IGNOU BHIC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : BHIC 107 Solved Assignment 2022 , BHIC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23, BHIC 107 Assignment 2022-23 , BHIC 107 Assignment, IGNOU BHIC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU BHIC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU BHIC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

Assignment – I

1. Discuss briefly the Mongol policy of the Delhi Sultans. 

Ans. At any rate, between 1240-66, the Mongols for the first time embarked upon the policy of annexation of India and ‘the golden phase of mutual non-aggression’ with Delhi ended. During this phase, the Sultanate remained under serious Mongol threat. The main reason was the change in the situation in Central Asia.

The Mongol Khan of Transoxiana found it difficult to face the might of the Persian Khanate and, thus, was left with no alternative except to try his luck in India.

In 1241, Tair Bahadur invaded Lahore and completely destroyed the city. It was followed by two successive invasions in CE 1245-46. In spite of the best efforts of Balban during the reign of Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud, the Sultanate frontier during CE 1241 stood at Beas. And, yet, the appeasement policy continued for sometime. In CE 1260 Hulagu’s envoy to Delhi was well received and this diplomatic gesture was reciprocated by Hulagu also..

A distinct change in Delhi Sultan’s policy can be seen from Balban’s reign onwards. On the whole, it was the phase of ‘resistance’. By and large, Balban remained in Delhi and his energies concentrated mainly in keeping away the Mongols, at least from the Beas. Barani mentions, when the two nobles Tamir Khan and Adil Khan suggested the conquest of Malwa and Gujarat and advised him to pursue an expansionist policy Balban replied:

When the Mongols have occupied all lands of Islam, devastated Lahore and made it a point to invade our country once in every year…If I move out of the capital the Mongols are sure to avail themselves of the opportunity by sacking Delhi and ravaging the Doab. Making peace and consolidating our power in our own kingdom is far better than invading foreign territories while our own kingdom is insecure

Balban used both ‘force and diplomacy’ against the Mongols. He took some measures to strengthen his line of defence. Forts at Bhatinda, Sunam and Samana were reinforced to check any Mongol advance beyond Beas. Balban succeeded in occupying Multan and Uchh but his forces remained under heavy Mongol pressure in Punjab. Every year Prince Muhammad, Balban’s son, led expeditions against the Mongols. The Prince died in CE 1285 while defending Multan. Actually, till CE 1295, the Mongols did not show much enthusiasm to occupy Delhi.

During Alauddin Khalji’s reign, the Mongol incursions extended further and they attempted to ravage Delhi for the first time in CE 1299 under Qutlugh Khwaja. Since then, Delhi became a regular target of the Mongols. For the second time, Qutlugh Khwaja in CE 1303 attacked Delhi when Alauddin Khalji was busy in his Chittor campaign. The attack was so severe that the Mongols inflicted large-scale destruction and so long as the Mongols besieged Delhi, Alauddin could not enter the city.

Constant Mongol attacks pressed Alauddin to think of a permanent solution. He recruited a huge standing army and strengthened the frontier forts. As a result, the Mongols were repulsed in 1306 and 1308. Another reason for the Mongol reversal was the death of Dawa Khan in 1306, followed by civil war in the Mongol Khanate. It weakened the Mongols greatly, and they ceased to remain a power to reckon with. This situation helped the Delhi Sultans to extend their frontier as far as the Salt Range. The last significant Mongol invasion was under the leadership of Tarmashirin during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq.

Thus, the Delhi Sultans succeeded in tackling the Mongol problem and succeeded in keeping their kingdom intact. It shows the strength of the Sultanate. Besides, the Mongol destruction of Central and West Asia resulted in large-scale migration of scholars, mystics, artisans and others to Delhi, which transformed it into a great town of Islamic culture area.

2. Explain ritual kingship in the context of Vijayanagara empire. Mention the role and functions of the Brahmanas in the Vijayanagara empire.

Ans. The Vijayanagara Empire, also called the Karnata Kingdom, was based in the Deccan Plateau region of South India. It was established in 1336 by the brothers Harihara I and Bukka Raya I of the Sangama dynasty, members of a pastoralist cowherd community that claimed Yadava lineage. The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Turkic Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century. At its peak, it subjugated almost all of South India’s ruling families and pushed the sultans of the Deccan beyond the Tungabhadra-Krishna river doab region, in addition to annexing modern day Odisha (ancient Kalinga) from the Gajapati Kingdom thus becoming a notable power. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates. The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India. The wealth and fame of the empire inspired visits by and writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes, and Niccolò de’ Conti. These travelogues, contemporary literature and epigraphy in the local languages and modern archeological excavations at Vijayanagara has provided ample information about the history and power of the empire.

