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IGNOU MPSE 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPSE 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , MPSE 001 INDIA AND THE WORLD Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : MPSE 001 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU MPSE 001 Assignment 2022-23, MPSE 001 Assignment 2022-23 , MPSE 001 Assignment , MPSE 001 INDIA AND THE WORLD Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- MASTER’S DEGREE PROGRAMME IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Courses Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MASTER’S DEGREE PROGRAMME IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Courses Programme for the year 2022-23.




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IGNOU MPSE 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

: Answer any five questions in about 500 words each. Attempt at least two questions from each section. Each question carries 20 marks.

Section-A


1. Explain historical linkages, economic and security cooperation between India and
Central Asia.

India’s relation with Central Asia has a long history. The two regions have shared deep cultural linkages with each other over two millennia in terms of people to people contact, trade, and commerce.

The close trade and cultural linkages between the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia, whose beginnings can be traced to the Indus valley civilization, tapered after India’s partition in 1947 as New Delhi found itself without a direct land corridor to the region. This meant that goods from India bound for the Central Asian region, instead of going through Pakistan and Afghanistan, would have to take much longer routes which usually involved the sea route to Iran and then overland through Iran, rendering New Delhi’s exports to the region less competitive.

Despite these economic and trade disadvantages, India’s close political relations with the Soviet Union helped ensure continued diplomatic ties with Central Asia in the decades after India’s independence. As the Soviet and Cold War era came to an end in 1991, India, the only non-communist nation with a diplomatic outpost in Central Asia, found itself in an advantageous position to strengthen ties with the newly independent Central Asian Republics :  Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

Geo Strategic importance of Central Asia

  • Central Asia is strategically positioned as an access point between Europe and Asia and offers extensive potential for trade, investment, and growth.
  • Central Asia is not a part of India’s immediate neighborhood and therefore it doesn’t share borders with India, the issue of connectivity between the two regions becomes of paramount importance.

Geo economic Importance of Central Asia:

  • The region is richly endowed with natural resources like  crude oil, natural gas,  gold, copper, aluminum, and iron.

Security  Importance of Central Asia

  • Central Asian region is  located close to the conflict prone area of West Asia and Afghanistan. There are very high chances of  any security threat spreading into the Central Asian region.
  • To tackle the challenge of terrorism, narcotics trafficking and arms smuggling.
  • Religious extremism, fundamentalism and terrorism continue to pose challenges to Central Asian societies as well as regional stability.

India and Connect Central Asia  policy

  • The Central Asian region is considered to be the part of India’s “extended neighborhood.” Due to increasing presence of China, India formulated its Connect Central Asia Policy in 2012 which is a broad-based approach including political, security, economic, and cultural connections.
  • The primary goal behind the Connect Central Asia policy was re-connecting with the region which has a long shared history with India.
  • The key elements of this policy cover many important issue areas, including political cooperation, economic cooperation, strategic cooperation, regional connectivity, information technology (IT), cooperation in education, people-to-people contact, medical cooperation, and cooperation in regional groupings.

Areas of Cooperation

Energy 

  • Energy is the most important area of co-operation. The CAR countries have an abundance of energy resources.
  • Kazakhastan is one of the first countries with which India launched civil nuclear cooperation.It has been supplying nuclear fuel to Indian nuclear plants since 2010.
  • The TAPI project ,a trans-country natural gas pipeline from Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan to India through Afghanistan and Pakistan is  as an important  to connect energy rich Central Asia with energy starved South Asia.
  • It contains vast hydrocarbon fields both on-shore and off-shore in the Caspian Sea which homes around 4 percent of the world’s natural gas reserves and approximately 3 percent of oil reserves.

