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IGNOU BHT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free

IGNOU BHT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : IGNOU BHT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU BHT 001 Assignment 2022-23 , IGNOU BHT 001 Assignment , BHT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Certificate Programmes Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for Certificate Programmes for the year 2022-23. Courses such as CSWM, CVG, CAFE/DAFE, CIS comes under the Certificate Programmes category. IGNOU Certificate Programmes courses give students the freedom to choose any subject according to their preference.  Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23, ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .

IGNOU BHT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU BHT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-2023  Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

This Assignment consists of Ten Long Answer questions of 10 marks each.

Q1 Discuss the health care system in India? 

Public healthcare is free for every Indian resident. The Indian public health sector encompasses 18% of total outpatient care and 44% of total inpatient care. Middle and upper class individuals living in India tend to use public healthcare less than those with a lower standard of living. Additionally, women and the elderly are more likely to use public services. The public health care system was originally developed in order to provide a means to healthcare access regardless of socioeconomic status or caste. However, reliance on public and private healthcare sectors varies significantly between states. Several reasons are cited for relying on the private rather than public sector; the main reason at the national level is poor quality of care in the public sector, with more than 57% of households pointing to this as the reason for a preference for private health care. Much of the public healthcare sector caters to the rural areas, and the poor quality arises from the reluctance of experienced healthcare providers to visit the rural areas. Consequently, the majority of the public healthcare system catering to the rural and remote areas relies on inexperienced and unmotivated interns who are mandated to spend time in public healthcare clinics as part of their curricular requirement. Other major reasons are long distances between public hospitals and residential areas, long wait times, and inconvenient hours of operation.

Different factors related to public healthcare are divided between the state and national government systems in terms of making decisions, as the national government addresses broadly applicable healthcare issues such as overall family welfare and prevention of major diseases, while the state governments handle aspects such as local hospitals, public health, promotion and sanitation, which differ from state to state based on the particular communities involved. Interaction between the state and national governments does occur for healthcare issues that require larger scale resources or present a concern to the country as a whole.

Considering the goal of obtaining universal health care as part of Sustainable Development Goals, scholars request policy makers to acknowledge the form of healthcare that many are using. Scholars state that the government has a responsibility to provide health services that are affordable, adequate, new and acceptable for its citizens. Public healthcare is very necessary, especially when considering the costs incurred with private services. Many citizens rely on subsidized healthcare. The national budget, scholars argue, must allocate money to the public healthcare system to ensure the poor are not left with the stress of meeting private sector payments.

Following the 2014 election which brought Prime Minister Narendra Modi to office, the government unveiled plans for a nationwide universal health care system known as the National Health Assurance Mission, which would provide all citizens with free drugs, diagnostic treatments, and insurance for serious ailments. In 2015, implementation of a universal health care system was delayed due to budgetary concerns. In April 2018 the government announced the Aayushman Bharat scheme that aims to cover up to Rs. 5 lakh to 100,000,000 vulnerable families (approximately 500,000,000 persons – 40% of the country’s population). This will cost around $1.7 billion each year. Provision would be partly through private providers.

Since 2005, most of the healthcare capacity added has been in the private sector, or in partnership with the private sector. The private sector consists of 58% of the hospitals in the country, 29% of beds in hospitals, and 81% of doctors.

According to National Family Health Survey-3, the private medical sector remains the primary source of health care for 70% of households in urban areas and 63% of households in rural areas. The study conducted by IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics in 2013, across 12 states in over 14,000 households indicated a steady increase in the usage of private healthcare facilities over the last 25 years for both Out-Patient and In-Patient services, across rural and urban areas. In terms of healthcare quality in the private sector, a 2012 study by Sanjay Basu et al., published in PLOS Medicine, indicated that health care providers in the private sector were more likely to spend a longer duration with their patients and conduct physical exams as a part of the visit compared to those working in public healthcare. However, the high out of pocket cost from the private healthcare sector has led many households to incur Catastrophic Health Expenditure, which can be defined as health expenditure that threatens a household’s capacity to maintain a basic standard of living. Costs of the private sector are only increasing. One study found that over 35% of poor Indian households incur such expenditure and this reflects the detrimental state in which Indian health care system is at the moment. With government expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP falling over the years and the rise of private health care sector, the poor are left with fewer options than before to access health care services. Private insurance is available in India, as are various through government-sponsored health insurance schemes. According to the World Bank, about 25% of India’s population had some form of health insurance in 2010. A 2014 Indian government study found this to be an over-estimate, and claimed that only about 17% of India’s population was insured. Private healthcare providers in India typically offer high quality treatment at unreasonable costs as there is no regulatory authority or statutory neutral body to check for medical malpractices. In Rajasthan, 40% of practitioners did not have a medical degree and 20% have not completed a secondary education. On 27 May 2012, the popular show Satyamev Jayate did an episode on “Does Healthcare Need Healing?” which highlighted the high costs and other malpractices adopted by private clinics and hospitals.