The empire’s legacy includes monuments spread over South India, the best known of which is the group at Hampi. Different temple building traditions in South and Central India were merged into the Vijayanagara architecture style. This synthesis inspired architectural innovations in the construction of Hindu temples. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies to the region such as water management systems for irrigation. The empire’s patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, and Sanskrit with topics such as astronomy, mathematics, medicine, fiction, musicology, historiography and theater gaining popularity. The classical music of Southern India, Carnatic music, evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in the history of Southern India that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor.

Before the early 14th-century rise of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Hindu states of the Deccan – the Yadava Empire of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, and the Pandyan Empire of Madurai – were repeatedly raided and attacked by Muslims from the north. By 1336 the upper Deccan region (modern-day Maharashtra and Telangana) had been defeated by armies of Sultan Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad bin Tughluq of the Delhi Sultanate.

 Further south in the Deccan region, Hoysala commander Singeya Nayaka-III declared independence after the Muslim forces of the Delhi Sultanate defeated and captured the territories of the Yadava Empire in 1294 CE. He created the Kampili kingdom near Gulbarga and Tungabhadra River in the northeastern parts of present-day Karnataka state. The kingdom collapsed after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate and upon their defeat, the populace committed a jauhar (ritual mass suicide) in c. 1327–28. The Vijayanagara Kingdom was founded in 1336 CE as a successor to the hitherto prosperous Hindu kingdoms of the Hoysalas, the Kakatiyas, and the Yadavas with the breakaway Kampili Kingdom adding a new dimension to the resistance to the Muslim invasion of South India.

Two theories have been proposed regarding the linguistic origins of the Vijayanagara empire.[ One is that Harihara I and Bukka I, the founders of the empire, were Kannadigas and commanders in the army of the Hoysala Empire stationed in the Tungabhadra region to ward off Muslim invasions from Northern India. Another theory is that Harihara and Bukkaraya were Telugu people, first associated with the Kakatiya Kingdom, who took control of the northern parts of the Hoysala Empire during its decline. They were believed to have been captured by the army of Ulugh Khan at Warangal. According to tradition, based on a Telugu-narrative, the founders were supported and inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery, to fight the Muslim invasion of South India, but the role of Vidyaranya in the founding of the Vijayanagara Empire is not certain.

IGNOU BHIC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – II

3. Analyse Turkan-i Chihilgani. Discuss the role played by Turkan-i Chihilgani as kingmakers after the death of Iltutmish.

Ans. Turkan-i Chihilgani (Barani calls them bandagan Turk Chihilgan; group of ‘forty’ Turkish slave officers) was the creation of Iltutmish who used their expertise, unflinching courage, commitment, unconditional fidelity and adroitness for the consolidation of his nascent Sultanate. These Turkish slaves were nurtured with extreme care. They were purchased by Iltutmish at an high cost (each for an average of 50000 jitals or more). They excelled in valour and courage and possessed excellent qualities to administer the territories. Minhaj lists twenty-five from the ‘group of forty’. Some of them are referred to by Minhaj as Muizzi suggests probably Iltutmish inherited them from his master Muizuddin bin Sam. These slave officers were well trained in the art of warfare, provided educational training of Persian, Arabic and Shariat. The most prominent among them were: Malik Izzuddin Kabir Khan Ayaz. Iltutmish purchased him from the heirs of Malik Nasiruddin Husain. Ruknuddin Firuz made him iqtadar of Sunam. Raziya appointed him at Lahore and also gave iqta of Multan; Malik Izzuddin Salari was appointed by Raziya iqtadar of Badaun; Malik Saifuddin Kuchi was appointed iqtadar of Hansi; Malik Alauddin Jani held the iqtadari of Lahore; Ikhtiyaruddin Qaraqash Khan Aitigin was a Qara-Khita Turk. Iltutmish assigned him iqta of Multan. He purchased him from Amir Aibek Sunami. Raziya appointed him iqtadar of Badaun, and later made him amir-i hajib; Ikhtiyaruddin Altunia was sar chatrdar at the time of Iltutmish’s death. Raziya appointed him iqtadar of Baran and later of Tabarhinda (Bhatinda). However, Iltutmish would have never thought of that those Turkish slaves whom he nurtured with so much affection and trust and raised them to the highest offices would, one day be responsible for series of murders of his descendents and one day would completly exterminate his male line. After Iltutmish’s death they practically emerged as king-makers and finally with Balban’s accession (who was one of the member of the ‘group of forty’) they assumed the royal power. They all wielded almost equal power and claimed equality among all being slaves of one of one master (Shamsi) and formed one group (Turkish-slaves). Barani mentions that they claimed: ‘I and none other’…What are you that I am not and what have you been that I have not been.’ Barani laments: ‘Owing to the incompetence of the successors of Shamsuddin and the predominance of the Shamsi slaves, no dignity was left with the suprme command…; and the court of Shamsuddin, which had grown in stability and power till it exceeded the courts of all kings of the inhabited world, was now a thing of no value’ ( Habib & Nizami 1982: 233). Very early, Raziya realized the increasing power of the Turkish slaves, attempted to offset them by creating a parallel counter-nobility. It was this that brought her in direct conflict with the Tajik (non-Turkish free-born foreigners of high lineage; largely Persians) Turks and Turkish slave officers. Nizamul Mulk Junaidi, a Tajik, wazir of Iltutmish opposed Raziya’s accession supported by the ‘group of forty’ (Malik Alauddin Jani, Malik Saifuddin Kuchi, Malik Izzuddin Kabir Khan Ayaz, and Malik Izzuddin Muhammad Salari). Raziya’s appointment of an Abyssinian Malik Jamaluddin Yaqut to the post of amir-i akhur was equally resented by the Turkish slave officers; the office was never before given to a non-Turk. Aitigin and Altunia raised the banner of revolt, rejecting Raziya they placed Muizuddin Bahram Shah to the throne. Raziya in her attempt to gain power married Altunia. However, Raziya and Altunia got defeated and were later killed (1240).

