those that we are consciously aware of an implicit attitude is unconscious, but still, affect our behaviors.
  9. Attitudes cause us to behave in a particular way toward an object or person.
  10. An attitude is a summary of a person’s experience; thus, an attitude is grounded in direct experience predicts future behavior more accurately.
  11. It includes certain aspects of personality as interests, appreciation, and social conduct.
  12. It indicates the total of a man’s inclinations and feelings.
  13. An attitude is a point of view, substantiated or otherwise, true or false, which one holds towards an idea, object, or person.
  14. It has aspects such as direction, intensity, generality, or specificity.
  15. It refers to one’s readiness for doing Work.
  16. It may be positive or negative and may be affected by age, position, and education.

Attitude may be defined as a feeling or disposition to favor or be against objects, persons, and situations.

It is a well-defined object of reference. It may be defined as ‘an enduring predisposition or readiness to react or behave in a particular manner to a given object or situation, idea, material, or person.’

It describes and evaluates an object or a situation, with each belief having a cognitive effect and behavioral components.

Each of these beliefs is a predisposition that results in some preferential response towards the object or the situation.

Actually, it is frequently used in describing people and explaining their behavior.

However, the essential aspect of the attitude is found in the fact that some characteristic feeling or emotion is experienced and, as we would accordingly expect, some definite tendency to action is associated.

Subjectively, then, the important factor is the feeling or emotion.

Many different factors can influence how and why attitudes form. These are-

  • Social Factors.
  • Direct Instruction.
  • Family.
  • Prejudices.
  • Personal Experience.
  • Media.
  • Educational and Religious Institutions.
  • Physical Factors.
  • Economic Status and Occupations.

3. What are social norms? Discuss the factors influencing norm formation.

Social norms vary not only depending on with a specific culture but also with age, gender, social roles and situations that people find themselves in or engage with. We distinguish injunctive norms, i.e. a person’ viewpoint on what is right based on one’s own beliefs, moral and others’ views on appropriate behavior, depending on the context and the group they are currently with and descriptive norms, i.e. distributions of such beliefs in a population.

Social norms, continuously constructed and reconstructed in everyday interactions and transmitted by the socialization agents (family, school, social and work organizations, church, mass media, etc.), play an important role in the process of IA. Social factors influence what is socially desirable, as well as the configuration of an individual’s personality, which in turn influences what each person considers personally desirable in others. Thus IA, as well as physical attraction and love, is not simply a psychological process, as it is commonly perceived by laypeople, but more precisely is a sociopsychological (in fact, biosociopsychological) process.

Social norms are cognitive representations of what relevant others, often called a reference group, would typically think, feel, or do in a given situation, which people use as reference points to guide and assess their own thoughts, feelings, and behavior (Turner, 1991). Once acquired through social learning, the norms can be retrieved from memory automatically and influence our actions whether or not others are present (Aarts, Dijksterhuis, & Custers, 2003; Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Nolan, Schultz, Cialdini, Goldstein, & Griskevicius, 2008). By using the term “automatic,” we mean that this process may occur without conscious intent and awareness; we do not mean that the influence of norms is uncontrollable or demands no attention (see Bargh, 1994; Jacobson, Mortensen, & Cialdini, 2011). Thus, social norms motivate the self-regulation of both private and public actions by informing individuals of what is likely to be either adaptive or problematic behavior in a given situation.

For the most part the influence of norms operates through social comparison (Cialdini, Kallgren, & Reno, 1991; Prentice, 2000). Instead of relying on an in-depth analysis to determine the goals that are best suited to our current circumstances, as well as the best-suited course of action and the optimal time to pursue them, we can simply turn to social norms, look at what we think others do or should do in similar situations and do the same thing. People go along with (observed or verbally communicated) normative ways of behaving because, in part, they rely on other people’s behavior as a source of information to help them define social reality and act in an adaptive way (Cialdini & Trost, 1998; Turner, 1991).

Social norms will typically evolve in order to facilitate the interaction of individuals with others in social groups (Cialdini & Trost, 1998; Turner, 1991). Our ability to adhere to normative expectations is key to fulfilling our fundamental need to belong (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). Social affiliation and exclusion are assumed to play a central role in the motivational component of normative influence (Cialdini & Trost, 1998; Turner 1991). They can be associated with the actual presence of others, such as being congratulated by or receiving disparaging comments from another person. Social norms can also be associated with the imagined or implied presence of others, such as recalling being congratulated by or receiving disparaging comments from another person (Cialdini & Trost, 1998; Turner, 1991). Social norms can thus have a motivational impact on the actions of individuals through the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. As other socially learned contingencies, these expectations can dynamically change as a function of situational demands and repeated experiences (Giguère, Vaswani, & Newby-Clark, 2015; Vaswani, Newby-Clark, & Giguère, 2015; see Prentice, 2000).

A dominant assumption, which can be traced to early social influence research (cf, Deutsch & Gerard, 1955), is that people learn that adherence to norms will lead to social affiliation and positive social emotions (e.g., pride), while transgression of norms will lead to social exclusion and negative social emotions (e.g., shame) (see Cialdini & Trost, 1998; Leary, 2000; Rossano, 2012). Thus, social emotions play an integral role in the comparative process by which social norms influence our behavior and well-being.

By directing the self-regulation process, norms are a primary contributor to the well-being of these groups and the people comprising them (Heine, 2012; Turner, 1991). For example, although instant gratification may have been an adaptive strategy at certain points in human evolution (e.g., when much uncertainty resided as to when food would be next available), the emergence of social networks and collaborative efforts toward the satisfaction of primary needs make the principle of reciprocity a more functional option. Collaboration among individuals in this regard is essential to the well-being of all. In a well-functioning group, self-regulation failures will typically transgress social norms, because if they were normative, that is, if the majority of individuals did such behaviors most of the time, the vitality of groups would be jeopardized. Self-regulation failures are therefore often a challenge to a well-functioning group. They have, by definition, long-term costs for the person and his or her community. For example, procrastination may prevent one from fulfilling the demands of the norm of reciprocity, a norm which would benefit the group as a whole by facilitating interactions among individuals and fostering support.


Section B

Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks

4. Define and discuss the scope of social psychology.
5. Describe the ethics followed in research.
6. Explain the mechanisms of person perception.
7. Describe the characteristics of crowd.
8. What is social facilitation? Describe the drive theory of social facilitation.

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Section C

Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks

9. Survey method
10. Relationship between social psychology and economics
11. Cognitive dissonance
12. Attitude accessibility
13. Attitude ambivalence
14. Group mind
15. Social loafing
16. Reference groups
17. Autokinetic effect
18. Injunctive norms vs. descriptive norms

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IGNOU BPC 006 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
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