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IGNOU BANC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
There are three Sections in the Assignment. Answer all the questions in all the three sections.
Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following questions in the about 250 words. Each question carries 10 marks in Assignment three.
Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words each. 20×2
a. What is the human biological variation? Briefly examine the importance of Serological markers in understanding population variation.
The Blood group systems are a classical example for serological markers, which form a component of serology. The blood group systems have been studied by Anthropologists to understand population variation and in racial classification. A number of blood group systems were discovered. The following table depicts the list of Blood group systems.
Study of Biochemical variation refers to the understanding of population variation of Serum Proteins and Red Cell Enzymes. Anthropologists had studied these genetic markers with the primary aim of documenting genetic differences among various populations inhabiting different parts of the world and also for human racial classification. In this unit, our aim is to study these markers among Indigenous populations of India. 6.3.1 Serum Proteins and Their Distribution Serum proteins are the proteins present in blood plasma. Serum proteins offer many functions which comprise transport of lipids, hormones, vitamins and metals in the circulatory system. Some of the serum protein markers such as Haptoglobins (Hp) and Transferrin (Tf) were widely investigated by anthropologists/human biologists. Three allelic genes Tfc, Tfb, Tfd controls the Tf system. The Hp system is controlled by two allelic genes Hp1 and Hp2. a. The gene frequencies of serological and biochemical markers showed variation among Indigenous populations inhabiting different geographical zones of India.; north, west, east, central and south.
IGNOU BANC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23
b. Briefly discuss B.S. Guha’s classification of Indian populations.
Race refers to classification of humans into relatively large and distinct population groups based on appearance through heritable phenotypic characteristics, often influenced by and correlated with culture, ethnicity and socio-economic status. Race is a concept, applied in various senses, even by human biologists. In the present context we are concerned with anthropological or biological concept of race. As a biological term, race denotes genetically divergent human populations that can be marked by common phenotypes.
Definitions of Race
Among humans, race has no cladistics significance- all human beings belong to the same hominid subspecies, ‘Homo sapiens sapiens’, each differing from other populations in the relative commonness of certain hereditary trait.
- Hooton (1926) has defined race in essentialist concept as “A great division of mankind, characterised as a group sharing certain combination of features, derived from their common descent, and constitute a vague physical background, usually more or less obscured by individual variations, and realised best in a composite picture.”
- Mayr (1969) has given the taxonomic concept of definition as “A subspecies is an aggregate of phenotypically similar populations of a species, inhabiting a geographic subdivision differing taxonomically from other populations of the species.”
- Dobzhansky (1970) has defined race in population concept as “Race are genetically distinct Mendelian populations. They are neither individuals nor particular genotypes; they consist of individuals who differ genetically among themselves.”
- Montagu (1972) has defined race in genetical context as “a population which differs in the frequency of some gene or genes, which actually exchange or capable of exchanging genes across boundaries and separate it from other populations of the species.”
- Templeton (1998) has given the lineage concept of definition as “A subspecies is a distinct evolutionary lineage within a species. This definition requires that a subspecies, genetically differentiated due to barriers occurring in genetic exchange that have persisted for long periods. The subspecies must have historical continuity in addition to current genetic differentiations.”
- In short, the term ‘race’ is applied to a physically distinctive groups of people, on the basis of their difference from other groups in skin colour, head shape, hair type and physique. Anthropologists take the word ‘race’ in its zoological sense. “If the people of one race may be distinguished by physical markings, then they constitute a race.”
Racial Classification of Dr. B.S. Guha (1937)
The racial classification of Dr. B. S. Guha’s is based on anthropometric measurements, which were collected during his investigations from 1930 to 1933. Guha traced six major racial strains and nine sub-types among the modem Indian population.
- The Negrito:
These people are considered as the first comers and the true autochthones of India. They are characterized by dark skin colour, short stature, and frizzly hair with long or short spirals. The head is small, medium, long or broad with bulbous forehead. The nose is flat and broad. The lips are averted and thick. The best representatives of this type are the Kadars, the Irulas, the Puniyans, etc. of South India. Such type of characters is also visible among the tribes living in the Rajmahal Hills. In respect of the head form and hair form, the Indian Negrito strain resembles more to the Melanesian Pygmies than to the Andamanese or African Pygmies.
- The Proto-Australoid:
This group is considered as the second oldest racial group in India characterized by dolichocephalic head, broad and flat nose (platyrrhine nose) which is depressed at the root. They are further short in height, dark brown to nearly black in skin colour. The hair is wavy or curly. Supraorbital ridges are prominent. These features are found among almost all the tribes of the Central and Southern India. The best examples are the Oraons, the Santals, and the Mundas of Chotanagpur region; the Chenchus, the Kurumbas, the Yeruvas and the Badagas of Southern India; and the Bhils, Kols of Central and Western India.