Q2 Describe the Situations that can cause disciplinary action against GDA in hospital ?

Development of nursing care as a profession has references in the Indian history. Evidences suggest Lord Buddha took services of nuns for providing nursing care to patients. References of detailed qualities of a nurse in Charaka Samhita, Astanga Hridaya and Sushrata Samhita stand to explain the nobility of the profession. The pioneering efforts of Florence Nightingale were instrumental in the extensive development of nursing as a career. Inpatient services provide for continuous care to patients, requiring at least an overnight stay in a hospital. A patient is referred for hospitalisation in case of emergencies, planned hospitalisation or ambulatory care (discharge on the same day). The roles of a General Duty Assistant, serving for inpatient facilities, include the following:

• planning and organising the unit
• nursing care
• assistance in housekeeping and sanitation
• transportation of patients and specimens
• participating in ward management, post-mortem care, etc.

The services to be offered by the GDA may be medical, surgical, acute care, mental health treatment or invasive procedures. The duties of the GDA during hospitalisation include recording health-related information of a patient, shifting her/him to a room, aiding in personal care activities, ensuring basic comforts for stay, informing the nursing staff about the condition of the patient, cleaning the equipment, and above all, ensuring the patient’s welfare till discharge. Hence, the GDA will function in many departments, for example, clinical, nursing, laboratory, dietary, laundry, housekeeping, sanitation, etc. The duties may vary according to the situation. The GDA plays a significant role in providing the right care to patients. The sessions included in the unit explain the skills required by a GDA for performing related tasks. The tasks include providing support for personal care, identifying the vital signs, making bed for the patient and care for the body after death. These require the GDA to act in a way, considering the psychological needs of patients and their caretakers.

Medical history and examination of patients

A detailed social and medical history of the patient is recorded by the physician. The patient’s temperature, pulse, respiration and blood pressure are recorded. A thorough examination — from head-to-toe — will reveal deviation from normal structure and body functions, which will help the physician in the diagnosis of the disease. Necessary investigations, such as X-ray, laboratory test, etc., are also done to diagnose the disease and prescribe the treatment. Relatives or friends, who bring a patient to a hospital, often want to meet and talk to the physician for clarity on the health status of the patient. The GDA must make necessary arrangements for the patient’s relatives and friends to meet the physician. Those suffering from mild sickness are sent home without admission. Others with major or chronic ailments are admitted to the hospital for further investigations and treatment. Patients, who are not very ill, are allowed to walk and are escorted to the clinical division by the GDA or an attendant.

Transporting patients

Moving an injured patient to and within the hospital must be performed with care. The hospital transportation system for patients is internal, external and various methods of triage. Internal transportation includes the use of trolleys, stretchers, lifts, escalators, etc., for transporting patients, equipment and other supplies, whereas, external transportation includes ambulances, relief vans, trains, or manual labourers, etc. Transportation is done to ensure that a victim reaches the hospital without deterioration in her/his condition. A severely injured or ill person must be immobilised unless there is a threat to his life. A critically ill patient must never be left with untrained personnel. A female patient must never be left alone with a male attendant.

Q3 Describe the role of General duty assistant in hospital setting.
Q4 Discuss the factors affecting “effective communication”?

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Q5List the organs of respiratory system and discuss the functions of each organ.

Q6 Describe the methods of solid wastes disposal should be followed in hospital

Q7 (a) Define Body mechanics. List down the principles of body mechanics
(b) Explain the different types of comfortable positions used for the patient

Q8 Enlist the various vehicles used to transport the patient? Explain any two

Q9Describe the procedure of disinfection of room and articles after the discharge of patient

Q10 Explain the code of conduct for a health care worker

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IGNOU Instructions for the BHT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.

GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

IGNOU BHT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BHT 001 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BHT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BHT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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BHT 001 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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