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IGNOU MPSE 013 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 013 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , MPSE 013 AUSTRALIA’S FOREIGN POLICY Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : MPSE 013 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU MPSE 013 Assignment 2022-23, MPSE 013 Assignment 2022-23 , MPSE 013 Assignment , MPSE 013 AUSTRALIA’S FOREIGN POLICY Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- MASTER’S DEGREE PROGRAMME IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Courses Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MASTER’S DEGREE PROGRAMME IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Courses Programme for the year 2022-23.




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IGNOU MPSE 013 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

: Answer any five questions in about 500 words each. Attempt at least two questions from each section. Each question carries 20 marks.

Section-A


1. Critically examine the domestic source of Australian foreign policy.

Foreign relations of Australia

Foreign relations of Australia are influenced by its position as a leading trading nation and as a significant donor of humanitarian aid. Australia’s foreign policy is guided by a commitment to multilateralism and regionalism, as well as to build strong bilateral relations with its allies. Key concerns include free trade, terrorism, refugees, economic co-operation with Asia and stability in the Indo-Pacific. Australia is active in the United Nations and the Commonwealth of Nations. Given its history of starting and supporting important regional and global initiatives, it has been described as a regional middle power par excellence.[1]

It maintains significant ties with ASEAN and has become steadfastly allied with New Zealand, through long-standing ties dating back to the 1800s. The country also has a longstanding alliance with the United States of America. Over recent decades Australia has sought to strengthen its relationship with Asian countries, with this becoming the focus of the country’s network of diplomatic missions. In 2021, Australia signed a significant security treaty with the United Kingdom and the United States of America (AUKUS) aimed at countering the growing threat of China in the region. 

History

Before the Second World War, Australia saw its economic and military security assured by being a loyal dominion of the British Empire and generally sought to align its diplomatic policies with those of the British Government. Although Australia, like other British Dominions, was a signatory to the Treaty of Versailles and a member of the League of Nations, the British Government handled most of Australia’s diplomatic exchanges outside the Empire. The approach of the Second World War saw the first steps by Australia in establishing its own diplomatic network, particularly with economically and politically important countries of the Pacific Rim. The first accredited diplomat sent to a foreign country was Richard Casey, appointed as the first Minister to the United States in January 1940. This was followed shortly after by the arrival of the first Australian high commissioner to Canada, and by appointments of Ministers to Japan in 1940 and China in 1941. With the entry of Japan into the war in December 1941 and the consequent heightened vulnerability of Australia to attack, a critical decision was made by the Curtin Government to more closely seek the military protection of the United States. Since that time, United States has been the most important security ally. The close security relationship with the United States was formalized in 1951 by the Australia, New Zealand, United States Security (ANZUS) Treaty which remains the cornerstone of Australian security arrangements.

During and after the Second World War, and in parallel with the evolution of the British Empire to the Commonwealth of Nations, Australia progressively took responsibility for fully managing its foreign relations with other states. Australia concluded an agreement in 1944 with New Zealand dealing with the security, welfare, and advancement of the people of the dependent territories of the Pacific (the ANZAC pact). Australia was one of the founders of the United Nations (1945) and the South Pacific Commission (1947), and in 1950, it proposed the Colombo Plan to assist developing countries in Asia. After the war, Australia played a role in the Far Eastern Commission in Japan and supported Indonesian independence during that country’s revolt against the Dutch (1945–49).

International agencies, treaties, and agreements

One of the drafters of the UN Charter, Australia has given firm support to the United Nations system. Australia held the first Presidency of the Security Council in 1946 and provided the first military observers under UN auspices a year later, to Indonesia. It has been a member of the Security Council a further four times, in 1956–57, 1973–74, 1986–87 and 2013–14. It has been regularly elected a member of the Economic and Social Council most recently for 2020–22, a member of the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2018-20 and its predecessor the UN Commission on Human Rights in the 1990s. Australia takes a prominent part in many other UN activities, including peacekeeping, disarmament negotiations, and narcotics control. In September 1999, acting under a UN Security Council mandate, Australia led an international coalition to restore order in East Timor upon Indonesia’s withdrawal from that territory. Australia has also been closely engaged in international development cooperation and humanitarian assistance through the Specialized agencies, Funds and Programmes and Regional Commissions of the United Nations and major International Financial Institutions, in particular the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Asian Development Bank and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.

