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IGNOU BPSE 144 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPSE 144 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Answer the following in about 500 words each in Section A. Each question carry 20 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in Section B. Each question carry 10 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in Section C. Each question carry 6 marks.
1. Critically examine the democratic experiences of South Asian countries.
The South Asian Context
The seven countries of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives constitute the geopolitical region of South Asia. Majoritarianism, Militarisation and Monarchy have existed prior to and even simultaneously with democracy in South Asia. The sub-continent is home to the strongest ethnic and religious identities. The borders for most countries are disputed and the influx of refugees from neighbours make conflicts a perpetual occurrence in the region. Despite the need for a platform for advancing peace and cooperation, there is a visible lack of interest and inherent suspicion amongst the parties.
India and Sri Lanka have been the oldest and consistent democracies. However, both have witnessed severe ethnic and communal violence. The countries have also witnessed events where actions of popularly elected leadership jeopardised democracy and democratic institutions due to their mishandling of regional aspirations. At the same time, non-democratic regimes such as Bhutan is making slow yet steady progress towards the democratisation of lawmaking and governance.
The countries are aspiring democracies. Post the colonial rule, democracy by most western scholars was seen as an impossible endeavour in south Asia. Today it is facing new challenges which allegedly make the region as a shallow theatre of democracy. Despite that fact, people continue to see democracy as a superior mode of organising power than any other form of government. People from across the diverse set of religions or class support the institutions of representative democracy. The sentiment grows more intense as their experiences make democracies philosophically more relevant to the south Asian context. People have continuously fought for their rights and still continue to make the region a vibrant arena of protests and civil rights movements. Therefore, labelling the challenge ridden circumstances as a hollow display will be restrictive in meaning.
Democracy: declining or dynamic?
Cultural/Ethno-nationalism and contempt of political institutions have emerged as major challenges to democracy in the region. Both these circumstances are products of the actions of popularly elected governments. Their popularity makes their actions the ultimate will of the people. Nationalist parties such as the BJP foster an image that all policy measures are directed towards national interest. They often are accused to overlook intricacies of minority interests and appeal for support for their “larger cause”. In Sri Lanka, Wickremesinghe’s prime ministership was largely supported by minorities, therefore efforts for political reform and national reconciliation were perceived as an ‘unhealthy appeasement policy’ by the nationalist Sinhalese Buddhists Conservatives.
The Rule of Law is also an important focal point of democratic activities from the human rights perspective. The unconstitutional ousting of Prime Minister Wickremesinghe by President Sirisena marked the Re-Sinhalesation of the country. The return Rajapaksa, belonging to the majority Buddhist populace, brings back former patterns of authoritarianism, human rights violations, a persistent presence of armed forces in the war-torn north and lack of accountability for war crimes corruption in Sri Lankan politics. The army often disrupted Tamil memorial events and remembrance ceremony. soldiers would destroy decorations and threatened to arrest the participants. Ahmadiyya refugees from Pakistan were subjected to harassment and threats, forcing them to take shelter in crowded and unsanitary temporary refuges.
In India, the party in power has introduced several legislations which contradicts the provisions enshrined in the preamble. A case in point being the Citizenship Amendment Act and introduction of a National Register of Citizens. Nationwide protests took place. Before that Jammu and Kashmir was stripped of its special status and statehood converting it into a union territory. After the abrogation, the presence of armed forces was substantially increased and local politicians were put under house arrest. An information blackout prevailed over the state as internet and media presence was severely restricted. Several activists were arbitrarily arrested under the UAPA Act which allows for indefinite detention on mere suspicion of the person being involved in malicious activities. Under the BJP’s governance, several scholars and academicians from the most eminent universities have also be arrested in cases of terrorism and “anti-national” acts. In Uttar Pradesh state, police allegedly continued to commit extrajudicial killings with impunity. At least 77 people are said to be killed and over 1,100 injured since the BJP state government took office in March 2017.
Interestingly, the southern Asian sub-region has a bounded geography only to the north, where the high Himalayas mark a clear geographic, cultural and political boundary between what lies north and south of the mountains — a barrier or boundary that has lasted over history and is only now being pierced as a result of modern technology. To the east, west and south, whether through Afghanistan and Iran, or Myanmar, or the Indian Ocean, the subcontinent has been open to influence, immigration and economic contact throughout its history. This is why the term southern Asia is better than the more limiting and artificial South Asia and when I use the term ‘South Asia’ I always do so in that larger sense.
Concentric, over-lapping circles
South Asia has been most open through the Indian Ocean. For the greater part of its history, the prosperity and security of the sub-continent has been as dependent, maybe more so, on its maritime dimensions as on the continental order. The Indian Ocean is not a closed ocean, not landlocked like the Mediterranean, the Aegean, the Black Sea, or the seas near China around which other civilisations grew. Thanks to the predictable monsoons, the Indian Ocean did not have to wait for the age of steam to be united, unlike other oceans. Deep water sailing probably developed here first. The maritime domain, by definition, is a positive-sum one, and water transport has historically been easier and cheaper than that by land. For a great part, therefore, southern Asia is maritime.
As a consequence of this geography, throughout history, southern Asia has been an autonomous strategic unit that was also part of a larger multiverse – connected but separate from the universes of the Levant and Persian Gulf, Central Asia and Persia, the Southeast Asian maritime kingdoms and East Asia. And throughout history, southern Asia was most prosperous and stable when its external connections to these regions flourished alongside its internal strength. This is very different from North-East Asia or northern Europe or North America, which were relatively isolated in history and unconnected to other regions for their security and prosperity for most of their past.
This geography means that the security of southern Asia is better thought of as a series of concentric but overlapping circles. What happens in Southeast Asia or East Asia or West Asia directly affects the security of southern Asia. And given the open geography of the Indian Ocean maritime domain, what happens in southern Asia affects the rest of Asia as well.
The other geopolitical consequence of our open geography is linked fates and open societies within the region. Every southern Asian country has cross-border ethnicities, and shares deep religious and strong cultural affinities across state boundaries. The state boundaries are new and recently defined; the ethnicities, languages, religions and cultures are ancient. There is a shared history of openness to each other within southern Asia that is stronger than in many other regions of the world. Our affinities far outweigh our differences. You find languages, foods, religions and ethnicities crossing all the state boundaries in southern Asia.
Paradoxically, this affinity across formal state boundaries is one reason why nationalism is high but nationhood everywhere in south Asia is still a work in progress. Bhutan and the Maldives are the exceptions in southern Asia in their relative homogeneity in ethnic, religious and linguistic terms. India and Afghanistan are the other extreme, where every group is a minority in terms of either language, region, ethnicity, or religion, if one considers schisms like sects and castes.
1. South Asia politics during Cold War.
2. Highlight dynamics of Global War on Terrorism in South Asia.
3. Describe dynamics of cultural and linguistic plurality in South Asia.
1. Examine the Human Development Index in South Asia.
2. Nepal’s Political System
3. Political reforms and Modernisation
4. Political structure in Sri Lanka
5. Pattern of diversity and pluralism in South Asia
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IGNOU BPSE 144 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
- Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
- Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
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IGNOU BPSE 144 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
- Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BPSE 144 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
- Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BPSE 144 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
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