4. Discuss the currency system of the Delhi Sultans.

Ans. With the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 AD) came the attempt at standardisation. This period was marked by a considerable expansion of the money economy. Coins were struck in gold, silver and copper. In the monetary system, the equation between gold and silver was probably at 1:10. The Khilji rulers issued coins in abundance with grandiloquent titles (Ala-ud-din Khilji struck coins assuming the title ‘Sikandar al Sani’, the second Alexander) as well as honorific epithets for mints (the Delhi mint bore titles ‘Hazrat Dar-al-Khilafat, etc.).

The Arabs conquered Sindh in 712 AD and ruled it as a province of the Caliphate. By the 9th Century AD, provincial governors established independent rule and struck their own coins. However, it was with the emergence of Turkish Sultans of Delhi in the 12th Century that a decisive break was made with the past and the existing motifs were gradually replaced by Islamic devices, largely calligraphy. The unit of account came to be consolidated and was referred to as the ‘tanka’ with the ‘jittals’ as the smaller value coins.

The coins of the Tughlaqs (1320-1412 AD) were superior in design and execution to those of the Khiljis. Muhammed bin Tughlaq (1325-1351 AD), took personal interest in his coinage, however, his monetary experiments were a failure and the cause of much misery. The first experiment was to make his coinage reflect the gold/silver price ratio prevailing in the free market. When this experiment failed the old gold and silver coins of about 11 grams were reintroduced. The next experiment was inspired by Chinese paper currency which had spurred the development of trade and commerce. Tughlaq attempted to establish a fiduciary system of coinage between 1329 to 1332 AD. He attempted to issue tokens of brass and copper. These tokens bore the legends such as : ‘Sealed as a tanka of fifty ganis’ together with appeals such as ‘He who obeys the Sultan, obeys the Compassionate’. Mass forgeries rendered the experiment a total disaster and Tughlaq, to his credit, redeemed all tokens, forged or genuine, in specie. It may be noted that the experiments of Tughlaq were genuine experiments: while they were forced on the populace, they were not dictated by a bankrupt treasury. Gold coins were issued in very large numbers during the reign of Muhammed bin Tughlaq, thereafter gold coins became scarce. By the time of the Lodhis, coins were struck almost exclusively of copper and billon. In the provinces, the Bengal Sultans, the Jaunpur Sultans, the Bahamanis of the Deccan, the Sultans of Malwa, the Sultans of Gujarat, etc. struck coins. In the South, however, the Vijayanagar Empire evolved coinage of different metrology and design which was to remain as a standard in the region and influence coin design up to the 19th Century.

