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IGNOU BANC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BANC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
There are three Sections in the Assignment. Answer all the questions in all the three sections.
Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following questions in the about 250 words. Each question carries 10 marks in Assignment three.
Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words each. 20×2
a. Describe practicing anthropology. Discuss the differences between academic and practicing anthropologists.
―Applied anthropology‖ refers to the use of anthropology outside the academy. Application has always been an important part of the discipline, and the story of applied anthropology is both complex and instructive. This essay will look at how application in anthropology began, how it changed, and what these changes may mean for the discipline as a whole. Special attention will be paid to the experience of anthropology with international development work, as one of the more significant domains of application.
To begin, it will be useful to distinguish three different categories of anthropologists: academic anthropologists; applied anthropologists; and anthropologist practitioners. Academically-based anthropologists, most of whom have full-time university jobs and PhDs, engage in the traditional pursuits of teaching, research and publication. Their primary mission is an intellectual one, that of generating knowledge through traditional scholarly activity. Applied anthropologists are also university-based PhDs. They, too, engage in research, teaching and publication, but they tend, in their work, to focus on the application of anthropological research and knowledge to concrete problems. They may, for example, spend a considerable portion of their time working on outside projects, while retaining their university positions.
Is the distinction between ―applied anthropology‖ (carried out by university academics), and ―practice‖ (done by non-academic anthropologists), really an important one? Some writers have argued that all anthropology is to some extent applied, and that even university teaching is a form of practice. Johnston (2008: 172) considers ―practicing‖ anthropology as a common dimension of all anthropological work that has a problem focus, whether inside or outside the academy. Checker‘s (2009:162) definition of practicing anthropology as “work that travels outside of academic realms to inform public discourse on a specific topic” is broader still, and would seem to include almost anything done by anthropologists. For many practitioners, however, the distinctions are important, pointing as they do to a key difference in circumstance – the base of support from which one‘s anthropology is ―done.‖ The security and support available to most applied anthropologists holding university positions is far greater than that enjoyed by practitioners, who are very much part of the civilian workforce. This simple fact influences a great deal about how practitioners approach their work, the kinds of things they do, and their relationships with others.
One area that has attracted the attention and energy of practitioners and applied anthropologists alike has been that of international development, and Section 5 of this essay will look at this in more detail. Anthropology‘s encounter with development has been one of the most interesting examples of how the discipline has interacted with the world, revealing both anthropology‘s usefulness as well as its limitations.
“Critical understanding of disciplinary history shows that application and practice has historic precedents within anthropology. That is, the basic discipline is based on there being an anthropology of application and practice. Clearly, anthropology emerged from the need for both policy research and training in applied anthropology, not the other way around. The first academic departments and research organizations were motivated, justified, and organized on the basis of the need for application. Practical application of anthropology occurred without there developing a foundation “pure” discipline.” (van Willigen 2009:392-393) There are a number of excellent analyses of the development of application and practice in the United States (e.g., Fiske and Chambers 1996; Brondo and Bennett 2012; Eddy and Partridge 1987), and in Britain (Grillo and Rew 1985).
The conflict mobilized well over half of all US anthropologists into some form of work in support of the war effort. (Eggan, cited in Price 2002: 16). Anthropologists did a wide variety of things during and immediately after the war. These included intelligence activity (see Price, 1998, 2002, 2008 and 2011 for an exhaustive analysis), work in the notorious internment camps for Japanese-Americans under the War Relocation Authority (Suzuki 1981; Starn 1986), training for administrators for newly recaptured Japanese held territories, and studies of culture and personality. Ruth Benedict‘s Chrysanthemum and the Sword, (1946) perhaps the best known of these studies, was one example of a research project which had a clear importance for the conduct – and the aftermath- of the war.
IGNOU BANC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23
b. Critically analyse the challenges and dilemmas faced by the practicing anthropologists.
In the previous chapters we have learnt about the development of practicing (or applied) anthropology. Now that we are equipped with enough knowledge to make ourselves comfortable with the subject, we are ready to learn about the vital concern an anthropologist should keep in mind when s/he applies or practices her/his skills. Among many concerns, an important concern is the issue of ethics. This unit thus will deal with what ethics is, how it came to be used, what its role in application and practice is, what its need is and how its use influences the final creation of an anthropologist. Ethics may mean moral conduct, codes, beliefs, values, integrity, conscience, principles, etc. It is a system of moral principles that regulates the appropriate demeanour of an individual or a group. Now that we know what ethics mean, you must be thinking how this comes into the turf of anthropology. We know from our readings of our earlier texts that anthropology is basically a field science. And this designation is what has led us to act as applied or practicing anthropologists in different organisations. Our main purpose for being in the field to investigate and research brings us in contact with many dealings. The place where we investigate, the people we study, their lives, relationships, equations, etc., are their own which we enter and somehow try to offer to the world with academic, intellectual or professional intentions.
