IGNOU MPCE 022 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : MPCE 022 Solved Assignment 2022 , MPCE 022 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MPCE 022 Assignment 2022-23 , MPCE 022 Assignment, IGNOU MPCE 022 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.
IGNOU MPCE 022 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU MPCE 022 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).
SECTION – A
1. Explain the meaning of Psychological Testing and discuss the types of Psychological
Ans. Psychological tests are classified into several types, including intelligence tests, aptitude tests, vocational tests, aptitude tests, and personality tests. Psychological testing is primarily used for psychological diagnosis, job screening, academic placements, identifying specific behaviour, research purposes, etc.
Psychological tests can be classified based on their nature or function.
Intelligence tests are used to assess intelligence, or your ability to perceive your surroundings, interact with them, and learn from them.
Intelligence tests include the following:
- Adult Intelligence Scale (Wachsler) (WAIS)
- Children’s Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC)
- Intelligence Scale of Stanford-Binet (SB)
Personality tests are used to assess personality traits and styles. Personality tests are frequently used in research and to aid in clinical diagnosis. Personality tests include the following:
Thematic Apperception Test (T.A.T.) Rorschach, also known as the ‘inkblot test’ Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Attitude tests, such as the Likert Scale or the Thurstone Scale, assess how a person feels about a specific event, location, person, or object.
Achievement tests assess how well you understand a specific subject (i.e., mathematics achievement tests). Aptitude tests assess your abilities in a particular area (i.e. clerical skills).
Achievement tests include the following:
- Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT)
- Aptitude tests such as the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) include:
- Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB)
- Bloomberg Aptitude Test (B.A.T.)
Psychological tests are verbal or written assessments designed to assess a person’s behaviour. Many different types of psychological tests are available to help people understand the various dynamics of human beings. It explains why one person excels at one thing while another excels at another. On the other hand, humans are complex beings that cannot be defined and classified into specific branches. The subjective nature of humans and individual differences have frequently been criticised in psychological testing.
Psychological tests allow for the formally and accurately measurement of various factors contributing to people’s problems. Before administering a psychological test, the individual being tested is usually interviewed. Furthermore, more than one psychological test may be administered in some situations.
It should be noted that not everyone can administer a psychological test. Each test has its own set of requirements that must be met by a qualified professional before a person can purchase and administer the test to someone else.
The following are the five main characteristics of a good psychological test:
Objectivity: These tests must be free of subjective judgments about the ability, skill, knowledge, trait, or potentiality being measured and evaluated.
Reliability refers to how consistent or reliable the results obtained are.
Validity refers to how well a test measures what it is supposed to measure. For example, when developing an intelligence test to assess the level of intelligence, it should only assess the person’s intelligence and not other factors. The validity of a test tells us whether it achieves the goal for which it was created. There are numerous methods for determining the validity of a test.
Norms: The average performance of a representative sample on a given test is referred to as a norm. It depicts the average standard of a specific sample in a specific aspect. The standard scores developed by the person who develops the test are referred to as norms. Future test takers can compare their results to norms to determine the level of their sample.
Practicability: The test must be practicable in terms of the time required to complete it, the length, the number of items or questions, the scoring, and so on. The test should not be too long or difficult to answer or score.
Phrenology (the measurement of bumps on the skulls) was previously used to assess someone’s personality. A personality test assesses people’s behaviours, emotions, behavioural and environmental traits, attitudes, and even clinical disturbances. Each personality test is designed to measure or compare two variables. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, for example, is used to screen for adolescent emotional problems or psychopathologies (MMPI-A). Depending on the sample type, different versions of the MMPI are available.
Humans, as previously stated, have unique abilities and specialities. A person with a creative mind may not have a calculative brain. Aptitude tests are used to assess such diverse abilities and interests. It is used to predict a person’s future scope or determine whether they possess a specific skill set. However, speaking of human complexities once more, humans are incomprehensible and erratic in their ways, leaving some room for ambiguity. Students and employees are subjected to a variety of aptitude tests. Many aptitude tests are also capability tests.
