IGNOU MPCE 021 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : MPCE 021 Solved Assignment 2022 , MPCE 021 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MPCE 021 Assignment 2022-23 , MPCE 021 Assignment, IGNOU MPCE 021 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.
IGNOU MPCE 021 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU MPCE 021 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).
SECTION – A
1. Explain the techniques used in behavior therapy.
Ans. Behavioral therapy techniques use reinforcement, punishment, shaping, modeling, and related techniques to alter behavior. These methods have the benefit of being highly focused, which means they can produce fast and effective results.
Contingency management: This approach uses a formal written contract between a client and a therapist (or parent or teacher) that outlines behavior-change goals, reinforcements, rewards, and penalties. Contingency contracts can be very effective in producing behavior changes since the rules are spelled out clearly, preventing both parties from backing down on their promises.
Extinction: Another way to produce behavior change is to stop reinforcing behavior in order to eliminate the response. Time-outs are a perfect example of the extinction process. During a time-out, a person is removed from a situation that provides reinforcement. By taking away what the person found rewarding, unwanted behavior is eventually extinguished.
Behavior modeling: This technique involves learning through observation and modeling the behavior of others. Rather than relying simply on reinforcement or punishment, modeling allows individuals to learn new skills or acceptable behaviors by watching someone else perform those desired skills.
Token economies: This strategy relies on reinforcement to modify behavior. Parents and teachers often use token economies, allowing kids to earn tokens for engaging in preferred behaviors and lose tokens for undesirable behaviors. These tokens can then be traded for rewards such as candy, toys, or extra time playing with a favorite toy.
Behavioral Therapy Can Help With
Behavioral therapy can be utilized to treat a wide range of psychological conditions and disorders, including:
- Bipolar disorder
- Alcohol and substance use disorders
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- Autism spectrum disorders
- Borderline personality disorder (BPD)
- Eating disorders
- Panic disorder
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Behavioral therapy is problem-focused and action-oriented. For this reason, it can also be useful for addressing specific psychological concerns such as anger management and stress management.
Benefits of Behavioral Therapy
Behavioral therapy is widely used and has been shown to be effective in treating a number of different conditions. Cognitive behavioral therapy, in particular, is often considered the “gold standard” in the treatment of many disorders,8 and cognitive behavioral play therapy, specifically, can be effective for children where other types of therapy aren’t.
CBT is often more affordable than other types of therapy and results are often seen in five to 20 sessions. Research has shown that CBT is most effective for the treatment of:
- Anger issues
- Somatic symptom disorder
- Substance abuse and relapse prevention
- In addition, behavioral therapy has been found to help people with the following:
- Coping strategies
- Healthier thought patterns
How well behavioral therapy works depends on factors such as the specific type of treatment used as well as the condition that is being treated.
This does not mean that CBT or other behavioral approaches are the only types of therapy that can treat mental illness. It also doesn’t mean that behavior therapy is the right choice for every situation.
Anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and phobias, for example, often respond well to behavioral treatments.14 However, researchers found that the effectiveness of behavioral therapy, specifically CBT, in the treatment of substance use disorders can vary depending on the substance being misused.
CBT was also shown to have beneficial effects on some symptoms of schizophrenia but showed no benefits on relapse and hospital admission when compared to other forms of treatment.
Behavioral therapy has a number of advantages. However, behavioral approaches are not always the best solution.
It’s Not Enough for Complex Mental Health Conditions
When treating certain psychiatric disorders such as severe depression and schizophrenia, behavioral therapy often must be used in conjunction with other medical and therapeutic treatments. Behavioral therapy can help clients manage or cope with certain aspects of these psychiatric conditions, but should not be used alone.
It May Not Account for Underlying Problems
Behavioral treatments tend to focus on current problems with functioning and may not fully appreciate or address the underlying factors that are contributing to a mental health problem.
It May Not Address the Whole Picture
Behavioral approaches are centered on the individual working to change their behaviors. Some of these approaches, however, often don’t address how situations and interpersonal relationships might be contributing to a person’s problems.
