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IGNOU MPCE 031 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Submission Date :
- 31st March 2031 (if enrolled in the July 2031 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2031 (if enrolled in the January 2031 session).
SECTION – A
1. Discuss the managerial implications of the expectancy theory and equity theory of motivation.
Ans. The expectancy theory was proposed by Victor Vroom of Yale School of Management in 1964. Vroom stresses and focuses on outcomes, and not on needs unlike Maslow and Herzberg.
The theory states that the intensity of a tendency to perform in a particular manner is dependent on the intensity of an expectation that the performance will be followed by a definite outcome and on the appeal of the outcome to the individual.
The Expectancy theory states that employee’s motivation is an outcome of:
how much an individual wants a reward (Valence),
the assessment that the likelihood that the effort will lead to expected performance (Expectancy) and
the belief that the performance will lead to reward (Instrumentality).
In short, Valence is the significance associated by an individual about the expected outcome. It is an expected and not the actual satisfaction that an employee expects to receive after achieving the goals.
Expectancy is the faith that better efforts will result in better performance. Expectancy is influenced by factors such as possession of appropriate skills for performing the job, availability of right resources, availability of crucial information and getting the required support for completing the job.
Instrumentality is the faith that if you perform well, then a valid outcome will be there. Instrumentality is affected by factors such as believe in the people who decide who receives what outcome, the simplicity of the process deciding who gets what outcome, and clarity of relationship between performance and outcomes.
Thus, the expectancy theory concentrates on the following three relationships:
Effort-performance relationship: What is the likelihood that the individual’s effort be recognized in his performance appraisal?
Performance-reward relationship: It talks about the extent to which the employee believes that getting a good performance appraisal leads to organizational rewards.
Rewards-personal goals relationship: It is all about the attractiveness or appeal of the potential reward to the individual.
Vroom was of view that employees consciously decide whether to perform or not at the job. This decision solely depended on the employee’s motivation level which in turn depends on three factors of expectancy, valence and instrumentality.
Advantages of the Expectancy Theory
- It is based on self-interest individual who want to achieve maximum satisfaction and who wants to minimize dissatisfaction.
- This theory stresses upon the expectations and perception; what is real and actual is immaterial.
- It emphasizes on rewards or pay-offs.
- It focuses on psychological extravagance where final objective of individual is to attain maximum pleasure and least pain.
Limitations of the Expectancy Theory
The expectancy theory seems to be idealistic because quite a few individuals perceive high degree correlation between performance and rewards.
The application of this theory is limited as reward is not directly correlated with performance in many organizations. It is related to other parameters also such as position, effort, responsibility, education, etc.
Implications of the Expectancy Theory
- The managers can correlate the preferred outcomes to the aimed performance levels.
- The managers must ensure that the employees can achieve the aimed performance levels.
- The deserving employees must be rewarded for their exceptional performance.
- The reward system must be fair and just in an organization.
- Organizations must design interesting, dynamic and challenging jobs.
The employee’s motivation level should be continually assessed through various techniques such as questionnaire, personal interviews, etc.
Motivation Theories are used by organizational and behavioural experts to help people in understanding what motivates them and how organizations can fit employees to the appropriate roles so that they do work that excites them and in the process, help themselves and the organization as well.
Of particular interest is the Need Theory which states that each of us is motivated according to Three Needs or the nAch (The Need for Achievement), nAff (The Need for Affiliation with others), and nPow (The Need for Power over others).
To explain, people who are motivated by nAch are those for whom academic achievements and the need to do work that stimulates their intellectual abilities. These individuals make their mark as scientists, problem solvers, and innovators.
On the other hand, those with nAff are usually found in People Management roles where their ability to get along and have superior people skills often find their match.
Lastly, those who have a need for power or nAff are found in positions of authority where their power over others makes them perform well.
Therefore, all of us are motivated by different needs.
Why the Movie Yuva Can Help Us Understand How the Need Theory Works in Practice
So, one might very well ask, what does this Need Theory have to do with the movie Yuva?
For those who have watched this Mani Ratnam flick, the Three Lead Roles in the movie portray how the Need Theory works in practice.
One of them is someone who aspires to go to the United States for Higher Education whereas the other two are motivated by a desire to help people and contribute to society and the third is driven by the insatiable need for power.
