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IGNOU BPAC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23
We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BPAC 108 PUBLIC POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION IN INDIA Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
Important Note – IGNOU BPAC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment A.
Answer the following short category questions in about 250 words each. Each question carries 10 marks in Assignment B.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 6 marks in Assignment C.
1. Discuss the various stages in the policy process.
The Policy Process
The policy process is normally conceptualized as sequential parts or stages. These are (1) problem emergence, (2) agenda setting, (3) consideration of policy options, (3) decision-making, (5) implementation, and (6) evaluation (Jordan and Adelle, 2012). According to this ‘textbook’ view of policy, environmental groups must first get a particular problem on the agenda for discussion and, if possible, consideration by policy makers. Policy makers then select the best course of action based on specialist advice, make the policy, then hand it to administrators for implementation. This stage-based view emphasizes that policy is a process involving many different parts of government. But in practice, policy issues are interconnected, policy makers fumble around for solutions in the context of great uncertainty and many internal and external constraints. Past practice often has a determining effect on how new issues are processed. To counter such uncertainty, increasing use is being made of scientific evidence to guide environmental policy development. Multiple policy ‘tools’ such as expert reports, consultation, and cost–benefit analysis are employed by governments to provide such decision support.
Neo-pluralists meanwhile argue that business occupies a ‘privileged’ position compared to other groups. Instruments like the mass media help to structure environmental politics by removing ‘grand majority’ issues concerning the fundamentals of the political order from the agenda, leaving citizens to debate residual ‘secondary’ concerns (Lindblom, 1977). Whereas pluralists assume that grievances are openly debated, neo-pluralists argue that they are organized out of politics by institutional rules and routines. Policy making occurs within small and stable groups of actors (or networks) clustered around particular government departments. Policy outcomes then generally reflect business preferences rather than those of environmentalists, who find it difficult to access decision-makers or are deterred from even trying.
Finally, structuralists believe that the state is under powerful structural pressure to nurture economic growth regardless of the environmental implications (Benton, 1996). On this view, most environmental controls are nothing more than a sham, introduced to pacify critics and keep the conflict between economic classes to manageable levels. For Marxist scholars, environmental problems are rooted in the unequal distribution of resources within society. There can be no lasting solution to such problems until the social system is structured more equally.
The Policy Process
The policy process normally is seen as having a series of sequential parts or stages. These are (a) problem emergence, (b) agenda setting, (c) consideration of policy options, (d) decision making, (e) implementation, and (f) evaluation. According to this ‘textbook’ view of policy, the first task facing environmental groups is to get a particular problem on the agenda for discussion and, if possible, consideration by policy makers. Policy makers then select the best course of action based on specialist advice, make the policy, then hand it on to administrators to be implemented. This stage-based view emphasises that policy is a process involving many different parts of the Government. It is also simple and intuitively appealing. But in practice, policy issues are interconnected, policy makers fumble around for solutions in the context of great uncertainty and many internal and external constraints. Often what was done in the past has a determining effect on how new issues are processed.
There is a multitude of different models and theories which try to explain how the machinery of government makes policy (Ham and Hill 1993, Parsons 1995, John 1998), each presenting a slightly different account of how the constituent elements interrelate. Pluralists believe that political power is widely, although by no means evenly, spread throughout society. Although there are very powerful groups in particular policy sectors, no single group is successful continuously or capable of distorting the entire policy process to its advantage. In policy terms, pluralists assume that the agenda-setting process is open and competitive, with the government acting as an honest broker. Once adopted, though, policies must still be steered through the reefs and shoals of the implementation process. Because of the competitiveness of the policy process policy outcomes tend to be unpredictable.
2. Examine the National Health Policy, 2017.
The National Health Policy of 1983 and the National Health Policy of 2002 have served well in guiding the approach for the health sector in the Five-Year Plans. The current context has however changed in four major ways. First, the health priorities are changing. Although maternal and child mortality have rapidly declined, there is growing burden on account of non-communicable diseases and some infectious diseases. The second important change is the emergence of a robust health care industry estimated to be growing at double digit. The third change is the growing incidences of catastrophic expenditure due to health care costs, which are presently estimated to be one of the major contributors to poverty. Fourth, a rising economic growth enables enhanced fiscal capacity. Therefore, a new health policy responsive to these contextual changes is required.
The National Health Policy, 2017 (NHP, 2017) seeks to reach everyone in a comprehensive integrated way to move towards wellness. It aims at achieving universal health coverage and delivering quality health care services to all at affordable cost.
The policy envisages as its goal the attainment of the highest possible level of health and well-being for all at all ages, through a preventive and promotive health care orientation in all developmental policies, and universal access to good quality health care services without anyone having to face financial hardship as a consequence. This would be achieved through increasing access, improving quality and lowering the cost of healthcare delivery.
Improve health status through concerted policy action in all sectors and expand preventive, promotive, curative, palliative and rehabilitative services provided through the public health sector with focus on quality.
Specific Quantitative Goals and Objectives
Health Status and Programme Impact
- Life Expectancy and healthy life
- Increase Life Expectancy at birth from 67.5 to 70 by 2025.
- Establish regular tracking of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) Index as a measure of burden of disease and its trends by major categories by 2022.
- Reduction of TFR to 2.1 at national and sub-national level by 2025.
- Mortality by Age and/ or cause
- Reduce Under Five Mortality to 23 by 2025 and MMR from current levels to 100 by 2020.
- Reduce infant mortality rate to 28 by 2019.
- Reduce neo-natal mortality to 16 and still birth rate to “single digit” by 2025.
- Reduction of disease prevalence/ incidence
- Achieve global target of 2020 which is also termed as target of 90:90:90, for HIV/AIDS i.e, – 90% of all people living with HIV know their HIV status, – 90% of all people diagnosed with HIV infection receive sustained antiretroviral therapy and 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have viral suppression.
- Achieve and maintain elimination status of Leprosy by 2018, Kala-Azar by 2017 and Lymphatic Filariasis in endemic pockets by 2017.
- To achieve and maintain a cure rate of >85% in new sputum positive patients for TB and reduce incidence of new cases, to reach elimination status by 2025.
- To reduce the prevalence of blindness to 0.25/ 1000 by 2025 and disease burden by one third from current levels.
- To reduce premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory diseases by 25% by 2025.
Health Systems Performance
- Coverage of Health Services
- Increase utilization of public health facilities by 50% from current levels by 2025.
- Antenatal care coverage to be sustained above 90% and skilled attendance at birth above 90% by 2025.
- More than 90% of the newborn are fully immunized by one year of age by 2025.
- Meet need of family planning above 90% at national and sub national level by 2025.
- 80% of known hypertensive and diabetic individuals at household level maintain “controlled disease status” by 2025.
- Cross Sectoral goals related to health
- Relative reduction in prevalence of current tobacco use by 15% by 2020 and 30% by 2025.
- Reduction of 40% in prevalence of stunting of under-five children by 2025.
- Access to safe water and sanitation to all by 2020 (Swachh Bharat Mission).
- Reduction of occupational injury by half from current levels of 334 per lakh agricultural workers by 2020.
- National/ State level tracking of selected health behaviour.
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3. Describe the elite model of policy process.
4. Write a note on Citizen’s Charter.
5. Discuss the National Food Policy and highlight the measures accorded
top priority in the policy.
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IGNOU BPAC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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- Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
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IGNOU BPAC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
- Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BPAC 108 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
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