IGNOU MSOE 004 FREE Solved Assignment 2022-23 PDF : MSOE 004 Solved Assignment 2022 , MSOE 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MSOE 004 Assignment 2022-23, MSOE 004 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.
- 1 Section-I
- 2 1. Describe the ecological park theory with suitable examples.
- 3 2. Define the concept of city and discuss the town/city distinction according to the Indian Census.
- 4 3. What are pre-industrial cities? Describe and discuss its features with an example.
- 5 Section-II
- 7 4. How has the occupational structure changed after economic liberalization, privatization and globalization in urban India.
- 8 5. Which is more acute-urban poverty or rural poverty in India? Discuss critically with examples.
1. Describe the ecological park theory with suitable examples.
Ans. Ecological theory, Gibson regards organism and environment to be an inseparable pair. A critical feature of this conception is that environment is not defined independently of organisms, nor are organisms defined independently of environments.
Gibson considers the first task of ecological psychology to be an adequate description of the environment. Environment consists of a medium, substances, and surfaces separating substance from medium. In a successful adaptation, organisms need to perceive which aspects of surface, substance, and medium persist and which aspects change in regard to specific environmental events.
The ecological approach to visual perception assumes that senses represent evolved adaptations to an organism’s environment. These adaptations develop in relation to environmental factors contributing to an organism’s survival. Evolutionary success requires sensory systems that directly and accurately depict the environment. The key stimulus features that contribute to an organism’s survival which Gibson termed ‘affordances’ are invariant. Affordances differ according to situation and species and are perceived directly from the pattern of stimulation arising from them. They do not change as the needs of observers change; affordances have both objective and subjective properties, becoming a fact of the environment and a fact of behavior.
Ecological theory and political activism that is rooted in the rise of environmental and feminist activism and intellectual activity of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Ecofeminism, environmental feminism(s), and feminist political ecology all refer to the linkages of people-gender-culture-environment-nature with varying emphases and frameworks.
Since the 1980s, activists’ concerns focused upon nuclear warfare and militarism, toxic waste pollution, and deforestation among others. Ecofeminist work, which spanned academic, popular, and literary texts, emphasized that women were both biologically and socially linked to nature. Women’s status and subordination was thus linked to environmental degradation and change so that the oppression and degradation of nature and the environment paralleled the oppression and degradation of women (Merchant 1980). However, when viewed from an international perspective, gendered human perceptions of nature as well as gendered material and sociocultural links to the environment varied over place and time and among cultures. In numerous societies around the world, social scientists have documented and explained how changing cosmologies and geographic histories construct and reproduce key binaries: man/woman; culture/nature; self/other. Structuralism and semiotics influenced much of this initial work. Women are commonly, but not necessarily, associated with nature, and landscape, the fertility of the earth, the waxing and waning of the moon, with passivity, and the heart. These cultural metaphors shaped individual lives as well as public discourse through images of Mother Nature/Mother Earth as contrasted with Spaceship Earth, for example. Early ecofeminist work provided insight as to the ways in which nature and the environment are gendered, and then employed this insight to analyze environmental transformation or celebrate the connection in its spiritual dimension. Ecofeminists defined masculinity and femininity as socially constructed categories which are detrimental to people and the environment and are linked to larger social processes such as colonialism and development. Subsequent critiques pointed to the monolithic and essentialist foundations of earlier ecofeminist work. These critiques argued against a monolithic view of woman that was unmediated by other social categories such as race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, and citizenship and pointed to the necessity of site specific empirical case studies.
2. Define the concept of city and discuss the town/city distinction according to the Indian Census.
Ans. The term “urban” is used in demographic as well as sociological sense. In demographic sense, the urban areas are defined as per population, population density or other such quantifiable criteria. In sociological sense, heterogeneity, inter-dependence, quality of life etc. are focused. In rural societies, the social bonds are based on close personal ties of family, caste, kinship or friendship and emphasis is on tradition, informality, consensus etc. In urban societies, the impersonal and secondary relationships predominate and the social bonds are based on formal, contractual and dependence over each other in special functions or services performed.
Up to Census 1951, the definition of a town included all habitations with population of more than 5000; every municipality/corporation/notified area of whatever size; and all civil lines not included within the municipal units. In 1961, this definition was changed and a town included:
A minimum population of 5,000 and a population density not less than 1,000 persons per square mile
The place should have a few characteristics and civic amenities like transport and communication, banks, schools, markets, recreation centers, hospitals, electricity, and newspapers, etc.
The above definition was continued till 2001 census. For the Census of India 2011, the definition of urban area is as follows
- All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc.
- All other places which satisfied the following criteria:
- A minimum population of 5,000
- At least 75 per cent of the male main working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and
- A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km.
The first category of urban units is called Statutory Towns. These towns are notified under law by the concerned State/UT Government and have local bodies like municipal corporations, municipalities, municipal committees, etc., irrespective of their demographic characteristics.
The second category of Towns is known as Census Town. These were identified on the basis of Census 2001 data.