Indeed, each of the Lead Roles characterizes the Need Theory in Action wherein the nAch for the first character is dominant and the nAff and the nPow predominate in the other two.
Of course, real life is not all Black and White and hence, each of us can be driven by one or more or all of these needs.
As the movie progresses, we see the Need Theory in Action as each of the three leads goes about finding their niche according to their motivational needs.
As the saying goes, each according To Their Desires and in this context, it is well worth to watch this movie for the way in which motivation is understood.
How the Need Theory Plays Out in Campuses and Our Career and Life Choices
The movie has relevance to the Corporate world as well and as it is about Two Students and One of a similar age group finding their place in the world, one cannot but help relating to them as we are motivated according to specific needs.
More often than not, the story portrayed in the Movie Yuva plays itself out in Campuses and more so in B Schools that are often the Gateways to the Corporate World.
For instance, in our student days, we have encountered Three Different Student Representatives who were elected to the Student Council.
One of them was interested in Academic Excellence and was Brilliant in studies whereas one was interested in being around with People and helping them reaches their potential and the third was interested in exercising power over others.
Needless to say, upon graduation, one became an innovator and the second became a HR Manager and the third went into running a firm that specialized in helping others lobby with the government and other stakeholders.
Indeed, even in the movie, one can see how the Need Theory explains our different career choices and what we become later on in life and our ultimate life path.
Why Organizations Can Determine Fitment to Roles Using the Need Theory
Having said that, the Need Theory also states that each of us is motivated by a combination of needs and they also change over the course of our lives.
For instance, there are many Scientists who later in their careers, aspire to serve society in positions of power, and there are many Politicians who become interested in finding innovative solutions as well as many Sportspersons who go on to become Authority figures later on in life.
Indeed, the interplay between what we need to motivate us and how it changes over our lifetimes determines where we end up.
These insights are especially useful for Organizations as they fit employees to different roles.
The performance of employees who fit the roles is markedly superior to those who are in roles that do not motivate them.
The same applies to the organizations where we work wherein each of us has to find our niche and the organization that works in areas that motivates us.
The alternative is frustration and stress and not being able to perform neither to the benefit of oneself nor to the good of the organization.
Therefore, it is our suggestion that HR managers use the Need Theory well.
To Each According To Need
Last, it goes without saying that modern day workplaces have several employees who dislike their work, and worse, hate their jobs and the organizations.
These are not optimal career choices and hence, trained behavioural experts can guide the organizations and their workforces to achieve optimal and superlative performance.
Just like we have to find a likeminded life partner, the Need Theory is especially useful for students and mid career professionals alike when they make career choices.
To conclude, motivation theories are extensively used by HR professionals and we suggest that they watch the movie Yuva to better understand this theory.
2. Discuss the characteristic features and classification of different styles of leadership.
Ans. Every person is unique, so it follows that every manager’s approach to leading a team is unique. Typically, how an individual approaches management stems from their personality. Some leaders are strict, while others are lenient, some are mellow while others are high-strung. According to IMD.org, leadership styles in business can be categorized according to the leaders’ personality traits.
Leadership styles in business can be organized into five categories:
Each of these leadership styles has its benefits and its drawbacks, and each is more effective in certain workplace types than others. Sometimes, the most effective leadership style for a workplace depends on the mix of employee personalities present or the mix of experience levels in the workplace.
Autocratic Leadership Style
Autocratic leadership, also known as authoritarian leadership, is a leadership style where the boss has absolute control over decisions in the workplace. Team members are not asked for input; they are expected to comply with all decisions and orders made by their leader.
Autocratic leadership, like all the other leadership styles in management, has its benefits as well as its drawbacks. Benefits of autocratic leadership include saving time on the decision-making process, every member of the team knowing exactly what is expected of them and how they are to perform, and fewer strategy implementation errors because there are fewer people involved in the strategic planning process. Drawbacks include employees feeling like they are not personally valued, reduced motivation among team members and an increased risk of employee rebellion.
In certain workplaces, an autocratic leader is the ideal type of leader, according to St. Thomas University. These workplaces include high-stakes environments where human error can mean a safety or security risk, like the military. In other environments, like education and creative services, an autocratic leader can hinder their team and ultimately, undermine their organization’s success.
Democratic Leadership Style
In many ways, democratic leadership is the opposite of autocratic leadership. Democratic leadership, also sometimes known as participative leadership, is a leadership style characterized by the leader’s choice to involve team members in the decision-making process. In all decisions, the leader has the final say, but they make decisions according to the input they receive from his team.
