FREE IGNOU BHIC-133 HISTORY OF INDIA FROM C. 1206-1707 in English Solved Assignment 2023-2024 , FREE IGNOU BHIC-133 Solved Assignment in English 2023-2024
- 1 FREE IGNOU BHIC-133 Solved Assignment in English 2023-2024
- 2 Q1. Who were zamindars? Discuss their rights and perquisites.
- 3 Q2. Discuss personnel of trade and commercial practices under the Mughals.
- 4 3. How was the Portuguese trade in India was financed?
- 5 4. Give a brief account of the sufi orders in India during the Sultanate period.
- 6 5. Briefly discuss the common characteristic features associated with monotheistic movements.
- 7 1. Alauddin Khalji’s market control measures
- 8 2. Bairam Khan’s Regency
- 9 8. English East India Company
- 10 9. Military Technology
- 11 10. Quranic Calligraphy
- 12 The Advantages of studying IGNOU Solved Assignments are given below:
- 13 Can I score good marks by getting solved assignments?
FREE IGNOU BHIC-133 Solved Assignment in English 2023-2024
TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
Course code: BHIC-133
Assignment Code: BHIC-133/ASST/TMA/2023-24
Assignment – I
Answer the following in about 500 words each.
Q1. Who were zamindars? Discuss their rights and perquisites.
The zamindar system, predominantly established in the Indian subcontinent, was a crucial cog in the agrarian setup and land revenue collection method introduced by various rulers over the centuries. The term ‘zamindar’ originates from the Persian words ‘zamin’, meaning ‘land’, and ‘dar’, implying ‘holder’. Thus, a zamindar was essentially a landholder. But the role, rights, and responsibilities of a zamindar were more elaborate than the simplistic definition suggests. FREE IGNOU BHIC-133 Solved Assignment in English 2023-2024
The genesis of the zamindari system can be traced back to ancient and medieval times when local chieftains and tribal leaders held tracts of lands. However, it was under the Mughal Empire, especially during the reign of Akbar, that the system took a structured form. The British, during their rule in India, further consolidated and institutionalized this system, primarily to streamline revenue collection.
Rights of the Zamindars
- Land Ownership: At the core of the zamindari system was the concept of land ownership. Zamindars, being landholders, had the right to possess vast tracts of land, often spanning entire villages or even multiple villages.
- Collection of Revenue: One of the primary functions of a zamindar was to collect revenue from the peasants or cultivators working on his land. The revenue was then divided between the zamindar and the ruling power (Mughal emperors or later, the British).
- Judicial Powers: In many areas, especially during early Mughal rule and pre-colonial periods, zamindars held judicial powers. They could arbitrate and pass judgments on disputes within their dominion.
- Military Privileges: Under certain rulers, zamindars were required to maintain a quota of armed forces to assist the central authority when needed. In return, they were granted certain military privileges and were also entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining law and order in their respective regions.
- Right to Transfer and Lease Land: Zamindars had the right to transfer, sell, or lease parts of their land. This right became especially potent under British rule when the Permanent Settlement Act transformed them into absolute proprietors.
Perquisites of Being a Zamindar
- Social Status: In the societal hierarchy of pre-colonial and colonial India, zamindars occupied a prestigious position. They were seen as not just landowners but also as leaders and decision-makers of their regions.
- Economic Advantage: The economic model was skewed in favor of the zamindars. They got a substantial share of the revenue, often without participating in the actual cultivation process.
- Cultural Influence: Many zamindars played pivotal roles in promoting arts, literature, and culture. Their courts often patronized poets, musicians, and artists.
- Political Power: Given their influence over large areas and populations, zamindars often wielded significant political power. They were crucial allies for rulers, both local and foreign.
- Autonomy: Although they were under the larger governance framework, many zamindars enjoyed a great deal of autonomy in their territories. They made crucial decisions, both administrative and financial, for their lands.
Decline of the Zamindari System
Post-independence, the zamindari system came under severe criticism for perpetuating feudalism and creating socioeconomic disparities. India, in its quest for agrarian reform, initiated a series of land reform legislations. The objective was clear: abolish intermediaries like zamindars and ensure that the cultivator had direct ownership of the land. Over time, the zamindari system was dismantled, and the rights once enjoyed by zamindars were curtailed.