An urban agglomeration is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining outgrowths (OGs), or two or more physically contiguous towns together with or without outgrowths of such towns. An Urban Agglomeration must consist of at least a statutory town and its total population (i.e. all the constituents put together) should not be less than 20,000 as per the 2001 Census. In varying local conditions, there were similar other combinations which have been treated as urban agglomerations satisfying the basic condition of contiguity. Examples: Greater Mumbai UA, Delhi UA, etc. Out Growths (OG): An Out Growth (OG) is a viable unit such as a village or a hamlet or an enumeration block made up of such village or hamlet and clearly identifiable in terms of its boundaries and location. Some of the examples are railway colony, university campus, port area, military camps, etc., which have come up near a statutory town outside its statutory limits but within the revenue limits of a village or villages contiguous to the town. While determining the outgrowth of a town, it has been ensured that it possesses the urban features in terms of infrastructure and amenities such as pucca roads, electricity, taps, drainage system for disposal of waste water etc. educational institutions, post offices, medical facilities, banks etc. and physically contiguous with the core town of the UA. Examples: Central Railway Colony (OG), Triveni Nagar (N.E.C.S.W.) (OG), etc. Each such town together with its outgrowth(s) is treated as an integrated urban area and is designated as an ‘urban agglomeration’.
3. What are pre-industrial cities? Describe and discuss its features with an example.
Ans. Pre-industrial cities are the cities that have emerged as a market places, but not associated with European industrial revolution. Benaras city can be stated as an example for this type of city. Industrial cities on the other hand are emerged from the industrialization. Jamshedpur city is one of this kind. These both type of cities are not divided on the basis of time aspect and may exist simultaneously at the same time.
The foremost difference between pre-industrial city and industrial city is the industrialism. There is an absence of industrialism in Pre-industrial cities, which means these cities completely depend on animate sources of energy such as humans, animals and some tools such as wheels, hammers etc for producing goods. Industrialism does exist in Industrial cities. They depend on inanimate sources of energy such as machines and electricity for the manufacture of goods. In industrial cities, hand labour is replaced by machines and these machines are further replaced by even more advanced machines to increase efficiency and productivity.
Pre-industrial cities lack modern transportation facilities and are very congested in nature. They may also face sanitation problems. Whereas industrial cities are planned cities equipped with modern transportation facilities. It is totally man made urban environment and is considered as unnatural. There exists a regulating authority in industrial cities to regulate the dealings between buyers and sellers and also to establish markets. In pre-industrial cities, literate elite controls the masses, who produce handicrafts.
Rigid class structure is one of the characteristics of Pre-industrial cities. There are a sharp divisions between Elites and masses. There is no middle class. Outcastes, which are considered as less than the lower castes, serves others. In industrial cities, anonymity prevails. Middle class people are the majority. Communities are replaced by networks. In pre-industrial cities, large family networks dominate the nuclear families. Children are considered as subordinates to parents. There are certain family functions assigned to all members of family. In industrial cities, joint families are replaced by nuclear families. Some family functions tends to lost relevance. play schools, day care centers and oldage homes were started to take up the tasks. Social mobility in pre-industrial cities is minimal. There is no threat to the position of upper classes. In industrial cities, social mobility and occupational mobility is more because of availability of vast opportunities.
In pre-industrial cities, handicraftsmen involves in every phase of the manufacture of the good. They even market their own goods. Whereas in industrial cities, each phase of production is carried out by specialists. Specialization of work is the important characteristic of these cities. In pre-industrial cities, money isn’t the sole criteria of the markets. People sell the products in a leisurely manner. There is no fixed price and standardization for products. On the other hand, in industrial cities, work is clock-regulated. People work for fixed number of hours and every activity is carried down in a professional way.
4. How has the occupational structure changed after economic liberalization, privatization and globalization in urban India.
Ans. We have seen landmark shift in Indian Economy since the adoption of new economic policy in 1991. This had far reaching impacts on all spheres of life in India. There can be no concrete conclusions about their impact on Indian people. This turns out to be more of an ideological debate like capitalism vs Socialism. But there is no doubt in the fact that those reforms were unavoidable and very compelling. There was in fact, similar wave all across the globe after disintegration of USSR and end of the Cold War. Many Post-colonial democratic regimes, which were earlier sheltered by USSR, lost their umbrella. They had no option, but to fall in line to new unipolar world order dictated by USA. Even China in late 1980’s adopted ‘Open Door Policy’ through which it liberalized its economy by shedding communist mentality completely. South East Asian economies also reformed their economy and started engaging more with global economy. These along with China, pursued export led growth whereas Indian economy still relies almost wholly on domestic consumption.
Patterns in the above graph explain inequity of Indian growth story. As per principle of economics, when a particular sector performs disproportionately higher than average growth rate, economic wealth starts concentrating into that sector. In this case that sector is Service sector. Within this sector, highest growth is marked by sectors such as financial services, Real estate services etc. , which are least employment elastic. Consequently, Growth of past decade was limited to upscale areas of the countries as almost whole service industry, operates from these areas. Majority of India got spillover or trickle down growth from here. This accelerated migration to urban areas. This in turned created array of social problems associated with urbanization. It fundamentally changed pattern of Indian Society.
