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IGNOU BPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks
1. Explain information processing theory and its educational implications.
Information processing theory is an approach to cognitive development studies that aims to explain how information is encoded into memory. It is based on the idea that humans do not merely respond to stimuli from the environment. Instead, humans process the information they receive. While experts believe that the brain’s mechanisms and functions are relatively simple, the magnitude and scope of neural networks and their behaviors are quite powerful as a whole (Wang, Liu, & Wang, 2003).
These include how the brain processes information. Information processing theory not only explains how information is captured, but how it is stored and retrieved as well (Çeliköz, Erişen, & Şahin, 2019). The process begins with receiving input, also called stimulus, from the environment using various senses. The input is then described and stored in the memory, which is retrieved when needed. The mind or the brain is likened to a computer that is capable of analyzing information from the environment.
Consequently, information processing affects a person’s behavior (Hann, Hui, Lee, & Png, 2007). In the expectancy theory of motivation, an individual processes information about behavior-outcome relationships. Then, they can form expectations based on the information and make decisions.
Origins of Information Processing Theory
George Armitage Miller was the first to put forth the idea of the theory of information processing. He was one of the original founders of cognition studies in psychology. His studies are based on Edward C. Tolman’s sign and latent learning theories, which propose that learning is an internal and complex process which involves mental processes (Çeliköz, Erişen, & Şahin, 2019).
Miller discovered the capacity of the working memory, which can generally hold up to seven plus or minus two items. Additionally, he coined the term “chunking” when describing the functionalities of short-term memory.
Aside from Miller, John William Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin are also associated with the Cognitive Information Processing Theory. This refers to the proposed multi-stage theory of memory, which is one of the leading models of information processing theory (Sala, 2007).
Two other psychologists, Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch made significant contributions to the theory through their own studies. They presented a more in-depth model of memory with various stages, such as visuospatial sketch pad, phonological loop, and central executive (Baddeley, 2006).
Elements of Information Processing Theory
While major models of information processing theory vary, they are mostly composed of three main elements (Çeliköz, Erişen, & Şahin, 2019):
- Information stores – The different places in the mind where information is stored, such as sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory, semantic memory, episodic memory, and more.
- Cognitive processes – The various processes that transfer memory among different memory stores. Some of the processes include perception, coding, recording, chunking, and retrieval.
- Executive cognition – The awareness of the individual of the way information is processed within him or her. It also pertains to knowing their strengths and weaknesses. This is very similar to metacognition.
Models of Information Processing Theory
There are various attempts to develop models of information processing. The two most popular are the multi-store model by Atkinson and Shiffrin and the working memory model by Baddeley and Hitch.
Atkinson and Shiffrin Model
John William Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin proposed the multi-store model in 1968 to illustrate their view of human memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1977). The model shows the three subsections of human memory and how they work together.
So, what are the 3 stages of information processing? They are as follows:
- Sensory Memory – It holds the information that the mind perceives through various senses such as visual, olfactory, or auditory information. These sense organs often receive a barrage of stimuli all the time. However, most are ignored and forgotten by the mind to prevent getting overwhelmed. When sensory information engages and gets the attention of the mind, it is transferred to short-term memory.
- Short-Term Memory (Working Memory) – Information in short-term memory only lasts around 30 seconds. Cognitive abilities affect how individuals process information in working memory. Additionally, attention and focus on the most important information also play an important role in encoding it into long-term memory. Furthermore, repetition significantly helps the ability to remember details for a long time.
- Long-Term Memory – It is thought that long-term memory has an unlimited amount of space as it can store memories from a long time ago to be retrieved at a later time. Various methods are used to store information in the long-term memory such as repetition, connecting information, relating information to meaningful experience or other information, and breaking up the information into smaller chunks.
Baddeley and Hitch Model of Working Memory
Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch proposed the model of working memory back in 1974. They provided an in-depth understanding of the mind and how it processes information. Four more elements are added to further illustrate the information processing theory (Goldstein & Mackewn, 2005), namely:
- Central executive – It is considered the control center of the mind where information processes are regulated between various memory stores. It controls and implements the cognitive processes that encode and retrieve information. Additionally, the central executive receives information from the visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer, and phonological loop. The frontal lobe of the brain is thought to house the central executive, as this is where all active decisions are processed.
- Phonological loop – It works closely with the central executive and holds auditory information. Furthermore, it is composed of two sub-components:
- Phonological store – It holds auditory information for a short period.
- Articulatory rehearsal process – It stores the information for longer periods of time through rehearsal (Baddeley & Hitch, 2019).
- Visuospatial sketch pad – It is considered another part of the central executive that holds spatial and visual information. It helps the mind imagine objects and maneuver through the environment.
- Episodic buffer – Baddeley later added the fourth element of the model, which also holds information. It increases the capability of the mind to store information. He believed that the episodic buffer transfers information between short-term memory, perception, and long-term memory. As it is still relatively new, research is still conducted as to its specific mechanisms (Goldstein & Mackewn, 2005).
