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IGNOU MPSE 005 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 005 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , MPSE 005 STATE AND SOCIETY IN AFRICA Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : MPSE 005 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU MPSE 005 Assignment 2022-23, MPSE 005 Assignment 2022-23 , MPSE 005 Assignment , MPSE 005 STATE AND SOCIETY IN AFRICA Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- MASTER’S DEGREE PROGRAMME IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Courses Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MASTER’S DEGREE PROGRAMME IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Courses Programme for the year 2022-23.




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IGNOU MPSE 005 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

: Answer any five questions in about 500 words each. Attempt at least two questions from each section. Each question carries 20 marks.

Section-A


1. In what ways did colonial rule alter the domestic and international economic relations of the African continent?

Decolonization of Asia and Africa, 1945-1960

Between 1945 and 1960, three dozen new states in Asia and Africa achieved autonomy or outright independence from their European colonial rulers. There was no one process of decolonization. In some areas, it was peaceful, and orderly. In many others, independence was achieved only after a protracted revolution. A few newly independent countries acquired stable governments almost immediately; others were ruled by dictators or military juntas for decades, or endured long civil wars. Some European governments welcomed a new relationship with their former colonies; others contested decolonization militarily. The process of decolonization coincided with the new Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, and with the early development of the new United Nations. Decolonization was often affected by superpower competition, and had a definite impact on the evolution of that competition. It also significantly changed the pattern of international relations in a more general sense. The creation of so many new countries, some of which occupied strategic locations, others of which possessed significant natural resources, and most of which were desperately poor, altered the composition of the United Nations and political complexity of every region of the globe.

In the mid to late 19th century, the European powers colonized much of Africa and Southeast Asia. During the decades of imperialism, the industrializing powers of Europe viewed the African and Asian continents as reservoirs of raw materials, labor, and territory for future settlement. In most cases, however, significant development and European settlement in these colonies was sporadic. However, the colonies were exploited, sometimes brutally, for natural and labor resources, and sometimes even for military conscripts. In addition, the introduction of colonial rule drew arbitrary natural boundaries where none had existed before, dividing ethnic and linguistic groups and natural features, and laying the foundation for the creation of numerous states lacking geographic, linguistic, ethnic, or political affinity.

During World War II Japan, itself a significant imperial power, drove the European powers out of Asia. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, local nationalist movements in the former Asian colonies campaigned for independence rather than a return to European colonial rule. In many cases, as in Indonesia and French Indochina, these nationalists had been guerrillas fighting the Japanese after European surrenders, or were former members of colonial military establishments. These independence movements often appealed to the United States Government for support.

While the United States generally supported the concept of national self-determination, it also had strong ties to its European allies, who had imperial claims on their former colonies. The Cold War only served to complicate the U.S. position, as U.S. support for decolonization was offset by American concern over communist expansion and Soviet strategic ambitions in Europe. Several of the NATO allies asserted that their colonial possessions provided them with economic and military strength that would otherwise be lost to the alliance. Nearly all of the United States’ European allies believed that after their recovery from World War II their colonies would finally provide the combination of raw materials and protected markets for finished goods that would cement the colonies to Europe. Whether or not this was the case, the alternative of allowing the colonies to slip away, perhaps into the United States’ economic sphere or that of another power, was unappealing to every European government interested in postwar stability. Although the U.S. Government did not force the issue, it encouraged the European imperial powers to negotiate an early withdrawal from their overseas colonies. The United States granted independence to the Philippines in 1946.