5. Write a brief note on the growth of sufi movement in India. 

Ans. Sufism was a liberal reform movement within Islam. It had its origin in Persia and spread into India in the 11th century. Most of the Sufis (mystics) were persons of deep devotion who disliked the display of wealth and degeneration of morals following the establishment of the Islamic empire. They laid great emphasis on love as the bond between God and the individual soul. Love of God meant love of humanity and therefore, Sufis believed service to humanity was tantamount to service to God. In Sufism, self-discipline was considered an essential condition to gain knowledge of God by a sense of perception. While the orthodox Muslims emphasise external conduct, the Sufis lay stress on inner purity. The orthodox Muslims believe in the blind observance of rituals, the Sufis consider love and devotion as the only means of attaining salvation. Sufism also laid stress on meditation, good actions, repentance for sins, prayers, pilgrimage, fasting, charity and controlling of passion by ascetic practices.

By the 12th century, the Sufis were organised in 12 orders or Silsilas. A Silsila was generally led by a prominent mystic who lived in a Khanqah or hospice along with his disciples. The link between the teacher or pir or murshid and his disciples or murids was a vital part of the Sufi system. Every pir nominated a successor or wali to carry on his work. Gradually, the Khanqahs emerged as important centres of learning and preaching. Many Sufis enjoyed the sama or musical congregation in their Khanqahs. In fact, qawwali developed during this period.

The four most popular Silsilas were the Chistis, Suhrawardis, Qadririyas and Naqshbandis.

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IGNOU BHIC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – III

6. Persian chroniclers of the Sultanate period 

Ans. The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of South Asia for 320 years (1206–1526). Following the invasion of the subcontinent by the Ghurid dynasty, five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–1290), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). It covered large swaths of territory in modern-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh as well as some parts of southern Nepal.

The foundation of the Sultanate was laid by the Ghurid conqueror Muhammad Ghori who routed the Rajput Confederacy led by Ajmer ruler Prithviraj Chauhan in 1192 near Tarain, after suffering a reverse against them earlier. As a successor to the Ghurid dynasty, the Delhi Sultanate was originally one among a number of principalities ruled by the Turkic slave-generals of Muhammad Ghori, including Yildiz, Aibak and Qubacha, that had inherited and divided the Ghurid territories amongst themselves. After a long period of infighrting, the Mamluks were overthrown in the Khalji revolution, which marked the transfer of power from the Turks to a heterogeneous Indo-Muslim nobility. Khalji rule saw a new wave of rapid Muslim conquests deep into South India. The sultanate finally reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent under Muhammad bin Tughluq. This was followed by decline due to Hindu reconquests, Hindu kingdoms such as the Vijayanagara Empire and Mewar asserting independence, and new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off. In 1526, the Sultanate was conquered and succeeded by the Mughal Empire.

7. Role of amiran-i sadah in making the Deccan independent of the Tughlaq rule 

Ans. The Deccan region was a part of the provincial administration of the Delhi Sultanate. In order to establish a stable administration in the Deccan, Mohammad bin Tughlaq appointed amiran-i-sada/ Sada Amir, who were the administrative heads of hundred villages. From 1337 the conflict between the officers in Deccan and Delhi sultanate accelerated. This led to the establishment of an independent state in the Deccan in 1347 with the capital at Gulbarga in Karnataka.

Political History:

  • Alauddin Hassan Gangu Bahaman Shah was the founder of Bahamani sultanate in the year 1347AD.
  • Rivalry with Vijayanagar kingdom over the fertile region of Raichur doab started from his period , and continued till the last of Bahaman rule.
  • He had frequent conflicts with Warangal state, reddy kingdoms of Rajhmundry and Kondavidu. Bahman Shah emerged victorious in all these expeditions and assumed the title Second Alexander on his coins.
  • Mohammed I succeeded Bahman Shah.
  • His attack on Warangal in 1363 brought him a large indemnity, including the important fortress of Golkonda and the treasured turquoise throne, which thereafter became the throne of the Bahmani kings.
  • The next hundred years saw a number of Sultans one after another, by succession or usurpation. All of them fought with their southern neighbour, but without gaining much territory.
  • In 1425 Warangal was subdued and their progress further eastwards was challenged by the Orissan rulers.
  • In the year 1429 Ahmed Shah al wali shifted capital city from Gulbarga to Bidar.
  • The rule of Mohammad III (1463–1482) is worthy of mention because of his lieutenant Mohammed Gawan, a great statesman.