Security and Defense

  • Security, stability and prosperity of Central Asia is imperative for peace and economic development of India. Central Asia comprises our ”extended neighborhood”, it deserves much greater attention than it has received so far.
  • India and Central Asian countries have a shared interest in the stability of Afghanistan and counter-terror initiatives
  • India conducts annual military exercises with some Central Asian countries .
    • Khanjar” is annual  joint military exercise between  India  and Kyrgystan.
    • “Kazind” is annual  joint military exercise between  India  and Kazakhastan

India recently joined the Shanghai Cooperation Agreement ( SCO ) a Eurasian political, economic and military organisation which was founded in 2001 . India will get an opportunity to play its due role in stabilising the situation in Afghanistan which is assuming disturbing proportions on account of expanding the power of Taliban.

Benefits of it to India?

  • It provides another venue for engagement with China and Pakistan, building up trust through cooperation.
  • It will help India fulfil its aspiration of playing an active role in its extended neighbourhood as well as checking the ever growing influence of China in Eurasia.
  • India will get an opportunity to play its due role in stabilising the situation in Afghanistan which is assuming disturbing proportions on account of expanding the power of Taliban.
  • Promotion of India’s economic integration with the Central Asian republics, which is in line with India’s Connect Central Asia policy. Member countries of the grouping are rich in energy resources – both hydrocarbons and uranium.
  • India’s potential participation in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) will be an added advantage to make this partnership more fruitful.

Development Cooperation

  • Development Cooperation between India and Central Asia has focused on Lines of Credit that financed development and manufacturing projects
  • The training programs under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) Programme, which started in the early 1990s, continue to flourish in the region.
  • Grants to Tajikistan have included funding to rehabilitate and modernise the Varzob-1 Hydro Power Plant through the Indian Public Sector Units Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) and the National Hydroelectric Power Corporation.
  • India has focused on providing basic training  and skill development to local people through  tool room training centres.
  • There are plans to set up a medical and educational E-Network for the five countries in the Central Asian region based on the model of the Pan African e-Network,[51] which provides remote medical and educational support to hospitals and universities in African countries





2. Trace the evolution of India’s relations with South-east Asia bringing out the main
features of the relationship. 

Southeast Asia was in the Indian sphere of cultural influence from 290 BCE to the 15th century CE, when Hindu-Buddhist influences were incorporated into local political systems. Kingdoms in the southeast coast of the Indian Subcontinent had established trade, cultural and political relations with Southeast Asian kingdoms in Burma, Thailand, Indonesia, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Cambodia and Champa. This led to the Indianisation and Sanskritisation of Southeast Asia within the Indosphere, Southeast Asian polities were the Indianised Hindu-Buddhist Mandala (polities, city states and confederacies).

Indian culture itself arose from various distinct cultures and peoples, also including early Southeast Asian, specifically Austroasiatic influence onto early Indians. A reason for the acceptance of Indian culture and religious traditions in Southeast Asia was because Indian culture already had similarities to indigenous cultures of Southeast Asia, which can be explained by earlier Southeast Asian (specifically Austroasiatic, such as early Munda and Mon Khmer groups), as well as later Himalayan (Tibetic) cultural and linguistic influence onto various Indian groups. Several scholars, such as Professor Przyluski, Jules Bloch, and Lévi, among others, concluded that there is a significant cultural, linguistic, and political Mon-Khmer (Austroasiatic) influence on early Indian culture and traditions. India is seen a melting pot of western, eastern and indigenous traditions. This distinctly Indian cultural system was later adopted and assimilated into the indigenous social construct and statehood of Southeast Asian regional polity, which rulers gained power and stability, transforming small chieftains into regional powers.

Unlike the other kingdoms which existed on the Indian subcontinent, the Pallava empire which ruled the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula did not impose cultural restrictions on people who wished to cross the sea. The Chola empire, which executed the South-East Asian campaign of Rajendra Chola I and the Chola invasion of Srivijaya, profoundly impacted Southeast Asia. This impact led to more exchanges with Southeast Asia on the sea routes. Whereas Buddhism thrived and became the main religion in many countries of Southeast Asia, it became a minority religion in India.