Emotional Intelligence Tests
Have you ever felt compelled to yell at someone or cry for no apparent reason? We must control and monitor our emotions of rage and sadness. We must recognize and regulate our emotions without being influenced by others. An Emotional Intelligence test taps into various emotions by presenting the test-taker with various situations. An emotional intelligence test necessitates a person’s honesty to accurately assess a person’s EQ [Emotional Quotient] and recommend ways to improve it. It is frequently observed that people with higher EQ are much more content and successful than others. Even though emotional intelligence can overlap with other factors such as personality or genetic makeup, a person’s emotional intelligence tends to fluctuate or change.
These tests are intended to assess a person’s cognitive abilities. How would you determine whether you have a good or bad memory. Neuropsychological tests are the most important psychological tests used to evaluate diseases such as Alzheimer’s, brain injury, and emotional disorders such as depression or anxiety. Doctors must know the underlying cause of a problem to treat it. Memory, language, executive functioning, dementia, visuospatial function, and other factors are assessed using neurological tests.
Essay tests are one of the oldest types of psychological tests designed to assess a candidate’s ability to organize and communicate his or her thoughts clearly and logically. Lord Macaulay is credited with introducing this concept to the Indian Administrative Services, also known as the IAS. On the other hand, the objective test has one correct answer. It does not require or ask for long, extensive answers/explanations from the candidates. These tests are generally used to assess the candidate’s mental ability or mental power and reasoning, and conceptual clarity.
Uses of Psychological testing
Psychological tests are primarily used to assess an individual’s mental abilities and attributes, such as personality, achievement, ability, and neurological functioning.
The following are the primary and most important applications of psychological testing:
- Screening Job Candidates
- Individual Differences
- Detection of Specific Behavior
- Psychological Diagnosis Tools in Academic Placements
- Psychometrics/Career Assessment
- Tests Research to Promote
- Self-awareness and Understanding
- Organizational Growth
2. Describe theoretical approaches of counseling and elucidate Cognitive counseling
Ans. Psychotherapy theories provide a framework for therapists and counselors to interpret a client’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings and help them navigate a client’s journey from diagnosis to post-treatment. Theoretical approaches are an understandably integral part of the therapeutic process.
Psychoanalysis or psychodynamic theory, also known as the “historical perspective,” has its roots with Sigmund Freud, who believed there were unconscious forces that drive behavior. The techniques he developed, such as free association (freely talking to the therapist about whatever comes up without censoring), dream analysis (examining dreams for important information about the unconscious), and transference (redirecting feelings about certain people in one’s life onto the therapist) are still used by psychoanalysts today. and it is embedded throughout the counselor training process. In general, psychotherapists and counselors who use this approach direct much of their focus and energy on analyzing past relationships and, in particular, traumatic childhood experiences in relation to an individual’s current life. The belief is that by revealing and bringing these issues to the surface, treatment and healing can occur. This theory is highly researched, and as the field of neuroscience advances, counselors are finding how psychodynamic theory can actually positively affect a client’s brain. Psychodynamic theory can be more time intensive in comparison to some short-term theories because it involves changing deeply ingrained behaviors and requires significant work on understanding one’s self.
Behavioral theory is based on the belief that behavior is learned. Classic conditioning is one type of behavioral therapy that stems from early theorist Ivan Pavlov’s research. Pavlov executed a famous study using dogs, which focused on the effects of a learned response (e.g., a dog salivating when hearing a bell) through a stimulus (e.g., pairing the sound of a bell with food).
- F. Skinner developed another behavioral therapy approach, called operant conditioning. He believed in the power of rewards to increase the likelihood of a behavior and punishments to decrease the occurrence of a behavior. Behavioral therapists work on changing unwanted and destructive behaviors through behavior modification techniques such as positive or negative reinforcement.
In the 1960s, psychotherapist Aaron Beck developed . This counseling theory focuses on how people’s thinking can change feelings and behaviors. Unlike psychodynamic theory, therapy based on cognitive theory is brief in nature and oriented toward problem solving. Cognitive therapists focus more on their client’s present situation and distorted thinking than on their past. Cognitive and behavioral therapy are often combined as one form of theory practiced by counselors and therapists. Cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT, has been found in researchExternal link:open_in_new to help with a number of mental illnesses including anxiety, personality, eating, and substance abuse disorders.