Australia is a member of the G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the APEC forum. It is active in meetings of the Commonwealth Heads of Government, the Pacific Islands Forum and other Pacific Islands regional organizations and the Indian Ocean Rim Association. It has been a leader in the Cairns Group – countries pressing for agricultural trade reform in the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations. Australia is also a member of MIKTA, an informal and diverse middle power partnership between Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, Turkey and Australia, led by its foreign ministers, which seeks to promote an effective, rules-based global order.

2. Discuss the position and role of Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade in the foreign policy making process in Australia.

The role of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) is to advance the interests of Australia and Australians internationally. This involves strengthening Australia’s security, enhancing Australia’s prosperity, delivering an effective and high-quality overseas aid program and helping Australian travellers and Australians overseas.

The department provides foreign, trade and development policy advice to the Australian Government. DFAT also works with other Australian government agencies to drive coordination of Australia’s pursuit of global, regional and bilateral interests.

About the Position

The Political Research Officer / Corporate Services Manager is part of a small team that pursues Australia’s objectives in Switzerland and Liechtenstein.  Under limited direction, this position provides high-level research and analysis on issues important to the bilateral relationships with Switzerland and Liechtenstein.  It also undertakes public diplomacy and social media activities and provides corporate enabling services to support the operation of the Australian Embassy in Bern.  Due to the size of the team, remote work arrangements cannot be offered.

The key responsibilities of the position include, but are not limited to:

  • Provide high-level research, analysis, reporting and advice on bilateral issues including political, social, environment and economic issues.
  • Monitor and analyse local media and social media reports for issues relevant to Australia’s interests, provide policy advice and make recommendations on key developments and issues.
  • Prepare and distribute a range of high-level written materials, including reports and briefings.
  • Provide German interpreting and translation services as required.
  • Support Australia’s Public Diplomacy and communications activities through drafting high-level speeches, and drafting and posting cleared media releases and social media content on different areas of Australia’s engagement.
  • Represent the Embassy at a range of official meetings, and report on key outcomes, developments and issues.
  • Establish and maintain a broad network of working-level contacts in Switzerland and Liechtenstein to inform advocacy, analysis, operational and administrative tasks.
  • In conjunction with the Australian Consulate-General, Geneva and Australian High Commission, London, manage the financial, human resources, property, procurement and other corporate and reporting functions of the Embassy in accordance with Australian government policy and procedures.
  • Manage the day-to-day administrative and operational duties of the office, including budgeting and accounts, procurement, HR administration, IT support, transport and property management and maintenance.
  • Provide administrative support to Australia-based officers as required.
  • Assist with program preparation and provide logistical support for visiting officials.
  • Contribute to the development of post business plans and maintain electronic databases, including assisting with contingency planning for, and responding to Australians affected by, a crisis in Switzerland or Liechtenstein.
  • Drive official vehicles to transport staff, officials and visitors as required.
  • Provide backup support for other staff as required.

.Qualifications/Experience

  • Ability to undertake research, analysis and reporting on relevant political, economic and foreign issues.
  • Fluency in spoken and written English and German, including the ability to prepare briefing, draft reports and undertake translation tasks when required.
  • Advanced understanding of Switzerland’s and Liechtenstein’s political, economic, social and foreign policy context, and the ability to analyse and make recommendations on key developments and issues.
  • Proficiency with social media platforms and an ability to draft content and improve digital engagement
  • Demonstrated experience in corporate management and delivery of financial, human resources, property and procurement services.
  • Strong interpersonal skills and ability to independently liaise with stakeholders, and develop and maintain a wide range of productive working relationships. 
  • Excellent organisational skills and judgement, including the ability to manage competing priorities and work productively as part of a small team
  • Knowledge of Australia and its interests and priorities would be an advantage.
  • Relevant tertiary qualifications and work experience would be an advantage.
  • Valid Swiss Driver’s Licence with relevant driving experience and a proven safety record.
  • An ability to navigate, follow directions and provide advice on travel routes.

3. Describe Australia -US relations during the Cold War.

Australia–Vietnam relations

Foreign relations exist between Australia and Vietnam. Australia has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate in Ho Chi Minh City. Vietnam has an embassy in Canberra.
History

While their first contact dated at 19th century as the British Empire was paying attention on colonizing countries in Asia, subsequent French colonization of Vietnam denied formal contact between Vietnam and Australia. Until the end of World War II, relations between Australia and Vietnam were almost non-existent.

