IGNOU MANI 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : MANI 001 Solved Assignment 2033 , MANI 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MANI 001 Assignment 2022-23 , MANI 001 Assignment, IGNOU MANI 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.
IGNOU MANI 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU MANI 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
SECTION – A
1. Define anthropology and discuss human diversity and variation from the context of India.
Ans. Anthropology, “the science of humanity,” which studies human beings in aspects ranging from the biology and evolutionary history of Homo sapiens to the features of society and culture that decisively distinguish humans from other animal species. Because of the diverse subject matter it encompasses, anthropology has become, especially since the middle of the 20th century, a collection of more specialized fields. Physical anthropology is the branch that concentrates on the biology and evolution of humanity. It is discussed in greater detail in the article human evolution. The branches that study the social and cultural constructions of human groups are variously recognized as belonging to cultural anthropology (or ethnology), social anthropology, linguistic anthropology, and psychological anthropology. Archaeology, as the method of investigation of prehistoric cultures, has been an integral part of anthropology since it became a self-conscious discipline in the latter half of the 19th century.
Throughout its existence as an academic discipline, anthropology has been located at the intersection of natural science and humanities. The biological evolution of Homo sapiens and the evolution of the capacity for culture that distinguishes humans from all other species are indistinguishable from one another. While the evolution of the human species is a biological development like the processes that gave rise to the other species, the historical appearance of the capacity for culture initiates a qualitative departure from other forms of adaptation, based on an extraordinarily variable creativity not directly linked to survival and ecological adaptation. The historical patterns and processes associated with culture as a medium for growth and change, and the diversification and convergence of cultures through history, are thus major foci of anthropological research.
In the middle of the 20th century, the distinct fields of research that separated anthropologists into specialties were (1) physical anthropology, emphasizing the biological process and endowment that distinguishes Homo sapiens from other species, (2) archaeology, based on the physical remnants of past cultures and former conditions of contemporary cultures, usually found buried in the earth, (3) linguistic anthropology, emphasizing the unique human capacity to communicate through articulate speech and the diverse languages of humankind, and (4) social and/or cultural anthropology, emphasizing the cultural systems that distinguish human societies from one another and the patterns of social organization associated with these systems. By the middle of the 20th century, many American universities also included (5) psychological anthropology, emphasizing the relationships among culture, social structure, and the human being as a person.
The concept of culture as the entire way of life or system of meaning for a human community was a specialized idea shared mainly by anthropologists until the latter half of the 20th century. However, it had become a commonplace by the beginning of the 21st century. The study of anthropology as an academic subject had expanded steadily through those 50 years, and the number of professional anthropologists had increased with it. The range and specificity of anthropological research and the involvement of anthropologists in work outside of academic life have also grown, leading to the existence of many specialized fields within the discipline. Theoretical diversity has been a feature of anthropology since it began and, although the conception of the discipline as “the science of humanity” has persisted, some anthropologists now question whether it is possible to bridge the gap between the natural sciences and the humanities. Others argue that new integrative approaches to the complexities of human being and becoming will emerge from new sub-fields dealing with such subjects as health and illness, ecology and environment, and other areas of human life that do not yield easily to the distinction between “nature” and “culture” or “body” and “mind.”
Anthropology in 1950 was—for historical and economic reasons—instituted as a discipline mainly found in western Europe and North America. Field research was established as the hallmark of all the branches of anthropology. While some anthropologists studied the “folk” traditions in Europe and America, most were concerned with documenting how people lived in nonindustrial settings outside these areas. These finely detailed studies of everyday life of people in a broad range of social, cultural, historical, and material circumstances were among the major accomplishments of anthropologists in the second half of the 20th century.
Beginning in the 1930s, and especially in the post-World War II period, anthropology was established in a number of countries outside western Europe and North America. Very influential work in anthropology originated in Japan, India, China, Mexico, Brazil, Peru, South Africa, Nigeria, and several other Asian, Latin American, and African countries. The world scope of anthropology, together with the dramatic expansion of social and cultural phenomena that transcend national and cultural boundaries, has led to a shift in anthropological work in North America and Europe. Research by Western anthropologists is increasingly focused on their own societies, and there have been some studies of Western societies by non-Western anthropologists. By the end of the 20th century, anthropology was beginning to be transformed from a Western—and, some have said, “colonial”—scholarly enterprise into one in which Western perspectives are regularly challenged by non-Western ones.
The modern discourse of anthropology crystallized in the 1860s, fired by advances in biology, philology, and prehistoric archaeology. In The Origin of Species (1859), Charles Darwin affirmed that all forms of life share a common ancestry. Fossils began to be reliably associated with particular geologic strata, and fossils of recent human ancestors were discovered, most famously the first Neanderthal specimen, unearthed in 1856. In 1871 Darwin published The Descent of Man, which argued that human beings shared a recent common ancestor with the great African apes. He identified the defining characteristic of the human species as their relatively large brain size and deduced that the evolutionary advantage of the human species was intelligence, which yielded language and technology.
The pioneering anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor concluded that as intelligence increased, so civilization advanced. All past and present societies could be arranged in an evolutionary sequence. Archaeological findings were organized in a single universal series (Stone Age, Iron Age, Bronze Age, etc.) thought to correspond to stages of economic organization from hunting and gathering to pastoralism, agriculture, and industry. Some contemporary peoples that remained hunter-gatherers or pastoralists were regarded as laggards in evolutionary terms, representing stages of evolution through which all other societies had passed. They bore witness to early stages of human development, while the industrial societies of northern Europe and the United States represented the pinnacle of human achievement.
Darwin’s arguments were drawn upon to underwrite the universal history of the Enlightenment, according to which the progress of human institutions was inevitable, guaranteed by the development of rationality. It was assumed that technological progress was constant and that it was matched by developments in the understanding of the world and in social forms. Tylor advanced the view that all religions had a common origin, in the belief in spirits. The original religious rite was sacrifice, which was a way of feeding these spirits. Modern religions retained some of these early features, but as human beings became more intelligent, and so more rational, superstitions were gradually refined and would eventually be abandoned. James George Frazer posited a progressive and universal progress from faith in magic through to belief in religion and, finally, to the understanding of science.
2. Describe the growth and development during the renaissance period.
3. Discuss the growth of applied anthropology.
SECTION – B
4. Discuss the methods used in ethnographic studies.
5. Write short notes on any two:
c. Exploratory Research Design
6. a. Genealogy
c. Exploratory Research Design.
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7. Discuss anthropometry and its applications.
8. Discuss and differentiate between exploration and excavation as archaeological methods.
IGNOU MANI 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23
9. Discuss the relevance of statistical data in research.
10. Write short notes on any two:
a. Observation method
b. Pedigree Analysis
c. Case Study
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IGNOU Instructions for the MANI 001 Anthropology and Methods of Research
IGNOU MANI 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
- Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
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