2. Elucidate the characteristics of developmental tasks. Discuss developmental tasks of old age.
Characteristics of Developmental Task
Havighurst considered the many different aspects of a person’s life that influence a person’s development viz., the biological development and physical structures of the individual; the society in which the person lives, and the resultant cultural influences, as well as the individual’s personal characteristics, values and goals. This view of development takes into account the role of physical maturation and the role that society plays in determining the skills that need to be learned at a certain age. According to Havighurst, there are sensitive periods which he called teachable moments, when an individual is mature enough to learn the developmental tasks. These tasks may be physical like walking, cognitive like learning to read, or social where the person develops significant relationships. Once the critical period of development is over, learning may still occur. Language skills for example, continue to develop as one learns more complex ways of using language.
Some tasks are the same for everyone, regardless of where you live, as they are about human biology. Example: learning to crawl and walk is pretty much same in all societies, as it relies on genetic factors. Some tasks are different in different societies. For example, some tasks may be in different forms in different cultures or it may exist in culture and not in the other culture. To cite an example the task of getting a occupation is different in different cultures, in some cultures an individual gets his job while the person is very young, while in other culture, the person may get a job after long education and training. Havighurst added that biology and society have a lot influence, but personal values of the people who prepare them have as much influences on identifying the task. He described his developmental tasks on middle class Americans, however he did try to define a few points from lower-socio economic class and upper class as well.
STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
Havighurst identified the following six major stages in human life:
- Infancy & early childhood (Birth till 6)
- Middle childhood (6-12)
- Adolescence (13-18)
- Early Adulthood (19-30)
- Middle Age (30-60)
- Later maturity (60 and over)
There are typical developmental tasks for each of these periods. The developmental tasks concept has a long and rich tradition. Its acceptance has been partly due to recognition of sensitive periods in our lives and partly due to the practical nature of Havighurst’s tasks. Knowing that a youngster of a certain age is encountering one of the tasks of that period (learning an appropriate sex role) helps adults to understand a child’s behaviour and establish an environment that helps the child to master the tasks. Another good example is that of acquiring personal independence, an important task for the middle childhood period. Youngsters test authority during this phase and, if teachers and parents realise that this is normal and , even a necessary phase of development, they react differently than when they see it as a personal challenge (Hetherington and Parke, 1986). For example, note Havighurst’s developmental tasks for middle adulthood, one of which is a parent’s need to help children become happy and responsible adults. Adults occasionally find it hard to “let go” of their children. They want to keep their children with them far beyond any reasonable time for their own good, as well as that of their children. Once they do, they can enter a happy time in their own lives if husbands and wives are not only spouses but friends and partners as well.
SOURCES OF DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS
Developmental tasks arise from three different sources (Havighurst, 1948, 1953). In his bio psychosocial model, the first important issue is biology, second is psychology and the last one is the sociology. He identifies three sources of developmental tasks (Havighurst, 1972)
- First, some tasks are mainly based on physical maturation example, learning to walk, talk, and behave acceptably with the opposite sex during adolescence; adjusting to menopause during middle age.
- Another source of developmental tasks involves personal values and aspirations. These personal factors result from the interaction between ontogenetic and environmental factors, and play an active role in the emergence of specific developmental tasks (example, choosing a certain occupational pathway).
- The third source of developmental tasks relates to socio-structural and cultural forces. Such influences are based on, for instance, laws (example, minimum age for marriage) and culturally shared expectations of development. These tasks may be physical like walking, cognitive like learning to read, or social where the person develops significant relationships. Once the critical period of development is over, learning may still occur. Language skills for example, continue to develop as one learns more complex ways of using language.
Robert Havighurst(1952, 1972, 1982) has identified critical developmental tasks that occur throughout the life span.
Adulthood Developmental Tasks (19 – 30 years)
In young adulthood, developmental tasks are mainly located in family, work, and social life. Family-related developmental tasks are described as finding a mate, learning to live with a marriage partner, having and rearing children, and managing the family and one’s home. A developmental task that takes an enormous amount of time of young adults relates to the achievement of an occupational career. Family and work related tasks may represent a potential conflict, given that the individual’s time and energy are limited resources. Thus, young adults may postpone one task in order to secure the achievement of another. With respect to their social life, young adults are also confronted with establishing new friendships outside of the marriage and assuming responsibility in the larger community.
Middle-age Developmental Tasks (30 – 60 years)
Certain problems of adjustment are characteristic of middle age in today’s world. Some of them are more difficult for both men and women and others are more difficult for women. The major problems that men and women must meet and adjust to satisfaction during middle age involve the developmental tasks for this period. The developmental tasks of the middle years arise from changes within the organism, from environmental pressure, and above all from demands or obligations laid upon the individual by his own values and aspirations. Since most middleaged people are members of families, with teen-age children, it is useful to look at the tasks of husband, wife, and children as these people live and grow in relation to one another. Each family member has several functions and roles.