The peoples of maritime Southeast Asia — present-day Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines — are thought to have migrated southward from South China sometime between 2500 and 1500 BC. The influence of the civilization which existed on the Indian Subcontinent gradually became predominant among them, and it also became predominant among the peoples which lived on the Southeast Asian mainland.

Southern Indian traders, adventurers, teachers and priests continued to be the dominating influences in Southeast Asia until about 1500 CE. Hinduism and Buddhism both spread to these states from India and for many centuries, they existed there with mutual toleration. Eventually the states of the mainland mainly became Buddhist.

Mission to ASEAN: India has set up a separate Mission to ASEAN and the EAS in Jakarta in April 2015 with a dedicated Ambassador to strengthen engagement with ASEAN and ASEAN-centric processes.

25th Anniversary of ASEAN-India Dialogue Relations India and ASEAN observed 25 years of their Dialogue Partnership, 15 years of Summit Level interaction and 5 years of Strategic Partnership throughout 2017 by undertaking a wide range of over 60 commemorative activities, both in India and through our Missions in ASEAN Member States, which culminated in the ASEAN-India Commemorative Summit on the theme “Shared Values, Common Destiny” on 25 January 2018 in New Delhi. The commemorative activities included an ASEAN-India Regional Diaspora event in Singapore, a Youth Summit, a Music Festival, an Artists’ Retreat, Port calls by Indian Naval Ships, a Workshop on Blue Economy, a Connectivity Summit, a meeting to reinforce our Network of Think Tanks, a Dharma-Dhamma Conference, a Hackathon and Startup Festival, a Global SME Summit, a Business and Investment Meet and Expo, a Textiles Event, an ICT Expo, a Business Council Meeting, a Ramayana Festival, a Film Festival and the inauguration of an India-ASEAN Friendship Park in the heart of our national capital, New Delhi. The astonishing variety and breadth of these activities laid a firm foundation for an enduring partnership for the future.

At the ASEAN-India Commemorative Summit, PM and the ASEAN Leaders jointly adopted the Delhi Declaration and decided to identify Cooperation in the Maritime Domain as the key area of cooperation under the ASEAN-India strategic partnership.

In an unprecedented gesture, the Leaders of ASEAN countries also graced the 69th Republic Day Parade as India’s Guest of Honour. It was a proud moment for India to host the Leaders of all ten ASEAN countries at the Summit, within a short span of five years.

In 2012, ASEAN and India had commemorated 20 years of dialogue partnership and 10 years of Summit level partnership with ASEAN with a Commemorative Summit held in New Delhi under the theme ‘ASEAN-India Partnership for Peace and Shared Prosperity’ on 20-21 December 2012. The Commemorative Summit attended by the Leaders from all the 10 ASEAN countries endorsed elevating the partnership to a ‘Strategic Partnership’. The Leaders also adopted the ‘ASEAN-India Vision Statement’.

Plans of Action: As a reflection of the interest of ASEAN and India to intensify their engagement, the ASEAN-India Partnership for Peace, Progress and Shared Prosperity, which sets out the roadmap for long-term ASEAN-India engagement, was signed at the 3rd ASEAN-India Summit in 2004 in Vientiane. A Plan of Action (POA) for the period 2004-2010 was also developed to implement the Partnership. The 3rd POA (2016-20) was adopted by the ASEAN-India Foreign Ministers Meeting held in August 2015. Furthermore, ASEAN and India have identified priority areas for the period of 2016-2018 and are already implementing activities under it, which would contribute towards successful implementation of the 2016-2020 Plan of Action.

3. Briefly describe international humanitarian laws and UN concerns for promotion and
protection of human rights in India.

The international human rights movement was strengthened when the United Nations General Assembly adopted of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) on 10 December 1948. Drafted as ‘a common standard of achievement for all peoples and nations’, the Declaration for the first time in human history spell out basic civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights that all human beings should enjoy. It has over time been widely accepted as the fundamental norms of human rights that everyone should respect and protect. The UDHR, together with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its two Optional Protocols, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, form the so – called International Bill of Human Rights.

