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IGNOU BEGC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BEGC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).
Answer with reference to the context:
(i) The white man, disguised
as a falcon, swoops in
and yet again steals a salmon
from Crow’s talon.
Ans. Alexie has chosen to portray the “white man” as a “falcon.” The embodiment of the white man doesn’t just appear as a falcon, he is “disguised” as one. This adds an additional level of cunning to the scene.
The flacon swoops down from the sky and steals directly from Crow’s hands, or “talons.” This theft is a clear reference to the endless damage down to Native Americans, from the theft of land to the mass exterminations that took place at the hands of the United States government and all leaders in North and South America.
In the shorter second half Crow reflects that if he was able to “swim” he could have “fled this country years ago.” If he had been born with this ability, he could have let himself be taken out to sea, and away from the damage, he is living in.
(ii) If the red slayer thinks he slays
Or if the slain thinks he is slain
They know not well the subtle ways
I keep, and pass, and turn again
Ans. The poem speaks in the first person. It is the voice of one who has reached the pinnacle of spiritual illumination. The insights echo first hand experiences of illumined saints and sages from all traditions while the imagery and framework are from Hinduism. It is also the voice of Brahma, who in the Hindu religion is the ultimate God. Hinduism has many gods, just as the Bible has many saints and angels and archangels; but the supreme God in Christianity is the Father and in Hinduism the word used is Brahma.
The red slayer can represent anyone who kills and the message of the first stanza is that death is not the end of existence. Most people live in constant fear of growing old and death. We fear pain and the idea of non-existence. Our society pushes death away from our eyes while glorifying youth. Death is a transition to a more subtle realm and from the careful observation of the death process we can learn so much. The red slayer is also symbolic of Kali the Hindu goddess of death and transformation. She is often portrayed carrying a sword with blood dripping from it; hence the red-slayer.
Emerson approaches the immortality of the soul both from the vantage point of he who thinks he can destroy others: the red slayer, and the vantage point of she who fears death. The “subtle ways” referred to is the subtle existence of the soul, which is hidden from the view of most people because their minds are bounded by material objects.
IGNOU BEGC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23
1. Write an extended note on the poetic devices used in ‘Passage to India’.
Ans. Passage to India begins with a description of the new marvel of the modern world and how they are part of God’s plan. These works, the Suez Canal, the great American Railway, and the transatlantic cable allowed men and women to know one another in a new way. He sees India as a mysterious and fabled place that once visited, will allow rejuvenation of his soul. He will return to the birthplace of mankind and be renewed for the rest of his life.
The Passage to India is not easy, many have died on the way. That scares the speaker, but not so much so as to deter him from undertaking the voyage. The pull of exploration is like a current running through the human race and he is a part of it and wants to feel the connectivity of the earth. The speaker also takes the time to mourn the downfall of men, like Columbus, who ended their lives unhappily. He imagines that he is on this important journey with his soul and that the two of them are circumnavigating the earth together.
After asking himself if he is ready to go further on his journey, the reply is an eventual yes and he commands the anchor to be lifted. While the voyage might seem like a terrifying one, he is protected by God.
‘Passage to India’ by Walt Whitman is divided into thirteen sections of varying lengths. As is the case with all of Whitman’s verse, he chose not to make sure of a specific rhyme scheme or metrical pattern. He is known as the father of free verse poetry and this poem is no exception. The stanzas all vary in the number of lines they’re composed of and the length of those lines. Throughout Whitman mostly uses end-punctuation with only a few examples of enjambment.
Despite being written in free verse, Whitman makes use of several literary devices in ‘Passage to India’. These include but are not limited to alliteration, imagery, anaphora, and enjambment. The latter, enjambment, is a common literary device that is seen through the transition between lines. For example, the transition between lines five and six of the fourth section. Anaphora is a form of repetition. It appears very clearly in the first lines of the poem where the word “Singing” starts the first three lines. Another good example is in the first stanza of section three in which six of the lines start with “The”.