Old Age or Later Maturity Developmental Tasks (60 Years and Over)
The period of old age begins at the age of sixty. At this age most individuals retire from their jobs formally. They begin to develop some concern and occasional anxiety over their physical and psychological health. In our society, the elderly are typically perceived as not so active, deteriorating intellectually, becoming narrowminded and attaching new significance to religion and so on. Many of the old people lose their spouses and because of which they may suffer from emotional insecurity.
3. Describe parenting styles. Discuss the impact of parenting styles on adolescents.
It is beneficial to evaluate the support and demandingness of a caregiver in order to determine which style is being used and how to effectively use it. Support refers to the amount of affection, acceptance, and warmth a parent provides to a child. Demandingness refers to the degree a parent controls a child’s behavior.
In general, children tend to develop greater competence and self-confidence when parents have high-but reasonable and consistent- expectations for children’s behavior, communicate well with them, are warm and responsive, and use reasoning rather than coercion to guide children’s behaviors. This kind of parenting style has been described as authoritative. Parents who use this style are supportive and show interest in their kids’ activities but are not overbearing and allow children to make constructive mistakes. This “tender teacher” approach deemed the most optimal parenting style to use in western cultures. Children whose parents use the authoritative style are generally happy, capable, and successful.
Parents who are high in support and low in demandingness are likely using the permissive-also called the indulgent-style. Their children tend to rank low in happiness and self-regulation, and are more likely to have problems with authority. Parents using this approach are lenient, do not expect their children to adhere to boundaries or rules, and avoid confrontation.
Children reared by parents who are low in both support and demandingness tend to rank lowest across all life domains, lack self-control, have low self-esteem, and are less competent than their peers. Parents using the uninvolved (or sometimes referred to as indifferent or neglectful) approach are neglectful or rejecting of their children and do not provide most, if any, necessary parenting responsibilities.
Many would conclude that this is the parenting style used by Harry Potter’s harsh aunt and uncle, and Cinderella’s vindictive stepmother. Children reared in environments using the authoritarian approach are more likely to be obedient and proficient, but score lower in happiness, social competence, and self-esteem.Parents using the authoritarian (“rigid ruler”) approach are low in support and high in demandingness. These parents expect and demand obedience because they are “in charge” and they do not provide any explanations for their orders. Parents also provide well-ordered and structured environments with clearly stated rules.
Parenting Styles and Outcomes for Children
Parenting style has been found to predict child well-being in the domains of social competence, academic performance, psychosocial development, and problem behavior. Research in the United States, based on parent interviews, child reports, and parent observations consistently finds:
- Children and adolescents whose parents use the authoritative style typically rate themselves and are rated by objective measures as more socially and instrumentally competent than those whose parents do not use the authoritative style.
- Children and adolescents whose parents are uninvolved typically perform most poorly in all domains.
In general, parental responsiveness tends to predict social competence and psychosocial functioning, while parental demandingness is typically associated with instrumental competence and behavioral control (e.g., academic performance and deviance). These findings indicate:
- Children and adolescents reared in households using the authoritarian style (high in demandingness, but low in responsiveness) tend to perform moderately well in school and be uninvolved in problem behavior, but tend to have poorer social skills, lower self-esteem, and higher levels of depression when compared to their peers who are reared in households using the authoritative approach.
- Children and adolescents reared in homes using the indulgent style (high in responsiveness, low in demandingness) tend to be more involved in problem behavior and perform less well in school, but they have been shown to have higher self-esteem, better social skills, and lower levels of depression when compared to their peers who are not reared using the indulgent style.
In reviewing the literature on parenting styles, it is apparent that using the authoritative parenting style is associated with both instrumental and social competence and lower levels of problem behavior at all developmental stages for youth in the United States. The benefits of using the authoritative parenting style and the detrimental effects of the uninvolved parenting style are evident as early as the preschool years and continue throughout adolescence and into early adulthood.
Support for Baumrind’s Authoritative Parenting
Support for the benefits of authoritative parenting has been found in countries as diverse as the Czech Republic, India, China, Israel, and Palestine. In fact, authoritative parenting appears to be superior in Western, individualistic societies—so much so that some people have argued that there is no longer a need to study it.
Other researchers are less certain about authoritative parenting and point to differences in cultural values and beliefs. For example, while many children reared in European-American cultures fare poorly with too much strictness (authoritarian parenting), children reared in Chinese cultures often perform well, especially academically. The reason for this likely stems from Chinese culture viewing strictness in parenting as related to training, which is not central to American parenting beliefs.
As children mature, parent-child relationships should naturally adapt to accommodate developmental changes. Parent-child relationships that do not adapt to a child’s abilities can lead to high parent-child conflict and ultimately a reduced parent-child relationship quality.
Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks
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Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks
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