A series of international human rights treaties and other instruments adopted since 1945 have conferred legal form on inherent human rights and developed the body of international human rights. Other instruments have been adopted at the regional level reflecting the particular human rights concerns of the region and providing for specific mechanisms of protection. Most States have also adopted constitutions and other laws which formally protect basic human rights. While international treaties and customary law form the backbone of international human rights law other instruments, such as declarations, guidelines and principles adopted at the international level contribute to its understanding, implementation and development. Respect for human rights requires the establishment of the rule of law at the national and international levels.

International human rights law lays down obligations which States are bound to respect. By becoming parties to international treaties, States assume obligations and duties under international law to respect, to protect and to fulfil human rights. The obligation to respect means that States must refrain from interfering with or curtailing the enjoyment of human rights. The obligation to protect requires States to protect individuals and groups against human rights abuses. The obligation to fulfil means that States must take positive action to facilitate the enjoyment of basic human rights.

Through ratification of international human rights treaties, Governments undertake to put into place domestic measures and legislation compatible with their treaty obligations and duties. Where domestic legal proceedings fail to address human rights abuses, mechanisms and procedures for individual complaints or communications are available at the regional and international levels to help ensure that international human rights standards are indeed respected, implemented, and enforced at the local level.

Apart from these two important parts, the UN Charter gives responsibility to the General Assembly, for the promotion of human rights through international cooperation and the Economic and Social Council to make recommendation for the purpose of promoting respect for and the observance of human rights and fundamental freedom for all. Article 55 of the UN Charter charges the UN to promote universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedom for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.

Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights

It is originally known as the ‘Sub-commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities’ was established in 1947 as a subsidiary of the former commission on human rights. Later in the year 1999, it was renamed as the ‘Sub-commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights’. Subsequently, with the creation of the Human Rights Council, it was replaced by the Advisory Committee. Its major task is to assist the ‘Human Rights Council‘.

Commission on the Status of Women

To protect and promote human rights of women, Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) established a commission on the status of women on 21st June 1946. It is an inter-governmental body aimed at the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women. In this commission, apart from States, NGOs can also participate. The commission consisted of 45 members State elected on the basis of equitable geographical distribution.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution 217 in its third session on 10th December 1948 in France. This resolution is renowned as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). This declaration consists of 30 Articles, set as an objective in front of member States. Although they are not legally binding on member States. This declaration fulfilled the dream of formulating the International Bill of Human Rights. The Universal Declaration promises all the economic, social, political, cultural, and civic rights that underpin a life free from want and means. Most of the countries have ratified this declaration.

United Nations Human Rights Council

United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a significant body, created by the United Nations General Assembly on 15th March 2006 by resolution A/RES/60/251 to replace the UN Commission on Human Rights.

It consists of 47 United Nations member states which are elected by the UN General Assembly. They have a term of years and shall not be eligible for immediate re-election after 2 consecutive terms and are elected on a regional basis.

UN Commission on Human Rights

The UN Commission on Human Right (UNCHR) was established by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in the year 1946 to weave the international legal fabric that protects our fundamental rights and freedom. It was composed of 53 members. However, it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006. Over the years, it had been principal international forum concerned with the promotion and protection of human rights. 

4. Describe the trends and patterns of Sino-Indian relations.
5. Critically examine the challenges of India’s disarmament policy and its impact on
national security


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Section-B


Write a short note on each part of the following questions in about 250 words.

6. a) Challenges of Nehruvian model of foreign policy
b) Role of interest groups in India’s foreign policy process

7. a) Global implications of India and Pakistan nuclear tests 1998
b) Role of the Ministry of External Affairs in Indian foreign policy making



8. a) Religion in post-communist societies
b) India’s West Asia policy

9. a) Regional Cooperation in South Asia
b) India and Indian Ocean RIM Association of Regional Cooperation

10. a) ASEAN: Composition and Functions
b) Economic and strategic cooperation between India and USA




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IGNOU MPSE 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

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