2. What is art therapy? Describe the steps in art therapy.
Ans. Art therapy is a distinct discipline that incorporates creative methods of expression through visual art media. Art therapy, as a creative arts therapy profession, originated in the fields of art and psychotherapy and may vary in definition. There are three main ways that art therapy is employed.
There are three main ways that art therapy is employed. The first one is called analytic art therapy. Analytic art therapy is based on the theories that come from analytical psychology, and in more cases, psychoanalysis. Analytic art therapy focuses on the client, the therapist, and the ideas that are transferred between the both of them through art. Another way that art therapy is utilized is art psychotherapy. This approach focuses more on the psychotherapist and their analysis of their clients’ artwork verbally. The last way art therapy is looked at is through the lens of art as therapy. Some art therapists practicing art as therapy believe that analyzing the client’s artwork verbally is not essential, therefore they stress the creation process of the art instead. In all of these different approaches to art therapy, the art therapist’s client goes on the journey to delve into their inner thoughts and emotions by the use of paint, paper and pen, clay, sand, fabric, or other media.
Art therapy can be used to help people improve cognitive and sensory motor function, self-esteem, self awareness, and emotional resilience. It may also aide in resolving conflicts and reduce distress.
Current art therapy includes a vast number of other approaches such as person-centered, cognitive, behavior, Gestalt, narrative, Adlerian, and family. The tenets of art therapy involve humanism, creativity, reconciling emotional conflicts, fostering self-awareness, and personal growth.
Art therapy, a hybrid field largely influenced by the disciplines of art and psychology, uses the creative process, pieces of art created in therapy, and third-party artwork to help people in treatment develop self-awareness, explore emotions, address unresolved emotional conflicts, improve social skills, and raise self-esteem. Art therapy primarily aims to help individuals experiencing emotional and psychological challenges achieve personal well-being and improved levels of function.
Neither previous artistic experience nor natural artistic ability is necessary for successful treatment, and any individuals seeking the help of a mental health professional may find benefit from art therapy.
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF ART THERAPY
Art has been used as a means of communication, self-expression, group interaction, diagnosis, and conflict resolution throughout history. For thousands of years, cultures and religions around the world have incorporated the use of carved idols and charms, as well as sacred paintings and symbols, in the healing process. The establishment of art therapy as a unique and publicly accepted therapeutic approach only took place recently, in the mid-20th century. The emergence of art therapy as a profession arose independently and simultaneously in the United States and Europe.
The term “art therapy” was coined in 1942 by British artist Adrian Hill, who discovered the healthful benefits of painting and drawing while recovering from tuberculosis. In the 1940s, several writers in the mental health field began to describe their work with people in treatment as “art therapy.” As there were no formal art therapy courses or training programs available at that time, these care providers were often educated in other disciplines and supervised by psychiatrists, psychologists, or other mental health care professionals.
CONTRIBUTORS TO THE FIELD
Margaret Naumburg, Hanna Kwaitkowska, Florence Cane, Edith Kramer, and Elinor Ulman were five influential writers of the 1940s who made significant contributions toward the development of art therapy as a recognized field.
Margaret Naumburg, often described as the “mother of art therapy,” established the Walden School in her home city of New York in 1915. She is widely viewed as the primary founder of the American art therapy movement. Naumburg believed children who were allowed to express themselves creatively and pursue subjects of interest to them would experience healthier development. Influenced by the psychoanalytic movement prevalent at the time, Naumburg began to view the creative process as a methodology similar to verbal expression—a means of unearthing repressed, unconscious thoughts and emotions. She believed once the symbolic expression of a person’s state of mind was combined with the cognitive and verbal aspects of experience, healing could take place. Both this expression and healing were believed to be able to occur in an art therapy session. She wrote several influential books on art therapy, including Studies of the “Free” Expression of Behavior Problem Children as a Means of Diagnosis and Therapy (1947), Schizophrenic Art: Its Meaning in Psychotherapy (1950), and Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy: Its Principles and Practice (1966). These and other publications by leading contributors in the field are still used and referenced today as original sources in art therapy literature.