Vietnam War and aftermath

Subsequent fear of communist expansionism drew Australia to the eve of Vietnam War, in which Australia participated as part of anti-communist led-intervention to Vietnam to assist South Vietnam against North Vietnam. Australia committed 50,000 troops against the communists, which 520 were killed. The war had a deep effect on Australian society.

Following the end of the Vietnam War, Australia hosted a lot Vietnamese refugees fleeing the country’s economic downfall and political isolation. The Vietnamese refugees were the first large group of non-European migrants into Australia following the removal of the White Australia policy.

Modern days

The end of Cold War and Vietnam’s normalization of foreign relations, Australia soon re-approached relationship with Vietnam and eventually established relations at 1990s. Vietnam is now one of the world’s fastest growing economies, and Australia’s strategic partner, both being members of CPTPP and a popular destination for Australians, many of whom are former soldiers at the Vietnam War. Nonetheless, Australia is also one of the most critical of the violation of human rights in Vietnam done by the communist Government in the country.

Recently, Vietnam has become more reliant in need to Australia’s support to counter growing Chinese influence and aggressive attitudes in South China Sea, which at times has prompted anger from the Chinese Government over Australia’s attitude.

Cultural life

Australia’s isolation as an island continent has done much to shape—and inhibit—its culture. The Aboriginal peoples developed their accommodation with the environment over a period of at least 40,000 years, during which time they had little contact with the outside world. When Britain settled New South Wales as a penal colony in 1788, it did so partly because of the continent’s remoteness. Australia’s convict heritage ensured that European perceptions of the environment were often influenced by the sense of exile and alienation. Yet, the distance from Britain—and the isolation it imposed—strengthened rather than weakened ties with it. The ambivalence of the continuing colonial relationship, which only began to be dismantled in the second half of the 20th century, has been a central cultural preoccupation in Australia.

Until World War II, Australian culture was almost exclusively Anglo-Celtic. The Aboriginal population was small and persecuted, and the Commonwealth government’s exclusivist White Australia policy helped to maintain the continent’s striking cultural homogeneity. However, in the second half of the 20th century, immigration rules were relaxed, and large influxes of both immigrants and refugees from eastern Asia, the Middle East, and various continental European countries made their way to Australia, each leaving an indelible imprint on the continent’s culture. Likewise, a revival of Aboriginal identity and positive measures from the government to redress past wrongs, along with a dramatic increase in the Aboriginal population, unleashed a renaissance in the Aboriginal arts.

Daily life and social customs

Australians are proud of their heritage and progress—proud of the fact that a nation of convicts and working-class folks could build a modern egalitarian society in a rough and inhospitable land. They typically disdain the pompous and ostentatious, and they are often characterized as informal and “laid back,” an impression fostered by the typical and now internationally recognized greeting among “mates” and “sheilas”: G’day (Good day). Their tastes in popular fashions and entertainment differ little from those in Europe and North America, and their humour is often characterized as sarcastic, ironic, and self-deprecating.

Drinking and gambling have long been important aspects of Australian popular culture, despite persistent government attempts to regulate and limit them. Beer has traditionally been the drink of choice, but the explosion of Australian wine production has somewhat altered patterns. Since World War II, laws generally have been liberalized in favour of more “civilized” drinking and greater access to gambling, often through government-owned agencies. However, whereas an older generation turned to the pub for socializing, many of the young are likely to seek out the disco or trendy bar or restaurant.

4. Give an overview of Sino- Australian economic relations.
5. Describe the nature and features of Australia –ASEAN relations.


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Section-B


Write a short note on each part of the following questions in about 250 words.

6. a) Analyze Australian immigration Policy
b) Evaluate the contribution of environmental agencies in Australia

7. a) Australia policy towards human rights
b) Analyze Australia’s immigration policy


8. a) Australia policy of economic restructuring
b) East Timor, Australia and Indonesia relations

9. a) Australia’s views on the nuclear arm race
b) Australia and WTO

10. a) Australia’s uranium export policy
b) Changing trends of foreign policy of Australia


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IGNOU Instructions for the MPSE 013 AUSTRALIA’S FOREIGN POLICY Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 013 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 013 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU MPSE 013 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU MPSE 013 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU MPSE 013 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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MPSE 013 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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