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IGNOU CFN 2 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU CFN 2 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Assignment-1 consists of two parts and is of 100 marks. The weightage given to each
part isindicated in the brackets.
a) Descriptive type question (60 Marks)
b) Practical Exercise (40 Marks)
Part A: Descriptive Type Question
1. Define food. Explain various functions of food with examples.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal, or fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism’s cells to provide energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth. Different species of animals have different feeding behaviours that satisfy the needs of their unique metabolisms, often evolved to fill a specific ecological niche within specific geographical contexts.
Omnivorous humans are highly adaptable and have adapted to obtain food in many different ecosystems. Historically, humans secured food through two main methods: hunting and gathering and agriculture. As agricultural technologies increased, humans settled into agriculture lifestyles with diets shaped by the agriculture opportunities in their geography. Geographic and cultural differences has led to creation of numerous cuisines and culinary arts, including a wide array of ingredients, herbs, spices, techniques, and dishes. As cultures have mixed through forces like international trade and globalization, ingredients have become more widely available beyond their geographic and cultural origins, creating a cosmopolitan exchange of different food traditions and practices.
Today, the majority of the food energy required by the ever-increasing population of the world is supplied by the industrial food industry, which produces food with intensive agriculture and distributes it through complex food processing and food distribution systems. This system of conventional agriculture relies heavily on fossil fuels, which means that the food and agricultural system is one of the major contributors to climate change, accountable for as much as 37% of total greenhouse gas emissions. Addressing the carbon intensity of the food system and food waste are important mitigation measures in the global response to climate change.
The food system has significant impacts on a wide range of other social and political issues including: sustainability, biological diversity, economics, population growth, water supply, and access to food. The right to food is a human right derived from the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), recognizing the “right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate food”, as well as the “fundamental right to be free from hunger”. Because of these fundamental rights, food security is often a priority international policy activity; for example Sustainable Development Goal 2 “Zero hunger” is meant to eliminate hunger by 2030. Food safety and food security are monitored by international agencies like the International Association for Food Protection, World Resources Institute, World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Food Information Council, and are often subject to national regulation by institutions, like the Food and Drug Administration in the United States.
2. Expand and explain the following:
Body mass index
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person’s weight in kilograms (or pounds) divided by the square of height in meters (or feet). A high BMI can indicate high body fatness. BMI screens for weight categories that may lead to health problems, but it does not diagnose the body fatness or health of an individual.
Body mass index (BMI) is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of a person. The BMI is defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height, and is expressed in units of kg/m2, resulting from mass in kilograms and height in metres.
The BMI may be determined using a table or chart which displays BMI as a function of mass and height using contour lines or colours for different BMI categories, and which may use other units of measurement (converted to metric units for the calculation).
The BMI is a convenient rule of thumb used to broadly categorize a person as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese based on tissue mass (muscle, fat, and bone) and height. Major adult BMI classifications are underweight (under 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5 to 24.9), overweight (25 to 29.9), and obese (30 or more). When used to predict an individual’s health, rather than as a statistical measurement for groups, the BMI has limitations that can make it less useful than some of the alternatives, especially when applied to individuals with abdominal obesity, short stature, or unusually high muscle mass.
BMIs under 20 and over 25 have been associated with higher all-cause mortality, with the risk increasing with distance from the 20–25 range.
Recommended Dietary Allowances
A recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for various food factors was first recognized in the USA with the publication of the first edition of the book on RDA requirements in 1946. A specific RDA for vitamin E was first recommended in the sixth edition (1964), in which the concept of the RDA was broadened and redefined from the 1946 idea – enough ‘to insure good nutrition’ – to an amount necessary ‘to permit full realization of … potential.’ Thus, in the 1964 edition, the concept was expressed that vitamins might have a pharmacological use beyond that necessary merely to prevent vitamin deficiency diseases. The 1997 edition sets the need for vitamin E as 10 α-TE per day for males and 8 mg for females, which is equal to 10 mg of the natural RRR-α-tocopherol.
The vitamin E requirement for humans increases as their diet includes more PUFAs because of the susceptibility of PUFAs to undergo autoxidation. A value of 0.4 for the ratio of the intake of RRR-α-tocopherol (in mg) to the intake of PUFA (in g) in the diet has been suggested to be adequate for adult humans. Thus, if a person eating a 2000-cal per day diet consumed 35% of their calories as fat, of which 40% was unsaturated (typical of today’s American diet), they would require a daily intake of about 13 mg of α-tocopherol.
The intake of vitamin E for Americans on typical diets has been estimated to vary between 5 and 20 α-TE. The requirement of 10 α-TE for men and 8 α-TE for women (who are generally smaller) was established as the RDA because it is believed that very few Americans have overt vitamin E deficiency symptoms, and the amount ingested in a ‘normal’ diet must therefore be sufficient.
Intellectual or developmental disability
An intellectual or developmental disability, also called IDD, includes many severe, chronic conditions that are due to mental and/or physical impairments. IDD can begin at any time, up to 22 years of age. It usually lasts throughout a person’s lifetime. People who have IDD have problems with major life activities such as:
- Independent living
3. What specific consideration would you keep in mind while planning diets for:
a. Pregnant woman
b. School age children
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IGNOU CFN 2 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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4. a. Define Balance Diet. Also elaborate the basis of development of food guide.
b. Discuss causes and symptoms of any two common nutritional deficiencies in India (PEM, Vitamin A deficiency, Anaemia, IDD)
c. Write a note on different factors which affects food acceptance of an individual.
6. Explain the causes, clinical features and treatment of Vitamin A deficiency.
7. Explain the process of digestion, absorption and utilization of protein and fat in our body.
8. a. What are the nutritional requirements of preschoolers and write how would you meet them in daily diet.
b. Elaborate “Anthropometric measurements as a tool to assess nutritional status”.
9. a. Justify the statement” Breast milk is the best food for infant”.
b. What is digestion? Write about digestion of food in brief.
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IGNOU CFN 2 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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