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IGNOU BHIC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BHIC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Answer the following in about 500 words each in Section A. Each question carry 20 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in Section B. Each question carry 10 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in Section C. Each question carry 6 marks.
1. Explain in detail the different approaches related to transition to agriculture.
Archaeologists have long regarded the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture as one of the most important developments in human history. V. Gordon Childe (1892–1957) and Robert Braidwood (1907–2003) were among the first scholars to emphasize the importance of this change in human society. At its root was the shift from the reliance on wild plants and animals to domesticated plants and livestock. Domestication is the process by which humans are able to control the reproduction of plant and animal species and thus select for various desirable characteristics. In the Near East, just before ten thousand years ago, people began to select for desirable characteristics in wheat and barley and in sheep and goats. Later, cattle, pigs, lentils, and peas were added to the list of early domesticates. Throughout the millennia that followed, many more species of plants and animals were domesticated in other areas around the world, including China, Africa, and several regions in the Americas.
The transition to agriculture in the Old World traditionally marks the beginning of the archaeological period known as the “Neolithic,” the final major division of the Stone Age. For many years, archaeologists noted that the Neolithic also saw the emergence of pottery production and ground stone tools, although these traits now have been shown to occur in pre-agricultural societies as well. Today, archaeologists see that the adoption of domestic plants and animals is only a single symptom of a major societal and economic transformation. During this period, people changed their views of many things, including the returns expected from their quest for food, acceptable levels of risk and uncertainty, their ability to change their environment, property rights and residential stability, definitions of kinship and residential groupings, and the benefits of more children. Most of these changes began back in the Mesolithic period, but they came together during the Neolithic to produce a dramatic change in society.
Farming spread from the Near East across Europe between 8,500 and 4,000 years ago. In some areas colonizing farmers dispersed into new habitats. Elsewhere, local hunter-gatherers adopted crops and livestock. Archaeologists must differentiate between these two processes, a challenging task. Despite some claims for local domestication, it appears that all the principal species of plants and animals used by the early European farmers initially were domesticated in southwestern Asia, so there is no “pristine” center of domestication in Europe itself. Radiocarbon dating has been immensely helpful in tracing the spread of agriculture in Europe.
Around 6500 b.c. the first European farmers appeared in Greece. Immigrants from Anatolia colonized fertile floodplains, lived in houses built of mud brick or adobe, grew emmer and einkorn wheat, and raised sheep and goats. These communities were similar to contemporaneous settlements in the Near East, although some of the details are significantly different. Native foragers in other parts of Greece also made the transition to agriculture, as reflected at sites such as Franchthi Cave.
From its initial European toehold in Greece, agriculture spread along two routes: west through the Mediterranean basin to Spain and Portugal and north and northwest along the Danube drainage and then into the river valleys that drain into the Baltic and North Seas. Within about two thousand years of the first appearance of agriculture in Greece, farming reached the Atlantic Ocean and the English Channel. It did not spread at a uniform speed. Sometimes the leading edge of farming jumped forward very quickly, and sometimes it stood almost still for centuries.
The Mediterranean dispersal followed coastal routes. Domestic livestock, especially sheep, as well as cereals and pottery appeared at sites along the coasts of Italy and southern France, such as Arene Candide (in Liguria, Italy), which differed little from the camps of the local foragers. Apparently, these items were passed along from community to community and integrated into the hunter-gatherer economy. Watercraft probably were crucial in enabling this contact.
The spread of agriculture north from Greece into the Balkans was the result of either colonization by farmers or local adoption of crops and livestock. The attraction of early farming communities to alluvial soils hitherto sparsely settled by foragers suggests that some population movement occurred. It is apparent, however, that certain Mesolithic groups adopted domestic plants and animals. In the Iron Gates gorges along the Danube, the inhabitants of such sites as Lepenski Vir (in Serbia) brought crops and livestock into their economy alongside fish, deer, and wild plants.
In the river valleys of central Europe, colonization by farmers was the primary means by which agricultural communities were established. Known from their incised ceramics as the Linear Pottery culture (alternatively, Linearbandkeramik or LBK), these people lived in timber longhouses, sometimes more than 30 meters long, along the tributaries of major central European rivers. They usually settled on a fine-grained soil called “loess” that they could farm for many years without much of a decline in fertility. In the west Linear Pottery communities reached the area of Paris, while in the north some ventured onto the North European Plain along the lower Oder and Vistula Rivers. Unlike the pattern in southeast Europe, where sheep and goat were the major livestock species, bones of domestic cattle are the most common types found on Linear Pottery sites.