2. How does Howthorne present the organic-mechanical contrast in the novel The Scarlet Letter?
Ans. Hawthorne has examined the Puritan tradition of New England- in the novel. Although he questioned it and challenged some of its tenets, he could not entirely free himself of its At the outset, we should mention a rather interesting essay by Nina Baym. “Passion and Authority in The Scarlet Letter ‘’ published in Nineteenth Century Literature which argues that “Dimmesdale is a seriously distorted Puritan, and the settlement is distorted in this manner” because “Puritan religion has been replaced by nineteenth century sentimental piety.” She refers rather persuasively to the fact that God is not a pervasive presence in the novel. However, in the analysis of The Scarlet Letter in this unit, we are concerned not with the theology but the ethics, particularly the sexual ethics of the Puritan community which is not tangibly altered by the novelist. Although, as Baym points out, the novelist does not directly refer to the Original Sin, he is often preoccupied with the sinfulness of man. For him, the crucial sin is self-centeredness. Hester attains a high moral stature by virtue of her selfless service to others. One sin however that exceeds selfcenteredness in its undesirability and viciousness is “intellectual pride”. He also believed firmly in retribution. The guilty, he thought, would be punished one day if only by the knowledge of their sins. Dimmesdale cannot escape the inevitable moment of reckoning. Thus in his plot. Hawthorne laid more stress on sin and retribution than on reformation through Divine Grace Like a Calvinist, he could believe in predestination, but also like a Roman Catholic, he put his faith in Absolution and confession.
An important conflict that has developed in the book the organic mechanical antithesis”, the struggle between the possible organic growth of the individual and the mechanical restrictions imposed upon it by the Puritan Society. It is clearly introduced in the opening chapter as the prison door with its many spikes and heavy iron work; its “beetle browed and gloomy front” is contrasted with “a wild rose-bush”, which recalls the wildness of America before the arrival of the settlers. “The rust on the ponderous iron-work of its oaken-door” made the prison clearly an “ugly edifice”, but immediately outside was “a grass-plot. much overgrown with burdock, pigweed, apple-peru, and such unsightly vegetation” Standing with their eyes intently fastened on the iron-clamped oaken door” are the local Puritans with faces “petrified” in “grim rigidity”. Hester bears the “heavy weight,” the “leaden infliction” of eyes lowering upon her beneath the brims of “steeple-crowned” hats. Women are “iron-visaged”. The scaffold, suitably placed near the market place is “a portion of penal machine”. The pillory above it is an “ugly engine” which represents the crushing grip of the Puritan society upon its individual members.
3. Write a critical appreciation of the poem “O Captain! My Captain!”.
Ans. The ship overcame all dangers and the Captain came out victorious but he was killed. Whitman would like to have the episode of Lincoln’s assassination in a dream world. He would very much like Lincoln to live. The country may be happy because Lincoln preserved the unity of the nation and abolished slavery.
The poem O! Captain My Captain! has been categorised in form of elegy which is written by an outstanding representative democratic poet of America. The poem is written on the death of the former president of America Abraham Lincoln. An elegy is a mournful song, composed in the tone of sorrow and melancholy. The subject matter of an elegy is sombre and serious, often deals with the death and suffering of the people. The atmosphere of the poem is also very dark and gloomy. Walt Whitman occupies a great place in the field of American poetry. He has basically written his poems in free verse. His attitude and feelings are democratic which bring the feeling of oneness with the perfect harmony among various type of culture and civilisation. As he said, “our body cannot live without democracy, our heart cannot live without love and our soul cannot live without religion”. Whitman was greatly influenced by the sacred scriptures of the India. As he followed the teachings of Lord Buddha and the scriptures of Hinduism. The poem O! Captain Ny Captain! Describes the selfless deeds and hardship of the captain Abraham Lincoln who is no more but his bravery, adventure, and endless will cannot be erased from the memory of the people of the universe, and everyone is lamenting and shedding his or her tears on the death of the great personality of America. Not only human beings are sad but the nature is also lamenting for the great soul. The setting of the poem is pastoral which describes the gloomy mood of nature. In the first stanza, the speaker expresses his relief that the ship has reached its home port at last and describes hearing people cheering. Despite the celebration on land and successful voyage, the speaker reveals that his captain’ s dead body is lying on the deck. In the second stanza, the speaker implores the captain to rise up and hears the bell, wishing the dead man could witness the elation. Every one adored the captain, and the speaker admits that his death feels like a horrible and haunted dream. in the final stanza, the speaker juxtaposes his feelings of mourning and pride. Whitman wrote this poem after president Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. it is an extended metaphor intended to moralize Lincoln’s life and work. The captain represents the assassinated president, the ship represents the war- weathered nation following the Civil War, the prize won represents the salvaged union. The speaker of the poem torn between relief and despair, captures America’s confusion at the end of the Civil War.
4. How did Henrik Ibsen contribute to the growth of modern American Drama?
Ans. In the late 19th century, the playwright Henrik Ibsen completely rewrote the rules of drama with a realism that we still see in theatres today. He turned the European stage away from what it had become – a plaything and distraction for the bored – and introduced a new order of moral analysis.