Hanna Kwiatkowski, another major contributor, was born in Poland and educated throughout eastern Europe. A talented sculptor and artist, Kwiatkowski eventually moved to the United States and began working at the National Institutes of Mental Health, where she bridged the gap between her passion and her profession by introducing art into the therapy sessions she conducted with families.
As a result of these sessions, Kwiatkowska found the creative expression of drawing to allow family members to better identify their roles and status within the family. She also saw the significant therapeutic benefits of the drawing process. Although she had originally hoped to use her art therapy to help treat individuals facing intellectual challenges, Kwiatkowska discovered her technique also provided relief to families and individuals who who faced moderate psychological issues and dysfunctions.
Other contributors include Florence Cane, an art educator who utilized teaching methods emphasizing the importance of free artistic expression and encouraging emotional creativity, and Edith Kramer, who proposed the more process-oriented art-as-therapy approach that defined goals of supporting the ego, helping the development of identity, and fostering growth. Finally, Elnor Ulman established the first art therapy journal in the United States and initiated one of the earliest training programs in the field.
HEALTH ISSUES TREATED BY ART THERAPY
Art therapy has been shown to benefit people of all ages. Research indicates art therapy can improve communication and concentration and can help reduce feelings of isolation. This type of therapy has also been shown to lead to increases in self-esteem, confidence, and self-awareness.
Positive results in art therapy may often be achieved by those facing issues such as:
- Substance dependency
- Posttraumatic stress
- Attention deficit hyperactivity
- Aging and geriatric issues
- Compassion fatigue
- Heart disease
- Other eating disorders
- Cognitive impairments
- Family or relationship issues
Because art therapy allows people to express feelings on any subject through creative work rather than with speech, it is believed to be particularly helpful for those who feel out of touch with their emotions or feelings. Individuals experiencing difficulty discussing or remembering painful experiences may also find art therapy especially beneficial.
Recent research suggests art therapy may help individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia see improvement of some of their symptoms, although trials are still being conducted.
The memoir, Sybil, and two movies of the same name, describe a woman diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder who, through the use of art, appeared to gain greater insight about her alters and trauma she had experienced in childhood. Painting both provided an outlet for Sybil and her alters to express feelings and rediscover memories of the trauma, which could then be discussed in therapy.
Melinda, the main character of the 1999 young adult novel, Speak, uses art to cope with traumatic mutism—her inability to speak following a traumatic event—and isolation.
ART THERAPY TECHNIQUES AND EXERCISES
Certified art therapists will typically have a comprehensive understanding of the powerful effect that the creative process can have on those in therapy. Art therapists often use psychological, spiritual, and artistic theories in conjunction with clinical techniques to achieve the desired therapeutic outcome. The approach has proven to be beneficial even for non-verbal individuals and professional artists. Common techniques used in therapy include:
- Finger painting
- Using molding clay
- Making pottery
- Making cards
- Using textiles
- Making collages
Art therapy can help people express those thoughts, emotions, and experiences that may be difficult to speak about. In a 2004 study, thirty-two women with heart disease were first interviewed and then asked to individually illustrate the illness. The resultant drawings were grouped into three categories: (1) the heart at the center, (2) the heart in the lived body, and (3) heart disease as a social illness. The use of color, spatial arrangement, and composition were analyzed, and the drawings ultimately helped health care professionals better appreciate how each woman understood her condition and provided insight on how to best to approach each case.
3. Explain the need and scope of educational counseling.
SECTION – B
4. Describe the drama therapy techniques.
5. Explain transactional analysis
6. Who is a vulnerable child? Describe counseling for children with disability
Get IGNOU MPCE 021 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Now here from this website.
7. What are the usual psychological responses to a HIV positive test result? Describe
counseling for the AIDS patients and their family.
8. Describe the goals and steps involved in group counselling.
IGNOU MPCE 021 Solved Assignment 2022-23
SECTION – C
10. Counter transference
12. Difference between guidance and counseling
13. Anxiety hierarchy
14. Four broad categories of rights of children
15. Diagnosis of anorexia nervosa
16. Clinical features in paranoid personality disorder
17. Seasonal affective disorder
18. Supportive psychotherapy
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