The Sāsānian period
Foundation of the empire
Rise of Ardashīr I
At the beginning of the 3rd century AD, the Arsacid empire had been in existence for some 400 years. Its strength had been undermined, however, by repeated Roman invasions, and the empire became once more divided, this time between Vologeses VI (or V), who seems to have ruled at Ctesiphon, on the left bank of the middle Tigris in what is now Iraq, and Artabanus V, who was in control of Iran and whose authority at Susa, in southwestern Iran, is attested by an inscription from 215. (See also Mesopotamia, history of: The Sāsānian period.)
It was against Artabanus V that a challenger arose in Persis. Ardashīr I, son of Pāpak and a descendant of Sāsān, was the ruler of one of the several small states into which Persia had gradually been divided. His father had taken possession of the city and district of Istakhr (Estakhr), which had replaced the old residence city of Persepolis, a mass of ruins after its destruction by Alexander the Great in 330 BC. Pāpak was succeeded by his eldest son, who was soon killed in an accident, and in AD 208 Ardashīr replaced his brother. He first built for himself a stronghold at Gūr, named, for its founder, Ardashīr-Khwarrah (“Ardashīr’s Glory”), now Fīrūzābād, southeast of Shīrāz in Fārs. He subdued the neighbouring rulers and in the process disposed of his own remaining brothers. His seizure of such areas as Kermān, Eṣfahān, Elymais, and Mesene—to the east, north, and west of Fārs, respectively—led to war with Artabanus, his suzerain. The conflict between the two rivals lasted several years, during which time the Parthian forces were defeated in three battles. In the last of these, the battle on the plain of Hormizdagān (224), Artabanus was killed.
There is evidence to support the assumption that Ardashīr’s rise to power suffered several setbacks. Vologeses VI (or V) struck coins at Seleucia on the Tigris as late as AD 228/229 (the Seleucid year 539). Another Parthian prince, Artavasdes, a son of Artabanus V, known from coins on which he is portrayed with the distinguishing feature of a forked beard, seems to have exercised practical independence even after 228. Numismatic evidence further reflects the stages of Ardashīr’s struggle for undisputed leadership. He appears on his coins with four different types of crowns: as king of Fārs, as claimant to the throne before the battle at Hormizdagān, and as emperor with two distinctly different crowns. It has been suggested that this evidence points to two separate coronation ceremonies of Ardashīr as sovereign ruler, the second perhaps indicating that he may have lost the throne temporarily.
According to al-Ṭabarī, the Muslim historian (9th–10th century), Ardashīr, after having secured his position as a ruler in western Iran, embarked on an extensive military campaign in the east (227) and conquered Sakastan (modern Sīstān), Hyrcania (Gorgān), Margiana (Merv), Bactria (Balkh), and Chorasmia (Khwārezm). The inference that this campaign resulted in the defeat of the powerful Kushān empire is supported by the further statement of al-Ṭabarī that the king of the Kushān was among the eastern sovereigns, including the rulers of Tūrān (Quzdar, south of modern Quetta) and of Mokrān (Makran), whose surrender was received by Ardashīr. These military and political successes were further extended by Ardashīr when he took possession of the palace at Ctesiphon and assumed the title “king of kings of the Iranians” and, across the Tigris River, when he refounded and rebuilt the city of Seleucia under the new name Veh-Ardashīr, the “Good Deed of Ardashīr.”
The chronology of events in the early Sāsānian period was calculated by the German Orientalist Theodor Nöldeke in 1879, and his system of dating is still generally accepted. The discovery of fresh evidence in manuscript materials dealing with the life of Mani, a religious leader whose activities fall in the early Sāsānian period, led to a reassessment of Nöldeke’s calculations by another German, Walter Bruno Henning, by which the principal events are dated about two years earlier. Another alternative was proposed by the Iranian scholar Sayyid Hasan Taqizadeh, who preferred a sequence by which the same events are placed about six months later than the dates established by Nöldeke. Since the dating systems employed by the Sāsānians themselves were based on the regnal years of the individual kings, whose exact coronation dates are often subject to disputation, several details remain uncertain, and their definite solution has not been possible. A firmer basis of calculation is obtained when the ancient sources quote dates in terms of the Seleucid era, either according to the computation that prevailed in Babylonia, which started from 311 BC, or after the Syrian reckoning, beginning in 312 BC. See the table for dates of events of the early Sāsānian period as they can be established on direct numismatic or literary evidence in the differing chronological systems of Nöldeke, Henning, and Taqizadeh. The table of reign dates of the kings is based mainly on Nöldeke’s system.
3. Who were the Greekss ? Write a short note on Mycenaean Civilization.
4) Write a note on the settlements and architecture of the Egyptian civilization.
5) Explain the discovery and spread and inpact of iron.
6. Bronze Age Societies
7) Sources and Methods of Archaeological Research
8) Legacy of Shang Civilization
9) Babylonian Empire
10) History and Historiography
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