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IGNOU MPSE 012 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 012 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , MPSE 012 STATE AND SOCIETY IN AUSTRALIA Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : MPSE 012 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU MPSE 012 Assignment 2022-23, MPSE 012 Assignment 2022-23 , MPSE 012 Assignment , MPSE 012 STATE AND SOCIETY IN AUSTRALIA Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- MASTER’S DEGREE PROGRAMME IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Courses Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MASTER’S DEGREE PROGRAMME IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Courses Programme for the year 2022-23.




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IGNOU MPSE 012 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

: Answer any five questions in about 500 words each. Attempt at least two questions from each section. Each question carries 20 marks.

Section-A


1. Examine the key features of multiculturalism in Australia.

Multiculturalism in Australia is today reflected by the multicultural composition of its people, its immigration policies, its prohibition on discrimination, equality before the law of all persons, as well as various cultural policies which promote diversity, such as the formation of the Special Broadcasting Service.

According to the 2011 census, 26% of the population were born overseas and a further 20% had at least one parent born overseas. Aboriginal Australians make up approximately 2.5% of the population. Australia’s diverse migrant communities have brought with them food, lifestyle and cultural practices, which have been absorbed into mainstream Australian culture.

Historically, Australia adhered to the White Australia Policy. The policy was dismantled after World War II by various changes to the immigration policy of the Australian government.

History

Pre-Federation

Prior to European colonisation, the Australian continent had been inhabited by various Aboriginal peoples for around 60,000 years, and the Torres Strait Islands was inhabited by various groups of Torres Strait Islander peoples. Among them they spoke at least 250 mutually unintelligible languages (linguist Claire Bowern suggests up to 363), which included around 800 dialects. An estimated 120 of these were still spoken as of 2016, and several more are being revived through language revival programmes.

Makassan trepangers (along with shipwrecked Dutch sailors) made contact with Indigenous Australians along the northern coast of Australia during the 17th and mid-18th centuries, although this did not lead to permanent settlement. Beginning with the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788, waves of European settlers began to emigrate to the Australian continent. By 1901, the Australian continent consisted of six British colonies, which in 1901 agreed to federate into one state.

White Australia policy

The Immigration Restriction Act 1901, known informally as the White Australia policy, restricted non-European immigration to Australia from 1901 to 1973. The policy limited the ethnic and cultural diversity of the immigrant population. The policy was an attempt to preserve the “Anglo-Saxon” ethno-cultural identity of the Australian nation, promote European immigration, and to exclude persons who did not fit the European, predominantly Anglo-Celtic, character of Australian society. As the twentieth century progressed and the number of migrants from the United Kingdom became insufficient to meet labour shortages, immigrants came increasingly from other parts of Europe, such as Italy, Greece, Germany, the Netherlands, and the former Yugoslavia. The prevailing attitude to migrant settlement up until this time was based on the expectation of assimilation—that is, that migrants should shed their cultures and languages and rapidly become indistinguishable from the host population.

Emergence of multiculturalism

From the mid-1960s until 1973, when the final vestiges of the White Australia policy were removed, policies started to examine assumptions about assimilation. They recognised that many migrants, especially those whose first language was not English, experienced hardships as they settled in Australia, and required more direct assistance. Governments also recognised the importance of ethnic organisations in helping with migrant settlement. Expenditure on migrant assistance and welfare increased in the early 1970s in response to these needs.

Following the initial moves of the Whitlam government in 1973, further official national multicultural policies were implemented by Fraser’s conservative Coalition government in 1978. The Labor Government of Bob Hawke continued with these policies during the 1980s and early 1990s, and were further supported by Paul Keating up to his electoral defeat 1996. “CALD” (or Culturally and Linguistically Diverse) policies continue to be implemented at all levels of government and public service, such as medical support systems which cater specifically to non-English speaking residents.