Without fairy tale figures and unlikely plots, Ibsen brought his audience into regular people’s homes, where the bourgeois kept their carefully guarded secrets. He then placed the conflicts that arose from challenging assumptions and direct confrontations against a very realistic middle-class background and developed them with piercing dialogue and meticulous attention to detail.
Ibsen was rising through the ranks and was well known in the theatre community for not following societal norms and refusing to follow the rules of the theatre of that time. His plays were based around realism and not the basic entertainment plot that most plays revolved around. This sat well with the new intelligentsia that yearned for something to think about while watching these plays instead of the mainstream plays made with the sole purpose of entertaining the audience. Some of these plays included A Doll’s House, Ghosts, and An Enemy Of The People.
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IGNOU BEGC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23
1. Do you agree with the view that the twentieth century short story primarily offers perceptions on human characters? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Ans. In the first half of the 20th century the appeal of the short story continued to grow. Literally hundreds of writers—including, as it seems, nearly every major dramatist, poet, and novelist—published thousands of excellent stories. William Faulkner suggested that writers often try their hand at poetry, find it too difficult, go on to the next most demanding form, the short story, fail at that, and only then settle for the novel. In the 20th century Germany, France, Russia, and the U.S. lost what had once appeared to be their exclusive domination of the form. Innovative and commanding writers emerged in places that had previously exerted little influence on the genre: Sicily, for example, produced Luigi Pirandello; Prague, Franz Kafka; Japan, Akutagawa Ryūnosuke; Argentina, Jorge Luis Borges. Literary journals with international circulation, such as Ford Madox Ford’s Transatlantic Review, Scribner’s Magazine, and Harriet Weaver’s Egoist, provided a steady and prime exposure for young writers.
As the familiarity with it increased, the short story form itself became more varied and complex. The fundamental means of structuring a story underwent a significant change. The overwhelming or unique event that usually informed the 19th-century story fell out of favour with the storywriter of the early 20th century, who grew more interested in subtle actions and unspectacular events. Sherwood Anderson, one of the most influential U.S. writers of the early 20th century, observed that the common belief in his day was that stories had to be built around a plot, a notion that, in Anderson’s opinion, appeared to poison all storytelling. His own aim was to achieve form, not plot, although form was more elusive and difficult.
The record of the short story in the 20th century is dominated by this increased sensitivity to—and experimentation with—form. Although the popular writers of the century (like O. Henry in the U.S. and Paul Morand in France) may have continued to structure stories according to plot, the greater artists turned elsewhere for structure, frequently eliciting the response from cursory readers that “nothing happens in these stories.” Narratives like Ernest Hemingway’s “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” (1933) may seem to have no structure at all, so little physical action develops; but stories of this kind are actually structured around a psychological, rather than physical, conflict. In several of Hemingway’s stories (as in many by D.H. Lawrence, Katherine Mansfield, and others), physical action and event are unimportant except insofar as the actions reveal the psychological underpinnings of the story.
2. Discuss the major theme of All My Sons.
Ans. Arthur Miller was born on October 17, 1915, in New York City. He spent his early years in comfortable circumstances, until his father, Isidore, a prosperous manufacturer, lost his wealth in the economic devastation of the Great Depression. After completing high school, Miller had to take a job in a Manhattan warehouse. He had not been much of a student, but after reading Dostoevsky’s great novel The Brothers Karamazov he decided that he was destined to become a writer. He had trouble getting into college but was eventually accepted at the University of Michigan, where he began his apprenticeship as a writer and won several student awards for his work. After college he returned to New York and worked briefly as a radio script writer, then tried his hand at writing for the stage commercially. His first Broadway play, The Man Who Had All the Luck (1944), closed after only four performances, but it did win a Theater Guild award and revealed the young writer’s potential. He had more success with Focus (1945), a novel dealing with anti-Semitism. In fact, at the time he wrote All My Sons (1947), his first dramatic hit, he was better known as a writer of fiction than as a playwright. All My Sons established Miller’s standing as a bright and extremely talented dramatist. The play had a good run and won Miller his first New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award. Even the least favorable commentators recognized the playwright’s great promise. Miller followed All My Sons with three of his most critically and commercially successful plays: Death of Salesman (1949), The Crucible (1953), and A View from the Bridge (1955). In these works, Miller attempted to show that tragedy could be written about ordinary people struggling to maintain personal dignity at critical moments in their lives. With these plays, Miller joined Eugene O’Neill and Tennessee Williams in what in the post-World War II years was generally recognized as the great triumvirate of the American theater. Miller, a political leftist, gained some notoriety in the 1950s when he refused to cooperate with the House Un-American Activities Committee and was held in contempt of Congress. From this experience he found thematic material for one of his most famous and controversial plays, The Crucible, which focuses on the Salem Witch Trials of 1692. After the 1955 production of A View from the Bridge, Miller took a nine-year hiatus from play-writing. In the interim, Miller married and divorced the famous actress, Marilyn Monroe. He did adapt one of his stories, The Misfits as a screen vehicle for his celebrated wife but did not complete another Broadway play until 1964, when both After the Fall and Incident at Vichy were produced. The former play, considered Miller’s most experimental play, is also his darkest work, with many autobiographical parallels. His last Broadway success was The Price, produced in 1968. After his next play, The Creation of the World and Other Business (1972), failed on Broadway, Miller stopped premiering works in New York. He continued to write plays, and enjoyed some success, but nothing that matched that of his earliest works. Many of his later plays were short one-act plays and works comprised of sketches or vignettes.