However, as the Cold War competition with the Soviet Union came to dominate U.S. foreign policy concerns in the late 1940s and 1950s, the Truman and Eisenhower Administrations grew increasingly concerned that as the European powers lost their colonies or granted them independence, Soviet-supported communist parties might achieve power in the new states. This might serve to shift the international balance of power in favor of the Soviet Union and remove access to economic resources from U.S. allies. Events such as the Indonesian struggle for independence from the Netherlands (1945-50), the Vietnamese war against France (1945-54), and the nationalist and professed socialist takeovers of Egypt (1952) and Iran (1951) served to reinforce such fears, even if new governments did not directly link themselves to the Soviet Union. Thus, the United States used aid packages, technical assistance and sometimes even military intervention to encourage newly independent nations in the Third World to adopt governments that aligned with the West. The Soviet Union deployed similar tactics in an effort to encourage new nations to join the communist bloc, and attempted to convince newly decolonized countries that communism was an intrinsically non-imperialist economic and political ideology. Many of the new nations resisted the pressure to be drawn into the Cold War, joined in the “nonaligned movement,” which formed after the Bandung conference of 1955, and focused on internal development.

The newly independent nations that emerged in the 1950s and the 1960s became an important factor in changing the balance of power within the United Nations. In 1946, there were 35 member states in the United Nations; as the newly independent nations of the “third world” joined the organization, by 1970 membership had swelled to 127. These new member states had a few characteristics in common; they were non-white, with developing economies, facing internal problems that were the result of their colonial past, which sometimes put them at odds with European countries and made them suspicious of European-style governmental structures, political ideas, and economic institutions. These countries also became vocal advocates of continuing decolonization, with the result that the UN Assembly was often ahead of the Security Council on issues of self-governance and decolonization. The new nations pushed the UN toward accepting resolutions for independence for colonial states and creating a special committee on colonialism, demonstrating that even though some nations continued to struggle for independence, in the eyes of the international community, the colonial era was ending.

The supply of African slaves to American plantations reached an all-time high in the late 18th century (Klein 1999). After anti-slave trade legislation finally shut down the Atlantic slave exports, commodity exports filled the gap. This so-called ‘commercial transition’ was completed in West Africa before it hit East Africa (Austen 1987, Law 2002). It was a game-changer, since it put a halt to the continuous drain of scarce labour and paved the way for the expansion of land-intensive forms of tropical agriculture, engaging smallholders, communal farms, and estates.

The establishment of colonial rule over the African interior (c. 1880-1900) reinforced Africa’s commodity export growth. Colonial control facilitated the construction of railways, induced large inflows of European investment, and forced profound changes in the operation of labour and land markets (Frankema and van Waijenburg 2012). That is, colonial regimes abolished slavery, but they replaced it with other forced labour schemes. The scramble pushed African exports to new heights, but without the preceding era of commercialisation the African scramble probably would never have taken place.

The Industrial Revolution

Africa’s commercial transition was inextricably connected to the rising demand for industrial inputs from the industrialising core in the North Atlantic. Revolutions in transportation (railways, steamships), a move towards liberal trade policies in Europe, and increasing rates of GDP growth enhanced demand for (new) manufactures, raw materials and tropical cash crops. African producers responded to this demand by increasing exports of vegetable oils (palm oil, groundnuts), gum, ivory, gold, hides and skins. Palm oil, a key export, was highly valued as a lubricant for machinery and an ingredient in food and soap. During and after the scramble, the range of commodity exports broadened to include raw materials like rubber, cotton, and copper, as well as cash crops such as cocoa, coffee, tea and tobacco. The lion’s share of these commodities went directly to manufacturing firms and consumers in Europe. Meanwhile, technological innovations also reduced the costs of colonial occupation. These included the Maxim gun, the steamship, the railway and quinine, the latter lowering the health risks to Europeans in the disease-ridden interior of the ‘dark continent’.