ETHICAL CONCERNS IN ANTHROPOLOGY’S HISTORY
With the growth of new ideas and notions anthropology has flourished immensely. Fields of investigation are increasing with great rapidity. Along with it the growth of applied actions has given birth to fresh challenges and confrontations. In turn this builds new concerns related to ethics. To delve into history, we find that deliberations on ethical code always occurred with it becoming a major issue of concern during the Vietnam War. The anxiety was aggravated by research projects which were highly ill devised and were conducted without any moral ethos. These were “embarrassing disclosures that anthropologists had cooperated in government counter insurgency research in Latin America in the early 1960s and in Southeast Asia in the late 1960s.” (FluehrLobban, 1991: 62). In fact much before the Vietnam War or the debacles of the 1960s, in 1919, questions were raised by Franz Boas in a letter to The Nation where he openly alleged four anthropologists working as spies under the façade of their job as researchers. In Boas’ own words, he stated that, “a person, who uses science as a cover for political spying, who demeans himself to pose before a foreign government as an investigator and asks for assistance in his alleged researches in order to carry on, under this cloak, his political machinations, prostitutes science in an unpardonable way and forfeits the right to be classed as a scientist.” (Boas 1919, in Weaver 1973:51)
Before the Vietnam issues occurred, the research project which faced much ridicule was Project Camelot. It was started in 1964 under the management of the Special Operations Research Office (SORO) of the U.S. Army. This initiative was created to fund research in order to bring a stop to proliferation of communism in South America. This was to be done by the use of social research methods to contradict insurgency research. The scheme at a larger level was to include in its gamut of study, Asia, Africa and Europe besides Latin America. In this dubious venture, anthropologists too were taken in, to conduct research. However as luck would have it, the dealings of this undertaking was made known to the Latin American press slyly even before the project gained any momentum. The project and its model faced powerful local response and the project was aborted. However the inclusion of anthropologists in it, left scars within the discipline’s ideologies. Anthropologists after this debacle of questioned virtues, tried to reaffirm their academic position of scholars refuting vices like wars. There were protestations by the locals and the academics as the project was considered to have a fundamentalist bias and research was said to have powerful political insinuations. In the presence of overtly subjugated classes in these areas, many people did not find the use of social sciences to sustain social tranquility as approving. To explain simply, the involvement of social scientist to conduct research which obviously meant encroaching on the undertakings of other countries was not acceptable (van Willigen, 2002).
DISPUTES IN ETHICAL USAGES
When we deal with ethics and ethical concerns, there are some areas which clearly stand out and cannot be ignored. It is these concerns that we will discuss in the following paragraphs.
The Dispute of Confidentiality
In anthropological research the investigator may in many societies have to live and work among people and societies, whom they are not familiar with. Even if there is familiarity of some sort between the researcher and the researched, there may be norms which the researcher would have to abide by. One cannot forget the fact that it is the investigator who is the “taker” and thus placed in a supposedly subordinate position. It is of utmost importance that great care must be taken as to how one must behave among a society studied and represent them later in their writings in a way that their lives are not compromised with in any way. Rapport building and creating a relationship of utmost trust is the base of a healthy relationship between both so as to be beneficial to the researcher and not harmful to the researched. The trust created in the minds of the respondents, allows them to divulge a lot about their own society, however it is the researcher’s responsibility to protect their identities and retain confidentiality if sought for. Rapport and friendship built may lead to the revealing of information which might be helpful to the researcher but may turn to be damaging for the respondent and her/his community. It is the task of the researcher to comprehend such information and either not use it or if it is of vital need for one’s investigation, use them in such a way by not giving away the identity of the information giver. Mostly the informants give away information that might be damaging to them, without realising it due to their feeling of hospitality towards the researcher or also because they might be in awe of the “power” that the anthropologist might hold. They also reveal things unwittingly due to the need to flaunt their knowledge or because they seek recognition.
The Dispute of Consent
The issue of confidentiality is in sync with the issue of consent. This is a major concern in the arguments of ethics. Before resorting to anonymity of respondents when needed, the bigger task at hand for the anthropological researcher is to seek permission to probe into their lives and culture. It is highly important that the researcher while taking consent also makes the prospective respondents aware of the fact that they will be getting involved in. The respondents should be aware of the necessity of the research work, the knowledge of the research funders, their objectives, the ultimate use of the findings and the effect that only these might have on them. Only when they are aware of these and give their consent to the researcher to proceed, can the investigation be called ethically sound.
The Dispute of Utility
Once the informants start giving data about themselves and their community, they might do so leisurely and abundantly. They would do so if they are assured of confidentiality. However the information gathered from the respondents may be used to dominate them. Once the research information gets into the hands of the sponsors it cannot be predicted they will always be put to use so as to benefit the communities studied. The knowledge may be used as a power to exploit them. Thus practicing anthropologists should create terms or ways by which the respondents would not have to suffer the “potential” harm later.
The Dispute of Knowledge and its Transmission
Transmission of knowledge means how findings are disseminated, that is usually through publication in the form of books, articles or reports. This is one of the important ethical issues that is connected to the practicing anthropologist. Practicing anthropologists are always confronted with how to distribute the knowledge they gather. It is their duty to circulate their findings so that it may be added to the already available knowledge for better productivity. It is but obvious that research only comes to an end when its results are learnt by all. Mostly practicing anthropologists need to publicise their work not just to provide help to the communities they work with, but also so that their work gets known both in the academic and non-academic worlds. In doing so, the anthropologist must be careful as what to reveal and what not to.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 10×2
a. Discuss the theories of health.
b. Describe the role of practicing anthropology in policy research.
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IGNOU BANC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Answer any two of the following questions in about 150 words each. 5×2
a. Epidemiology and public health
b. Role of anthropology in policy research
c. Participatory research
d. Development anthropology
e. Participatory Action Research and Evaluation
Answer the following questions in the about 250 words 10×3=30
a. Prepare a synopsis by identifying a topic that you can work on as a practicing
anthropologist. Use rapid assessment procedures (RAP) as a research technique.
b. Write a note on (a) SONDEO Technique and (b) participatory rural appraisal (PRA)
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IGNOU BANC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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