The meaning of multiculturalism has been altered significantly since its formal introduction to Australia. Originally it was understood by the mainstream population as a need for acceptance that many members of the Australian community originally came from different cultures and still had ties to it. However, it came to mean the rights of migrants within mainstream Australia to express their cultural identity. It is now often used to refer to the notion that people in Australia have multiple cultural or ethnic backgrounds.

The overall level of immigration to Australia has grown during the last decades. Net overseas immigrants increased from 30,000 in 1993 to 118,000 in 2003–04, and 262,500 in 2016–17.

According to the 2011 census, 26% of the population were born overseas, with a further 20% having at least one parent born overseas. Of the population born overseas, 82% lived in the capital cities. Aboriginal Australians make up approximately 2.5% of the population. In 2008, Australia was ranked 18th in the world in terms of net migration per capita, ahead of Canada, the US and most of Europe.

According to the National Agenda for a Multicultural Australia in 2014, the Australian Government was concerned with three broad policy areas: cultural identity, social justice, and economic efficiency.

2. Describe nature and features of federalism in Australia.

Federalism was adopted, as a constitutional principle, in Australia on 1 January 1901 – the date upon which the six self-governing Australian Colonies of New South WalesQueenslandSouth AustraliaTasmaniaVictoria, and Western Australia federated, formally constituting the Commonwealth of Australia. It remains a federation of those six “original States” under the Constitution of Australia.

Australia is the sixth oldest surviving federation in the world after the United States (1789), Mexico (1824), Switzerland (1848), Canada (1867), and Brazil (1891).

Relatively few changes have been made in terms of the formal (written) constitution since Australian federation occurred; in practice, however, the way the federal system functions has changed enormously. The most significant respect in which it has changed is in the degree to which the Commonwealth government has assumed a position of dominance.

Federation

Instigated by Henry Parkes‘ Tenterfield Oration of 24 October 1889, the Australian Colonies conducted a series of constitutional conventions through the 1890s. These culminated in a draft Constitution that was put to popular vote in the individual colonies, and eventually approved by the electors, after a final round of changes met the higher threshold of support required in New South Wales. It was then passed into law by the Imperial Parliament in Britain as the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900, finalising the process of the Federation of Australia.

The rather desultory way in which federation proceeded reflected the absence of compelling urgency. The colonies saw some advantage in removing tariff barriers to inter-colonial trade and commerce, having a greater strategic presence, and gaining access to investment capital at lower rates; individually, though, none of these represented a driving force. Taken together with the emergence for the first time of a distinct sense of Australian national identity, however, they were collectively sufficient. This lack of urgency was also reflected in their desire to create a minimally-centralised union.

Federal features in the Australian Constitution

In its design, Australia’s federal system was modelled closely on the American federal system. This included: enumeration of the powers of parliament (s. 51) and not those of the States, with the States being assigned a broad ‘residual’ power instead (s. 108); a ‘supremacy’ clause (s. 109); strong bicameralism, with a Senate in which the States are equally represented notwithstanding great disparities in population (s. 7); the division of senators into different cohorts on alternating electoral cycles (s. 13); the establishment of a supreme court empowered to declare actions of either level of government unconstitutional, the High Court of Australia (s. 71); and a complex two-step amending procedure (s. 128).

Development of Australian Federalism

Since federation, the balance of power between levels of government has shifted substantially from the founders’ vision. The shift has transferred power from State governments to the Commonwealth government. While voters have generally rejected proposals to enhance the Commonwealth’s authority through constitutional amendment, the High Court has obliged, with generous interpretation of the Commonwealth’s enumerated powers. A major factor has been the way the Commonwealth government has monopolised access to the main revenue sources.

For the first two decades, Australian federalism stayed reasonably true to the “co-ordinate” vision of the framers. In co-ordinate federalism, the Commonwealth and the States were both financially and politically independent within their own spheres of responsibility. This was reinforced by the High Court, which in a number of decisions in those early years rejected Commonwealth government attempts to extend its authority into areas of State jurisdiction.