Now we have ultra-modern and ultra-primitive society coexisting and conflicting with each other. On one side Social institutions like Personal Law boards, Khaps & kangaroo courts etc. tries to uphold their control over their respective community members, on other hand there is western wave pulling out these very members.
Undoubtedly strongest revolution of new century has been one of Information Technology, which started in last years of past century. This revolution was different because it made globalization even more obvious and stark. It made possible transfer of real time human labor across nations, without transfer humans themselves. Further, it erased all boundaries which hinder free flow of information. This has benefited sharing, nurturing and development of knowledge in societies which earlier had access only to substandard or non-updated information. As always package is coupled with some grim realities too.
Governments all across the world has lost their capacity to regulate and ward of against malicious, false, sensitive information and content. Rise of Islamic State demonstrates that, IT revolution has helped development of global Terrorist links more than anything. Moreover, explicit content is freely available on web, to which unmatured children have unrestricted access
GDP growth rate – India’s annual average growth rate from 1990 – 2010 has been 6.6 % which is almost double than pre reforms era. GDP growth rate surpassed 5% mark in early 1980’s. This made impact of 1990’s reforms on growth unclear. Some believe that 1980’s reforms were precursor to LPG reforms. Other things apart, it is clear that 1980 reforms led to crash of economy in 1991, which was remedied by LPG reforms which were quite more comprehensive. It was IMF loan which gave government to adjust its economy. It was largest ever loan given by IMF. Initially there were global doubts on India’s credibility for loan, but India has been so far a disciplined borrower.
Industrial Growth Rate – Barring few years industrial growth rate has been not much impressive. Share of Industry still remains stagnantly low at 25%. Worst is that India has transitioned to be a service led economy, directly from an agrarian one. One expiation of this is end of policy of imports substitution which derived industrial growth upto 1990. Foreign companies got free access to Indian markets and made domestic products uncompetitive. They obviously had better access to technology and larger economies of scale.
India’s position also lagged on account of Research and innovation. Import substitution required certain degree of investment and efforts in domestic production. It was carried out even when imports were cheaper. This resulted in good and better capacity building upto that time. This was coupled with constant technology denial by west, which further pushed government to spend on R&D. Technology Denial ended with liberalization and globalization. Till that time Indian Industry was better and modern than that of China. But in two decades China has surpassed India by huge margin in case of both Industry and innovation.
5. Which is more acute-urban poverty or rural poverty in India? Discuss critically with examples.
Ans. In India, for several decades post-Independence, elimination of poverty superseded all other priorities of government. This policy, however, had a rural perspective. India lived in her villages and rural poverty was pervasive. Millions of villagers did not have enough food to eat and suffered from hunger and malnutrition. What we understand as ‘absolute poverty,’ the existence of a person below poverty line where he or she is unable to afford the minimum prescribed calorific intake, deserved the highest care.
However, concentrated attention on the rural did not stop the country’s urbanisation. The urban population that stood at 17.29 percent in the 1951 Census almost doubled in percentage terms by 2011. The urban population itself went up six times from 62 million to 377 million in the same time frame. One of the principal factors assisting this transition has been the migration of the rural poor into cities in search of a better livelihood. This phenomenon is universally acknowledged as the urbanisation of poverty. The visible face of such poverty became manifest in the growth of massive slums that by 2011 were housing 65.5 million Indians. It also began to be accepted, with experience, that cities imposed certain characteristics on urban poverty that differentiated it from the rural.
In order to better understand the phenomenon of urban poverty, certain aspects of towns and villages need to be kept in mind. Villages have a small population — a few thousand people. Urban settlements, however, could vary from a town of a few thousand to tens of millions. ‘Urban’ is typically characterised by human and built density and by the degree of non-agricultural economic activity. The Indian Constitution divides them into Nagar Panchayats (those transitioning from a village to a town), Municipal Councils (towns that are through with transition but yet small) and Municipal Corporations (towns that are full-fledged urban centres). Still larger cities get named as metropolitan cities (above a population of a million), and mega cities (above a population of 5 million). I name those above 10 million as ‘giga cities’ and there soon would be several of them in India.
Agriculture is the primary occupation in villages where people live in proximity of their lands. This allows them operational ease and higher efficiency. Consequently, populations are dispersed and densities are low. As the productivity of cities is centred on density, they continue to densify as they grow. Since all villages in many ways are similar, they can be addressed by standardised solutions. Cities, on the other hand, are greatly impacted by their size and very dissimilar dimensions would not lend themselves to similar solutions. The character of poverty would also be impacted by such differences, and interventions to alleviate urban poverty would need customisation to suit dissimilar requirements. In villages, internal distances are small and every village corner is easily accessible. In cities, intra-city travel gets more difficult to negotiate, traffic congestion multiplies and negotiating distances consumes more time and money. These have adverse implications on the income of the urban poor.
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