2. Analyze the role of African Union in World Politics.

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 member states located on the continent of Africa. The AU was announced in the Sirte Declaration in Sirte, Libya, on 9 September 1999, calling for the establishment of the African Union. The bloc was founded on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and launched on 9 July 2002 in Durban, South Africa. The intention of the AU was to replace the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa by 32 signatory governments; the OAU was disbanded on 9 July 2002. The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states.The AU’s secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa. The largest city in the AU is Lagos, Nigeria, while the largest urban agglomeration is Cairo, Egypt. The African Union has more than 1.3 billion people and an area of around 29 million km2 (11 million sq mi) and includes popular world landmarks, such as the Sahara and the Nile. The primary working languages are Arabic, English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, and Swahili. 
Within the African Union, there are official bodies, such as the Peace and Security Council and the Pan-African Parliament.In May 1963, 32 Heads of independent African States met in Addis Ababa Ethiopia to sign the Charter creating Africa’s first post-independence continental institution, The Organisation of African Unity (OAU). The OAU was the manifestation of the pan-African vision for an Africa that was united, free and in control of its own destiny and this was solemnised in the OAU Charter in which the founding fathers recognised that freedom, equality, justice and dignity were essential objectives for the achievement of the legitimate aspirations of the African peoples and that there was a need to promote understanding among Africa’s peoples and foster cooperation among African states in response to the aspirations of Africans for brother-hood and solidarity, in a larger unity transcending ethnic and national Differences.
The guiding philosophy was that of Pan-Africanism which centred on African socialism and promoted African unity, the communal characteristic and practices of African communities, and a drive to embrace Africa’s culture and common heritageThe main objectives of the OAU were to rid the continent of the remaining vestiges of colonisation and apartheid; to promote unity and solidarity amongst African States; to coordinate and intensify cooperation for development; to safeguard the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Member States and to promote international cooperation. The OAU Charter spelled out the purpose of the Organisation namely:
  • To promote the unity and solidarity of the African States;
  • To coordinate and intensify their cooperation and efforts to achieve a better life for the peoples of Africa;
  • To defend their sovereignty, their territorial integrity and independence;
  • To eradicate all forms of colonialism from Africa; and
  • To promote international cooperation, having due regard to the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Through the OAU Coordinating Committee for the Liberation of Africa, the Continent worked and spoke as one with undivided determination in forging an international consensus in support of the liberation struggle and the fight against apartheid. The OAU had provided an effective forum that enabled all Member States to adopt coordinated positions on matters of common concern to the continent in international fora and defend the interests of Africa effectively.On 9.9.1999, the Heads of State and Government of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) issued the Sirte Declaration calling for the establishment of an African Union, with a view, to accelerating the process of integration in the continent to enable Africa to play its rightful role in the global economy while addressing multifaceted social, economic and political problems compounded as they were by certain negative aspects of globalisation.

The launch of the African Union
The African Union (AU) was officially launched in July 2002 in Durban, South Africa, following a decision in September 1999 by its predecessor, the OAU to create a new continental organisation to build on its work. The decision to re-launch Africa’s pan-African organisation was the outcome of a consensus by African leaders that in order to realise Africa’s potential, there was a need to refocus attention from the fight for decolonisation and ridding the continent of apartheid, which had been the focus of the OAU, towards increased cooperation and integration of African states to drive Africa’s growth and economic development.

3. Define the challenges of development in African countries.

These endemic problems range from abject poverty, violence, underutilise agriculture, infrastructure, lack of access to credit facilities, social fractionalisation, poor health facilities, poor education to catastrophic civil unrest; which are linked to illiteracy, lack of proper institution and exploitation by corrupt and brutal leaders. These block African from encountering and supporting sustainable development and recovery of Africa. When these gaps are addressed, many opportunities will open for the youth like entrepreneurship, which shall, in turn, create millions of employments and solve the problem of transitioning to the risk of unemployment.

Access to Capital

African’s financial system is not well established. Most of the financial institutions in the continent are foreign-owned that denied credit services to the local population due to their inability to match up the high transaction costs, difficulty in assessing and managing their risk profiles, lack of the required financial documentation as well as lack of collateral. If the countries could provide the supportive capacity to the African people, that could have equipped them enough to start their initiative of choice like a microfinance institution; an institution that will not only facilitate modernisation of the economy, but also help small business owners and farmers get access to capital through micro-financing.