A factor in the expansion of Commonwealth powers Australia’s involvement in the First World War. The turning point really came, though, with the High Court’s decision in the 1920 Engineers Case, Amalgamated Society of Engineers v Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd, repudiating its early doctrines that had protected the co-ordinate model and the place of the States in the federation.

A system of co-operative federalism began to emerge in the 1920s and 1930s in response to both internal and external pressures. Elements of cooperative federalism included: the establishment of the Australian Loan Council in response to intergovernmental competition in the loan markets; the co-ordination of economic management and budgetary policies during the Great Depression; and the establishment of joint consultative bodies, usually in the form of ministerial councils.

A second turning point came with the threat to Australia at the beginning of the Second World War and the Commonwealth government’s mobilisation of financial resources. The constitutional framework on tax allowed both the Commonwealth and States to levy taxes. However, in 1942 the Commonwealth introduced legislation to give it a monopoly on income taxes. It did this by providing financial grants to states (using the section 96 grants power), on the condition that they did not collect their own income taxes. The validity of this scheme was upheld twice in the High Court. “Uniform” income taxation levied by the Commonwealth became the principal instrument of Commonwealth financial domination and vertical imbalance in the Australian federal system (vertical fiscal imbalance). The system allowed the Commonwealth to intrude into traditional fields of State responsibility by means of specific purpose grants or loans to the States for purposes such as education, health and transport. Extensive use of these ‘tied grants’ by the Labor Government 1972–75 provided a “work-around” solution for the Australian Labor Party’s long-standing frustration with the obstacles of federalism. It thus helped diminish Labor’s antipathy to the federal system in Australia.

Despite the centralisation of legislative and financial power, there are many areas where federal Parliament lacks the power to regulate comprehensively, even where such regulation might be seen to be in the national interest. This has led State and federal governments to co-operate to create regulatory regimes in fields such as the marketing of agricultural products and competition policy.

3. What is the role of Australian economy in the era of globalization?

Economy of Australia

Australia’s established world reputation has long been that of a wealthy underpopulated country prone to natural disasters, its economy depending heavily on agriculture (“riding on the sheep’s back”) and foreign investment. This description was reasonably fair during the first century of European settlement, when wool exports reigned supreme. Wheat, beef, lamb, dairy produce, and a range of irrigated crops also became important, but the key significance of farming and grazing was not challenged. However, this image was shattered by the growth of manufacturing and services and especially by the spectacular developments in mineral exploitation after World War II.

In another sense, there was no break in continuity. Reliance on foreign investment and a vulnerability to world markets made it difficult for Australians to divest themselves of their traditional roles as minor or peripheral players in an interconnected global system. As manufacturing began declining in the last decades of the 20th century, other aspects of this entrenched dependency status were exposed. Australia’s governments have usually shown a pronounced readiness to intervene in the economy, but in general the economy has been dominated by foreign interests—first by those of the United Kingdom, then by the United States and Japan, and more recently by giant multinational corporations.

Nonetheless, there are two distinct and comparatively new features of Australia’s economy. The first has been a grudging acceptance of the vital economic and strategic significance of the Asia-Pacific region and a rising awareness of the opportunities to be grasped there. Second, despite a measure of discomfiture in some quarters, Australia’s corporate, financial, political, and bureaucratic cultures have steadfastly embraced a more rationalist economic philosophy that seemed to accept as inevitable a comprehensive globalization and deregulation of the country’s economy.

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

Most of Australia’s soils are mediocre or poor by world standards. There are no extensive areas of rich, adaptable soils that compare to those of the great intensive farming regions of other sizable countries (e.g., the Cotton and Corn belts of the United States). Chemical deficiencies are particularly common, and it is often necessary to apply generous amounts of phosphate and traces of numerous other nutrients.