Benefits of democratic leadership include:
- Employees feel motivated to participate in decision-making
- Employees feel like their input is valued
- Leaders have a diverse set of perspectives to consider
Democratic leadership is not the perfect leadership style, though. Drawbacks include a time-consuming decision-making process, as well as the potential for poor choices if the employees do not have the experience necessary to provide well-informed input. A democratic leadership style can be a great choice for a smaller team or a team composed of similarly skilled members.
Laissez-Faire Leadership Style
Perhaps the easiest way to understand laissez-faire leadership is this: If democratic leadership is the moderate opposite of autocratic leadership, laissez-faire leadership is the extreme opposite of autocratic leadership. Laissez-faire leadership is, essentially, the lack of a clear leader role. While one individual may be the leader in title, the reality in this type of workplace dynamic is that everybody is an equal decision-maker and every piece of input from the team is considered equally.
Rather than gathering team members’ input and then considering it when making a decision, a laissez-faire leader leaves the decision-making up to their team members. This can lead to feelings of importance among every member of the team, but it can also lead to confusion and bottlenecks in strategic processes.
A laissez-faire leadership style can be a very effective way to lead a team composed of highly skilled, highly specialized individuals. In this kind of environment, each team member can take the lead in situations that require their expertise and trust their colleagues to make effective choices when they are in the “driver’s seat.”
Transactional Leadership Style
According to St. Thomas University, a transactional leader’s primary goals are order and structure in the workplace. Under a transactional leader, self-motivated employees tend to be most successful because the leader has created a structured, rigid environment where they use clear rewards and punishments to drive employee performance. For example, a transactional leader might require each member of the sales team to speak with five prospective customers each day, offering catered lunch on Friday for every team member who met this goal Monday through Thursday.
Benefits of transactional leadership include:
- Clearly defined short- and long-term goals
- Clearly defined rewards and consequences for meeting or not meeting those goals
- A streamlined, efficient chain of command
- Employee security in knowing there are no surprises regarding expectations and outcomes
Transactional leadership can also have drawbacks. These include:
- Little room for flexibility or adaptability
- Employees feel like followers, rather than innovators or leaders
- Personal initiative is not rewarded or valued
- Employees can feel stifled by their work environment
- Transformational Leadership Style
Among all the recognized leadership styles in business, transformational leadership is perhaps the most focused on the leader’s personality. With this type of leader, employees are guided by a clearly defined vision for success, which may be the leader’s personal vision or the company’s mission statement. According to Northeastern University, this kind of leadership inspires innovation and generally creates a positive workplace culture.
Transformational leadership is characterized by:
- The leader acting as a role model to employees
- Close, consistent focus on the company vision
- A high value on interpersonal relationships
- Inspiration as a tool to motivate employees
Like the other leadership styles, there are benefits and drawbacks to transformational leadership. A transformational leader can inspire employees to try to be their best selves, create a workplace where mutual respect is highly valued and encourage employees to think critically about the values they hold. But this type of workplace can also become a cult of personality or create an environment where gaining the leader’s approval becomes a priority for employees, diverting their focus from performing their jobs well or supporting each other.
Recognizing Leadership Styles in Management
No two leaders approach management exactly the same way. Although managers can have similar styles, and individuals often emulate their mentors, there are as many leadership styles in management as there are people in management.
As an employee – or supervisor of somebody tasked with managing a team – recognizing a team leader’s management style can help you understand their mindset, the reasons behind their decisions and how best to communicate with them. It is not uncommon for an individual to exhibit characteristics from two or more management styles, like a leader who embraces transformational ideas and puts them into action through democratic methods. In fact, very few leaders can be classified into any one leadership category 100 percent.
It is also not uncommon for a leader’s management style to evolve as their career progresses (or as their team members progress). For example, a leader managing a fairly young, inexperienced team might need to take a blended autocratic and transformational approach to leading them because they are not ready to take more active roles in leadership.
3. Critically analyze the different models of organization.
SECTION – B
4. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
5. Principles of management
6. Types of Organizational Commitment
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7. Ethics in Organisation behavior management
8. Attribution theory of motivation
IGNOU MPCE 031 Solved Assignment 2022-23
SECTION – C
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