Besides supporting small businesses, the institution can create jobs. Rampant unemployment plays a huge role in instability in most African countries, South Sudan, Congo, Somali to mention few. Jobless youths fall vulnerable to recruitment by warlords, who use them to achieve their political ambitions. An employed youth cannot leave his/her decent job for a dangerous undertaking such as militancy.

Infrastructure development drives economic transformation

It is accepted that infrastructure development is critical to Africa’s economic transformation. The growth of the continent happens with the availability of adequate infrastructure. Many African countries still have insufficiency of state-owned infrastructure facilities, and that should’ve to lead to an effective contribution to the generation of revenue for the government that could be injected in the public activities.  This necessitates for the state’s government to provide adequate facilities to the public, local and foreign private sector firms to promote rapid achievement of sustainable economic growth through Intra-Africa trade and investment.

Turning Resources into Continental Prosperity

Africa potentiality lies in it fertile land, water full of fishing as well as other water-natural resources, that can help its citizens, in its knowledge and markets transformation. With Africa recognising it natural resource opportunity, agriculture could be significant pillars to the transformation of Africa economic and development, this can contribute to the continent major priorities such as eradicating of poverty and hunger in the region, boosting intra- Africa trade and investment, sustainable resources, promotion of industrialisation, creating jobs, human security, environmental management, and continent prosperity.

Energy security and other national resource are keys important to Africa development. Providing energy system to Africa rural household especially kerosene remains a major challenge due to the cost of electrifies infrastructure. Investment in a renewable energy project in Africa can increases insufficient, this believed that there is vast untapped natural gas in Africa with significant hydroelectric power potential.  However, numerous challenges for investors in funding project in Africa remain constant insufficient regulatory framework and social fractionalisation. This needs a government to essentialise for private sector investment in energy projects to reduce and solve a developmental challenge.

Poor governance and institutional accountability, it is an easy fix. Electing leaders with the capacity to deliver on the aspirations of Africa should suffice. One of the reasons many African countries end up with bad leaders is a blind support of a candidate simply because of ethnic affiliation. It can be solved by sensitising Africa’s youth on the consequences of their choices as well as encouraging them to shun sectarianism.  Strong institutions created in the will of its citizens, they can push forward true leadership, democratic governance and unity for Africa.

Technology a Driver of Growth and Productivity

Africa has the advantage of being able to leapfrog directly to use the latest technology. It is estimated that more Africans have access to mobile phones than to clean water and electricity, (World Bank, 2011). Although costs remain high, Africa’s Internet infrastructure capacity has increased tenfold since 2006 and the entire continent now has access to undersea fibre optic cables.

African countries should begin to be partners to other developed countries in an enhancing conceptualisation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of developmental policies and programmes like agricultural productivities and strengthening financial institution; not economic slaves. Most of the African countries tend to borrow from other countries more than they produce. By so doing, they end up burdened by debt; and usually, creditors use this leverage to influence the countries’ policies on their favor. Such dependence interferes with the sovereignty of a country.

Finally, Africa should leverage science and technology to catalyze faster economic growth. Technologically advancement is correlated to the high rate of development—something that could easily be seen in the rapid development in countries such as Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, et cetera.

4. Critically examine the forms and causes of violence in Africa.
5. Describe the British and French pattern of colonialism in Africa.


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Section-B


Write a short note on each part of the following questions in about 250 words.

6. a) Post-Cold War peace-keeping in Africa
b) The end of Slave trade

7. a) Nature of anti-colonial movements in Africa
b) Rise of multi-party regimes of Africa



8. a) Challenges of development process in African countries
b) Ethnic conflict in Burundi and Rwanda

9. a) India policy towards Africa
b) Indian FDI in Africa

10. a) Africa’s debt crisis
b) African experiences of globalization




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IGNOU MPSE 005 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
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