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- 1 IGNOU BPAC 111 Solved Assignment 2022-23
- 2 1. Explain the meaning and objectives of monetary policy and discuss its instruments.
- 3 2. Write a note in brief on important instruments of parliamentary control over executive in India.
- 4 GET IGNOU Handwritten Hardcopy , WhatsApp – 8130208920
- 5 3. Discuss the principles of fiscal federalism. 4. Explain the concept of gender budget and examine the gender budgeting initiatives in India. 5. Describe the classification of government accounts.
- 6 Get IGNOU BPAC 111 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Now here from this website.
- 7 6. What are the features of government budget? 7. Discuss the role of Ministry of Finance. 8. Examine the role and functions of Central Board of Direct Taxes. 9. Analyse the role of audit. 10. Discuss the functions of the Committee on Public Undertakings.
- 8 GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23
- 9 IGNOU Assignment Front Page
- 10 BPAC 111 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23
IGNOU BPAC 111 Solved Assignment 2022-23
We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BPAC 111 PUBLIC FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
Important Note – IGNOU BPAC 111 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment A.
Answer the following short category questions in about 250 words each. Each question carries 10 marks in Assignment B.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 6 marks in Assignment C.
1. Explain the meaning and objectives of monetary policy and discuss its instruments.
Meaning of Monetary Policy:
Monetary policy refers to the credit control measures adopted by the central bank of a country.
Johnson defines monetary policy “as policy employing central bank’s control of the supply of money as an instrument for achieving the objectives of general economic policy.” G.K. Shaw defines it as “any conscious action undertaken by the monetary authorities to change the quantity, availability or cost of money.”
Objectives or Goals of Monetary Policy:
The following are the principal objectives of monetary policy:
1. Full Employment:
Full employment has been ranked among the foremost objectives of monetary policy. It is an important goal not only because unemployment leads to wastage of potential output, but also because of the loss of social standing and self-respect.
2. Price Stability:
One of the policy objectives of monetary policy is to stabilise the price level. Both economists and laymen favour this policy because fluctuations in prices bring uncertainty and instability to the economy.
3. Economic Growth:
One of the most important objectives of monetary policy in recent years has been the rapid economic growth of an economy. Economic growth is defined as “the process whereby the real per capita income of a country increases over a long period of time.”
4. Balance of Payments:
Another objective of monetary policy since the 1950s has been to maintain equilibrium in the balance of payments.
Instruments of Monetary Policy:
The instruments of monetary policy are of two types: first, quantitative, general or indirect; and second, qualitative, selective or direct. They affect the level of aggregate demand through the supply of money, cost of money and availability of credit. Of the two types of instruments, the first category includes bank rate variations, open market operations and changing reserve requirements. They are meant to regulate the overall level of credit in the economy through commercial banks. The selective credit controls aim at controlling specific types of credit. They include changing margin requirements and regulation of consumer credit. We discuss them as under:
Bank Rate Policy:
The bank rate is the minimum lending rate of the central bank at which it rediscounts first class bills of exchange and government securities held by the commercial banks. When the central bank finds that inflationary pressures have started emerging within the economy, it raises the bank rate. Borrowing from the central bank becomes costly and commercial banks borrow less from it.
The commercial banks, in turn, raise their lending rates to the business community and borrowers borrow less from the commercial banks. There is contraction of credit and prices are checked from rising further. On the contrary, when prices are depressed, the central bank lowers the bank rate.
It is cheap to borrow from the central bank on the part of commercial banks. The latter also lower their lending rates. Businessmen are encouraged to borrow more. Investment is encouraged. Output, employment, income and demand start rising and the downward movement of prices is checked.
Open Market Operations:
Open market operations refer to sale and purchase of securities in the money market by the central bank. When prices are rising and there is need to control them, the central bank sells securities. The reserves of commercial banks are reduced and they are not in a position to lend more to the business community.
Further investment is discouraged and the rise in prices is checked. Contrariwise, when recessionary forces start in the economy, the central bank buys securities. The reserves of commercial banks are raised. They lend more. Investment, output, employment, income and demand rise and fall in price is checked.