With good reason, Australia is regularly described as the driest of the inhabited continents, and vast areas of the country are unsuitable for agricultural production. The average annual rainfall is approximately 18 inches (460 mm), and more than one-third of the mainland, principally the interior, receives less than 10 inches (250 mm). Aridity or semiaridity prevails over most of Australia, and evaporation rates are extremely high, so that less than 2 inches (50 mm) of the national total contributes surface runoff for natural and modified systems. The combined discharge from all Australian rivers including the Murray-Darling, the country’s principal river system, is the equivalent of only about half that of China’s Yangtze River, and records for both the Mississippi and the Ganges rivers indicate discharges greater than one and one-half times Australia’s aggregate total.
In addition, there are wide regional disparities. In the sparsely populated northern sector, runoff draining into the Timor Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria accounts for half the national total, and the tropical north as a whole contributes about two-thirds. Subsurface resources are extensive. Good groundwater assets have been located in three-fifths of the country, including much of the dry interior. The Great Artesian Basin is the largest of its type in the world and gives a measure of security to one-fifth of the mainland.
Native flora and fauna have been dramatically undervalued. When Europeans began colonizing Australia in 1788, nearly one-tenth of the continent may have been covered by forest, and two-fifths by woodlands, including savanna woodlands. It seems likely that less than half of the forested area had commercial potential. Yet, until the late 20th century, clearing was done at a frenzied rate and often indiscriminately. In the late 1980s it was roughly estimated that, with the exception of the Northern Territory, the proportions of forest and scrub cover cleared during two centuries of European occupation was between one-third and two-thirds in each state. Even if this is somewhat overstated, it suggests a thoroughly savage onslaught, given the relatively short period of European occupation and the European population’s originally restricted distribution.

 

Overgrazing has caused some deterioration of the saltbush, stunted trees, and native grasslands of the interior, but in the tropics the productivity of the original pastures has been increased by introducing improved strains of grasses and heat- and tick-resistant cattle. Far too little has been done to farm the kangaroo and wallaby populations on a commercial basis; this might be preferable, on economic and environmental grounds, to the regular culling operations that mainly serve the pet-food trade.

Accelerated soil erosion, including rampaging gully erosion and disfiguring landslips, was noted by the first generations of European settlers in the southeastern colonies. The threat of soil salinization was reported later, especially in the irrigation districts where it was associated with overwatering and poor drainage.

With more than half of Australian land currently being privately owned by land managers or farmers, environmentalists and government agencies have recognized the importance of collaborating with local communities to work toward more sustainable agricultural practices. The key to successful agricultural production is through the maintenance and protection of rich biodiversity in the local area. To assist and support farmers in managing natural resources, the Australian government has provided funding through incentive schemes to farmers and by investing in environmental groups and programs that deliver sustainable agricultural and environmental outcomes.

Land degradation became a major issue from the 1980s, when media coverage became intense and well-directed education programs proliferated. In 1989 Landcare, a movement of grassroots organizations, became an official federal government program, the National Landcare Programme. A “Decade of Landcare Plan” was proclaimed for the 1990s, and a nationally coordinated schedule was drawn up to promote new cultivation methods, extensive tree planting, modest and adventurous engineering solutions, and wholesale changes in production systems.

4. Describe the features of party system in Australia.
5. Analyze the response of the Australian state to women’s issues.


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IGNOU MPSE 012 Solved Assignment 2022-23




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Section-B


Write a short note on each part of the following questions in about 250 words.

6. a) Features of Australian federation
b) Indigenous people and self-determination in Australia

7. a) British colonial policies on aboriginals in Australia
b) Constitutional crisis of 1975 in Australia


8. a) Politics of recognition in Australia
b) Relationship between nationalism and multiculturalism in Australia

9. a) Role of pressure groups in Australia
b) Australia’s nuclear non-proliferation policy

10. a) Role of Senate in Australian Parliament
b) Healthcare and Education policy of Australia


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IGNOU MPSE 012 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
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