3. Examine the growth of American drama during the seventeen, Eighteen and nineteenth centuries.
Ans. This history of American literature begins with the arrival of English-speaking Europeans in what would become the United States. At first American literature was naturally a colonial literature, by authors who were Englishmen and who thought and wrote as such. John Smith, a soldier of fortune, is credited with initiating American literature. His chief books included A True Relation of…Virginia…(1608) and The Generall Historie of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles (1624). Although these volumes often glorified their author, they were avowedly written to explain colonizing opportunities to Englishmen. In time, each colony was similarly described: Daniel Denton’s Brief Description of New York (1670), William Penn’s Brief Account of the Province of Pennsylvania (1682), and Thomas Ashe’s Carolina (1682) were only a few of many works praising America as a land of economic promise.
Such writers acknowledged British allegiance, but others stressed the differences of opinion that spurred the colonists to leave their homeland. More important, they argued questions of government involving the relationship between church and state. The attitude that most authors attacked was jauntily set forth by Nathaniel Ward of Massachusetts Bay in The Simple Cobler of Aggawam in America (1647). Ward amusingly defended the status quo and railed at colonists who sponsored newfangled notions. A variety of counterarguments to such a conservative view were published. John Winthrop’s Journal (written 1630–49) told sympathetically of the attempt of Massachusetts Bay Colony to form a theocracy—a state with God at its head and with its laws based upon the Bible. Later defenders of the theocratic ideal were Increase Mather and his son Cotton. William Bradford’s History of Plymouth Plantation (through 1646) showed how his pilgrim Separatists broke completely with Anglicanism. Even more radical than Bradford was Roger Williams, who, in a series of controversial pamphlets, advocated not only the separation of church and state but also the vesting of power in the people and the tolerance of different religious beliefs.
IGNOU BEGC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23
4. Write a critical comment on the genre of The Scarlet Letter.
Ans. In combining realistic and imaginative elements to tell a moving and dreamlike story, The Scarlet Letter is an example of the romance genre. In fact, the novel’s original title was The Scarlet Letter: A Romance. While today we think of romances as love stories, and The Scarlet Letter does contain love scenes between its two protagonists, the term romance as Hawthorne uses it refers to a work of fiction that does not adhere strictly to reality. In the preface of the book, Hawthorne defines romance as taking place “somewhere between the real world and fairy-land, where the Actual and the Imaginary may meet, and each imbue itself with the nature of the other.” The Scarlet Letter mixes the actual in the form of a historically accurate setting, believable characters, and realistic dialogue with elements of the imaginary, such as the giant “A” that lights up the night sky and the strange mark burned into Dimmesdale’s chest. These otherworldly effects heighten the sense of drama in the story, and convey the feeling that while the exact story is probably not true, it conveys a deeper emotional truth that surpasses the specifics of the tale.
The Scarlet Letter also qualifies as a romance in that it incorporates fantastic elements while remaining emotionally and psychologically realistic. Hawthorne wrote in the preface of another of his romances, The House of the Seven Gables, that a romance “sins unpardonably so far as it may swerve aside from the truth of the human heart.” In The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne underscores the emotional veracity of his tale by qualifying the fantastical elements as possibly the result of the characters’ heightened emotional states. For example, when the A appears in the sky, he leaves open the possibility it is an optical illusion caused by Dimmesdale’s guilty conscience: “We impute it, therefore, solely to the disease in his own eye and heart that the minister… beheld there the appearance of an immense letter.” Similarly, Hawthorne suggests some witnesses claimed there was no mark on Dimmesdale’s chest when he died on the scaffold. These acknowledgments that characters’ emotions influence their interpretation of events bolsters the sense of psychological accuracy in the novel.
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IGNOU BEGC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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BEGC 105 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23
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section A question 3 and 4 answers are missing