- The Mongoloid:
This type of people is distinguished by scanty growth of hair on face and body. The eyes are obliquely set and show the presence of epicanthic fold. The face is flat with prominent cheekbones and hair is straight. This group can be divided into two sub-groups, such as Palaeo-Mongoloid and the Tibeto-Mongoloid. The former one is further sub-divided as long headed and broad-headed. In Palaeo-Mongoloid group, especially the longheaded type possesses long head, medium stature, and medium nose. Their cheekbones are prominent and skin colour varies from dark to light brown. The face is short and flat. They are the inhabitants of the sub-Himalayan region; the concentration is most remarkable in Assam and Burma Frontier. The Sema Nagas of Assam and the Limbus of Nepal are the best examples.
The other sub-division of palaeo-Mongoloid is the broad-headed type who possesses broad head with round face, dark skin colour and medium nose. The eyes are obliquely set and epicanthic fold is more prominent than that of the long-headed type. This type has been identified among the hill tribes of Chittagong, e.g. the chakmas, the Maghs, etc.
Second sub-division of Mongoloid is the Tibeto-Mongoloids who show no further divisions. Their physical features are characterized by a broad and massive head, tall stature, long and flat face, and medium to long nose. The eyes are oblique with marked epicanthic fold. Hair on body and face is almost absent. The skin colour is light brown. The best examples are the Tibetans of Bhutan and Sikkim.
- The Mediterranean:
This group is divided into three distinct racial types, these are:
The people are characterized by long head with bulbous forehead, projected with a high vault. They also show medium stature, small and broad nose, narrow face and pointed chin. The hair on face and body is scanty. The skin colour is dark. These people probably introduced megalithic culture to India. The Dravidian speaking people of South India exhibit the main concentration of this type. The Tamil Brahmins of Madura, Nairs of Cochin, and Telugu Brahmins are the examples.
- The Mediterranean:
The features include long head with arched forehead, narrow nose, medium to tall stature and light skin colour. Their chin is well developed, hair colour is dark, eye colour is brownish to dark and the hair on face and body is plentiful. These people live in the regions like Uttar Pradesh, Bombay, Bengal, Malabar, etc. The true types are the Namboodiri Brahmins of Cochin, Brahmins of Allahabad and Bengali Brahmins. It may be assumed that probably this type was responsible for the building up of Indus Valley civilization.
- The Oriental:
These people resemble the Mediterranean in almost all physical features except the nose, which is long and convex in this case. The best examples are the Punjabi Chattris, the Benia of Rajputana, and the Pathans.
- The Western Brachycephals:
This racial group is divided into three types, which are:
- The Alpinoid:
This type shows broad head, medium stature, prominent nose and rounded face. The hair on face and body is abundant and the skin colour is light. This type is found among the Bania of Gujarat, the Kathi of Kathiawar and the Kayasthas of Bengal,
- The Dinarics:
This type is characterized by broad head. The nose is very long and often convex. The face is long and stature in general is very tall. The skin colour is dark; eye and hair colours are also dark. The representative populations are found in Bengal, Orissa and Coorg. The Brahmins of Bengal and Mysore are the best examples. Both the Alpino and the dinaric people entered into India through Baluchistan, Sind, Gujarat, and Maharashtra. They penetrated Ceylon from Kannada. The presence of this type has been noted in the Indus Valley site, Tinnevalley and Hyderabad.
- The Armenoid:
This type shows a resemblance with the Dinarics in physical characters. Only difference is that, among the Dinarics the shape of occiput is much developed and the nose is very prominent. The Parsis of Bombay exhibit typical Armenoid characteristics. The Bengali Vaidyas and Kayasthas sometimes show the features of this type.
- The Nordics:
The people are characterized by long head, arched forehead. The nose is straight and high bridged. All are tall statured with strong jaw and robust body built. The eye colour is blue or grey. The body colour is fair which reddish. This element is scattered in different parts of Northern India, especially in the Punjab and Rajputana. The Kho of chitral, the Red Kaffirs, and the Khatash are some other representatives of this type. The Nordics came from the north, probably from Southeast Russia and Southwest Siberia, thereafter penetrated into India through Central Asia.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 10×2
a. Briefly discuss the influence of Bio-cultural factors on Diseases with suitable examples
b. Define Demography. Briefly discuss variousmortality measures.
c. Briefly comment on various sources of Demographic Data.
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IGNOU BANC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Answer any two of the following questions in about 150 words each. 5×2
a. Chalcolithic culture and its skeletal remains
b. mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
c. Genetic Drift
d. Population vsMendelian population
e.Physical Anthropology vs Biological Anthropology
Answer the following questions in the about 250 words 10×3=30
a. Define craniometry. Briefly discuss the procedure for recording Bi-zygomatic breadth and upper facial height
b. Describe the procedure for phenotyping of ABO blood group system
c. What is Dermatoglyphics? Briefly comment on the classification of Fingerprints with
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IGNOU BANC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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