Mohammad Gawan:

  • The Bahmani kingdom reached its peak under the guidance of Prime minister Mahmmad Gawan. He was a Persian merchant.
  • He was well-versed in Islamic theology, Persian, and Mathematics. He was also a poet and a prose-writer.
  • He was also a military genius. He waged successful wars against Vijayanagar, Orissa and the sea pirates on the Arabian sea.
  • He built a Madarsa at Bidar in Persian architectural style.

This madarasa was great learning centre  with collection of 3000 manuscripts from all over the world.

Gawan’s progress was not tolerated by native Muslim leaders.They made false allegations. They made Sultan to punish him with death sentence.

After execution of Gawan Bahamani Sultanate started to decline.

 After  few years Sultanate gradually broke up into five independent kingdoms: Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Berar , Golkonda and Bidar.

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8. Medieval Assam 

Ans. The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of people from the east, west, south and the north; the confluence of the Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman (Sino-Tibetan), Tai and Indo-Aryan cultures. Although invaded over the centuries, it was never a vassal or a colony to an external power until the third Burmese invasion in 1821, and, subsequently, the British ingress into Assam in 1824 during the First Anglo-Burmese War.

The Assamese history has been derived from multiple sources. The Ahom kingdom of medieval Assam maintained chronicles, called Buranjis, written in the Ahom and the Assamese languages. History of ancient Assam comes from a corpus of Kamarupa inscriptions on rock, copper plates, clay; royal grants, etc. that the Kamarupa kings issued during their reign.

The history of Assam can be divided into four eras. The ancient era began in the 4th century with the mention of Kamarupa in Samudragupta’s inscriptions on the Allahabad pillar and the establishment of the Kamarupa kingdom. The medieval era began with the attacks from the Bengal Sultanate, the first of which took place in 1206 by Bakhtiyar Khilji as mentioned in the Kanai-boroxiboa rock inscription, after the breakup of the ancient kingdom and the sprouting of medieval kingdoms and chieftain-ships in its place. The colonial era began with the establishment of British control after the Treaty of Yandaboo in 1826, and the post-colonial era began in 1947 after the Independence of India.

9. Military technology during the sultanate period 

Ans. Babur invaded the Delhi Sultanate in 1526 equipped with several kinds of guns, ranging from very large mortars, for reducing fortifications, to matchlock muskets. The large mortars were two piece cannon hauled by two or three elephants or 400-500 men. Babur had two kinds of gun the firingi and zarb-zan.

We know that the world and people have a history of where they stand today. This trend ofevolution has been going on since Palaeolithic time. We divide the epoch of the era of history by the objects used by contemporary people above all by the weapons. The quality of theseobjects states the contemporary phenomena of those particular time period. However, the maintopic of this assignment is

 Military Technology in Medieval India

 special emphasis on prior ofthe Mughal Empire. We can see that, army organization and weapons of India was going on ina traditional way except some linear developments. But the major change comes out after theTurkey invasion. We will see, this evolution of arms and armor technology and what majorextension had occurred. A case may be made that military conquests in pre-modern times oftenled to accelerated transmissions of techniques.

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10. Slaves and karkhanas during the Sultanate period

Ans. Mughal karkhanas were the manufacturing houses and workshops for craftsmen, established by the Mughals in their empire. Karkhana is a Hindustani language word that means factory. These karkhanas were small manufacturing units for various arts and crafts as well as for the emperor’s household and military needs. karkhanas were named and classified based on the nature of the job. For example, ‘Rangkhana’ and ‘Chhapakhana’ were for textile dyeing and printing work. The term ‘tushak-khana’ was used to describe workshops that made shawls and embellished them with embroidery or needlework. Imperial or Royal Karkhanas were for luxury goods and weapons. The karkhanas were the place for various production activities and also for the exploration of new techniques and innovations. Some operations such as weaving, embroidery work, and brocade work were often done under one roof, resembling an integrated assembly line.

Karkhanas in the Mughal era especially in Akbar’s time were much more organized and large as compared to the Sultanate period. Mughals raised the standards of karkhanas attained previously by the Sultans under various dynasties. Mughals viewed administrative matters with great sincerity and maintained proper hierarchy in the system, for instance, the Mansabdari system founded by Akbar. The Mughal empire was divided into “Subah” which were further subdivided into “Sarkar”, “Pargana”, and “Gram.”, additionally there were three methods of revenue collection i.e. Kankut, Rai And Zabti. In the Mughal empire, rapidly accelerating urbanization and the vast army size (required to properly administer such a large region), necessitated the large-scale production of weapons and other goods. Hence there were large establishments of Royal Karkhanas.

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