Humanistic therapists care most about the present and helping their clients achieve their highest potential. Instead of energy spent on the past or on negative behaviors, humanists believe in the goodness of all people and emphasize a person’s self-growth and self-actualization.
Humanistic theories include client-centered, gestalt, and existential therapies. Carl Rogers developed client-centered therapy, which focuses on the belief that clients control their own destinies. He believed that all therapists need to do is show their genuine care and interest. Gestalt therapists’ work focuses more on what’s going on in the moment versus what is being said in therapy. Existential therapists help clients find meaning in their lives by focusing on free will, self-determination, and responsibility.
Holistic and integrative therapy involves integrating various elements of different theories to the practice. In addition to traditional talk therapy, holistic therapy may include nontraditional therapies such as hypnotherapy or guided imagery. The key is to use the techniques and psychotherapy tools best suited for a particular client and problem.
Counseling Theories and Approaches
Professional counselors apply a variety of clinical approaches in their work, and there are hundreds of clinical counseling approaches to choose from. The most recent edition of The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Counseling and Psychotherapy lists over 300 different approaches to counseling practice.1 So how do counselors come to know what approach is the right one for them? To answer that question, it is first necessary to understand that no one counseling approach is better than the rest. That is because counseling approaches are based upon theories about human function and change as opposed to hard evidence.
Determining whether one counseling approach works better than another is difficult, because there are so many variables to consider in the counseling process. For example, if we try to compare the effectiveness of two counselors applying the same theoretical model, there can be major differences in the counseling outcome due to differences in the clients’ histories and situations, differences in the counselors’ communication styles, and even differences in client and counselor mood on the day of the comparison.
Such differences are hard to control for experimentally, thus making it almost impossible to prove that one approach to counseling is the absolute best way. Without such proof, it becomes the responsibility of counselors to do all they can to see that the treatment model(s) they apply are the best ones to address each client’s needs. That responsibility starts with becoming familiar with the models that have shown to be most beneficial in actual practice.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps people learn how to identify and change the destructive or disturbing thought patterns that have a negative influence on their behavior and emotions.
Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on changing the automatic negative thoughts that can contribute to and worsen our emotional difficulties, depression, and anxiety. These spontaneous negative thoughts also have a detrimental influence on our mood.
Through CBT, faulty thoughts are identified, challenged, and replaced with more objective, realistic thoughts.
Types of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
CBT encompasses a range of techniques and approaches that address our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. These can range from structured psychotherapies to self-help practices. Some of the specific types of therapeutic approaches that involve cognitive behavioral therapy include:
Cognitive therapy centers on identifying and changing inaccurate or distorted thought patterns, emotional responses, and behaviors.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) addresses destructive or disturbing thoughts and behaviors while incorporating treatment strategies such as emotional regulation and mindfulness.
Multimodal therapy suggests that psychological issues must be treated by addressing seven different but interconnected modalities: behavior, affect, sensation, imagery, cognition, interpersonal factors, and drug/biological considerations.
Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) involves identifying irrational beliefs, actively challenging these beliefs, and finally learning to recognize and change these thought patterns.
While each type of cognitive behavioral therapy takes a different approach, all work to address the underlying thought patterns that contribute to psychological distress.
3. Discuss the development and component of school guidance and counseling programme
SECTION – B
4. Differentiate between Psychological Assessment And Psychology Testing.
5. Explain issues in assessment.
6. Discuss the basic issues in case history and elucidate format of case history taking.
Get IGNOU MPCE 022 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Now here from this website.
7. Explain the Roger’s theory of Personality.
8. Describe the goal, role and techniques of Ration Emotive Therapy (RET)
IGNOU MPCE 022 Solved Assignment 2022-23
SECTION – C
9. Reliability and Validity of the test
10. Types of Interview
11. Classification of tests
12. Fully functioning person
13. Unconditional Positive Regards
14. Ways to reduce risk and promote health
15. Types of Guidance and Counselling
16. Mental Status Examination
17. Planning for problem solving
18. Self concept
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IGNOU Instructions for the MPCE 022 ASSESSMENT IN COUNSELLING AND GUIDANCE
IGNOU MPCE 022 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
- Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
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- Write the relevant question number with each answer.
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GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23
MPCE 022 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
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