Changes in Reserve Ratios:
This weapon was suggested by Keynes in his Treatise on Money and the USA was the first to adopt it as a monetary device. Every bank is required by law to keep a certain percentage of its total deposits in the form of a reserve fund in its vaults and also a certain percentage with the central bank.
When prices are rising, the central bank raises the reserve ratio. Banks are required to keep more with the central bank. Their reserves are reduced and they lend less. The volume of investment, output and employment are adversely affected. In the opposite case, when the reserve ratio is lowered, the reserves of commercial banks are raised. They lend more and the economic activity is favourably affected.
Selective Credit Controls:
Selective credit controls are used to influence specific types of credit for particular purposes. They usually take the form of changing margin requirements to control speculative activities within the economy. When there is brisk speculative activity in the economy or in particular sectors in certain commodities and prices start rising, the central bank raises the margin requirement on them.
The result is that the borrowers are given less money in loans against specified securities. For instance, raising the margin requirement to 60% means that the pledger of securities of the value of Rs 10,000 will be given 40% of their value, i.e. Rs 4,000 as loan. In case of recession in a particular sector, the central bank encourages borrowing by lowering margin requirements.
For an effective anti-cyclical monetary policy, bank rate, open market operations, reserve ratio and selective control measures are required to be adopted simultaneously. But it has been accepted by all monetary theorists that (i) the success of monetary policy is nil in a depression when business confidence is at its lowest ebb; and (ii) it is successful against inflation. The monetarists contend that as against fiscal policy, monetary policy possesses greater flexibility and it can be implemented rapidly.
2. Write a note in brief on important instruments of parliamentary control over executive in India.
In a parliamentary democracy like India, although the three branches of the State i.e. Legislative, Judiciary and Executive are theoretically separate, in practice the executive is a part of legislature. And since the executive is always in a majority, the control exercised over it by the legislature seems only weak.
- The Constitution of India established a parliamentary form of government in which the Executive is held responsible to the Parliament for its acts.
- Parliament exercises control over Executive through debates and discussions on the floor. It has instruments like short duration discussions during question and zero-hours, calling attention motion, adjournment motion, no-confidence motion, censure motion, etc.
- It also supervises the activities of the Executive with the help of its committees like committee on government assurance, committee on subordinate legislation, committee on petitions, etc.
- The ministers are collectively responsible to the Parliament in general and to the Lok Sabha in particular. As a part of collective responsibility, there is individual responsibility, that is, each minister is individually responsible for the efficient administration of the ministry under his charge. They continue in office so long as they enjoy the confidence of the majority members in the Lok Sabha.
Limitations of Parliamentary control
But in reality, the control is not as effective as it ought to be. The following factors are responsible for this:
- The Parliament has neither time nor expertise to control the administration which has grown in volume as well as complexity.
- Parliament¡¦s financial control is hindered by the technical nature of the demands for grants, which require economic expertise. Also, most demands are guillotined.
- The financial committees like Public Accounts Committee do only post-facto audits, i.e. they examine the expenditure after it has already been incurred.
- The growth of ¡¥delegated legislation¡¦ has reduced the role of Parliament in making detailed laws and has increased the powers of bureaucracy.
- The frequent promulgation of ordinances by the president dilutes the Parliament’s power of legislation.
- Lack of strong and steady opposition in the Parliament, and a setback in the parliamentary behaviour and ethics, have also contributed to the ineffectiveness of legislative control over administration in India.
For healthy functioning of Indian political system, it is necessary that Parliament has an effective oversight over the executive. Steps like building a better image of parliament, improving the quality of members, strengthening the committee system etc will help in increasing effectiveness of parliamentary control over executive.
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3. Discuss the principles of fiscal federalism.
4. Explain the concept of gender budget and examine the gender budgeting initiatives in India.
5. Describe the classification of government accounts.
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6. What are the features of government budget?
7. Discuss the role of Ministry of Finance.
8. Examine the role and functions of Central Board of Direct Taxes.
9. Analyse the role of audit.
10. Discuss the functions of the Committee on Public Undertakings.
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IGNOU BPAC 111 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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BPAC 111 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23
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