The zamindari system, while being an integral part of the subcontinent’s agrarian history, remains contentious. While zamindars played pivotal roles in various facets of society, the system also led to significant socioeconomic imbalances. The rights and perquisites enjoyed by the zamindars made them dominant figures in their territories, often at the expense of the peasants and cultivators who worked the lands. Over time, with changing political and social dynamics, the system became redundant, giving way to more egalitarian land ownership structures.
Q2. Discuss personnel of trade and commercial practices under the Mughals.
The Mughal Empire, which spanned the Indian subcontinent between the early 16th century and mid-18th century, was marked by significant developments in trade, commerce, and urbanization. The empire’s vast expanse facilitated both inland and overseas commerce. The robustness of the Mughal economy was contingent upon a myriad of professionals and the evolving commercial practices they engaged in.
Personnel Involved in Trade
- Zamindars and Jagirdars: These were landowners and estate managers who played a crucial role in facilitating local trade. Often, trade routes passed through their territories, and they ensured security and levied tolls or taxes.
- Sahukars and Mahajans: Essentially moneylenders and financiers, they played a vital role in funding commercial ventures. They also acted as indigenous bankers.
- Bohra and Khatri Merchants: These were prominent trading communities that actively engaged in commerce across regions. They were known for their business acumen and networks that spanned beyond the subcontinent.
- Port Officials (Mir-i-Saman): These officials were responsible for regulating port activities, ensuring the payment of customs duties, and overseeing the loading and unloading of goods.
- Khwajas and Banjaras: The Khwajas were traders who dealt with luxury items and participated in long-distance trade. Banjaras, on the other hand, were nomadic traders, often facilitating the movement of goods across challenging terrains.
- Pedlars and Shopkeepers: These were local traders and merchants who catered to everyday needs and operated within towns, cities, or villages.
- Standardized Currency: The Mughal period saw the widespread use of a standardized currency, most notably the silver rupee, which facilitated trade. Mint towns were established to ensure the uniformity and authenticity of the coins.
- Sarais and Caravanserais: These were resting places for traders and their caravans. Strategically located along trade routes, they offered safety, food, and shelter to travelers, thereby promoting trade.
- Tariffs and Customs: The Mughals levied customs duties on goods, especially those for export. The rates varied depending on the type of commodity, with luxury items often attracting higher duties.
- Market Regulation (Bazaari System): Markets were established and regulated under the direct supervision of state officials. Prices of essential commodities were often fixed to prevent undue inflation and exploitation.
- Trade Guilds: Guilds were associations of merchants or artisans that regulated trade practices within specific industries. They established norms, ensured quality, and resolved disputes among members.
- Use of Promissory Notes: The Mughal trade system witnessed the use of “hundis” or promissory notes, which were essential instruments for credit and facilitated long-distance trade.
- Trade Fairs and Melas: Periodic fairs and gatherings were organized, offering platforms for traders from different regions to display and sell their goods. These events played a pivotal role in fostering trade and cultural exchanges.
The Mughal period was a golden era for trade and commerce in the Indian subcontinent. The empire’s extensive reach, coupled with its sophisticated administrative machinery, fostered an environment conducive to economic growth. The diverse personnel involved in trade, from local peddlers to influential merchant communities, showcased the vibrancy of the Mughal commercial ecosystem. Simultaneously, evolving practices—be it the establishment of caravanserais or the use of promissory notes—underscored the adaptability and dynamism of the Mughal trade system.
FREE IGNOU BHIC-133 Solved Assignment in English 2023-2024
Assignment – II
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.
3. How was the Portuguese trade in India was financed?
4. Give a brief account of the sufi orders in India during the Sultanate period.
5. Briefly discuss the common characteristic features associated with monotheistic movements.
Assignment – III
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.
1. Alauddin Khalji’s market control measures
2. Bairam Khan’s Regency
8. English East India Company
9. Military Technology
10. Quranic Calligraphy
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