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IGNOU MHI 09 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU MHI 09 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Attempt any five questions. The assignment is divided into two Sections ‘A’ and ‘B’. You have to attempt at least two questions from each section in about 500 words each. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Compare the views of the Marxist historians and Subaltern Studies on Indian nationalism.
Marxist historiography, or historical materialist historiography, is an influential school of historiography. The chief tenets of Marxist historiography include the centrality of social class, social relations of production in class-divided societies that struggle against each other, and economic constraints in determining historical outcomes (historical materialism). Marxist historians follow the tenets of the development of class-divided societies, especially modern capitalist ones.
Yet, the way Marxist historiography has developed in different regional and political contexts has varied. Marxist historiography has had unique trajectories of development in the West, in the Soviet Union, and in India, as well as in the pan-Africanist and African-American traditions, adapting to these specific regional and political conditions in different ways.
Marxist historiography has made contributions to the history of the working class, and the methodology of a history from below.
Marxist historiography is sometimes criticized as deterministic, in that it posits a direction of history, towards an end state of history as classless human society. Marxist historiography within Marxist circles is generally seen as a tool; its aim is to bring those it perceives as oppressed by history to self-consciousness, and to arm them with tactics and strategies from history. For these Marxists, it is both a historical and a liberatory project.
However, not all Marxist historiography is socialist. Methods from Marxist historiography, such as class analysis, can be divorced from the original political intents of Marxism and its deterministic nature; historians who use Marxist methodology, but disagree with the politics of Marxism, often describe themselves as “marxian” historians, practitioners of this “marxian historiography” often refer to their techniques as “marxian”.
Marx and Engels
Friedrich Engels’ (1820–1895) most important historical contribution to the development of Marxist historiography was Der Deutsche Bauernkrieg (The German Peasants’ War, 1850), which analysed social warfare in early Protestant Germany in terms of emerging capitalist classes. Although The German Peasants’ War was overdetermined lacked a rigorous engagement with archival sources, it exemplifies an early Marxists’ interest in history from below and in class analysis, it also attempts a dialectical analysis.
Karl Marx’s (1818–1883) most important works on social and political history include The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852), The Communist Manifesto (1848), The German Ideology (written in 1845, published in 1932), and those chapters of Das Kapital (1867–1894) dealing with the historical emergence of capitalists and proletarians from pre-industrial English society.
Engels’ short treatise The Condition of the Working Class in England (German: Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England, 1845; English-language translation published in 1887) was salient in giving a socialist impetus to British politics from then on, for e.g. the Fabian Society.
Labour and class struggle
The key to understanding Marxist historiography is his view of labour. For Marx “historical reality is none other than objectified labor, and all conditions of labor given by nature, including the organic bodies of people, are merely preconditions and ‘disappearing moments’ of the labor process.” This emphasis on the physical as the determining factor in history represents a break from virtually all previous historians. Until Marx developed his theory of historical materialism, the overarching determining factor in the direction of history was some sort of divine agency. In Marx’s view of history “God became a mere projection of human imagination” and more importantly “a tool of oppression”. There was no more sense of divine direction to be seen. History moved by the sheer force of human labour, and all theories of divine nature were a concoction of the ruling powers to keep the working people in check. For Marx, “The first historical act is… the production of material life itself.” As one might expect, Marxist history not only begins with labour, it ends in production: “history does not end by being resolved into “self-consciousness” as “spirit of the spirit,” but that in it at each stage there is found a material result: a sum of productive forces, a historically created relation of individuals to nature and to one another, which is handed down to each generation from its predecessor…” For further, and much more comprehensive, information on this topic, see historical materialism.
2. Write a note on economic nationalism with special reference to Indian thinkers.
Economic nationalism, also called economic patriotism and economic populism, is an ideology that favors state interventionism over other market mechanisms, with policies such as domestic control of the economy, labor, and capital formation, including if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labor, goods and capital. The core belief of economic nationalism is that the economy should serve nationalist goals.
Economic nationalists oppose globalization or at least question the benefits of unrestricted free trade. They favor protectionism and advocate for self-sufficiency. To economic nationalists, markets are to be subordinate to the state, and should serve the interests of the state (such as providing national security and accumulating military power). The doctrine of mercantilism is a prominent variant of economic nationalism. Economic nationalists tend to see international trade as zero-sum, where the goal is to derive relative gains (as opposed to mutual gains).
Economic nationalism tends to emphasize industrialization (and often aids industries with state support), due to beliefs that industry has positive spillover effects on the rest of the economy, enhances the self-sufficiency and political autonomy of the country, and is a crucial aspect in building military power.[
While the coining of the term “economic patriotism” has been attributed to French parliamentarian Bernard Carayon, there is evidence that the phrase has been in use since earlier. In an early instance of its use, William Safire in 1985, in defending President Reagan’s proposal of the Strategic Defense Initiative missile defense system, wrote, “Our common denominator is nationalism – both a military and economic patriotism – which inclines us to the side of pervasive national defense.”
In the mid-to-late 1800s, Italian economic thinkers began to gravitate towards the theories of Fredrich List. Led by Italian economists like Alessandro Rossi, policies favoring protectionism gained momentum. The Italian government had previously been ignoring Italian industry in favor of trade with France. The Italian government seemed content to watch other European powers modernize and gain influence through their colonies. Various groups began to put pressure on the Italian government, from textile to ceramic manufacturers, and although the Italian government imposed tariffs the industrialists felt that it was not enough. The push for industrialization and protectionism quickly spun Italy into an economic crisis in 1887, exposing Italian industrial woes.
The Austro-Hungarian empire’s ethnic diversity made it an unusual case of the rise of European nationalism. The fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, while mostly caused by the empire’s defeat in World War I, was also caused by the lack of economic and political integration between Austrians and Slavs. Though Hungary relied on Austria economically, as it provided a market for Hungary’s agriculture production, there was a deep social and economic rift between the Austrians and Slavic people, who actively boycotted and protested Austrian rule in favor of more autonomy in the Balkans. Regions within the empire began using forms of price discrimination to strengthen national economies. As a result, intra-empire trade began to fail. Grain prices fluctuated throughout the empire after the 1880s into World War I, however an ethnic breakdown of the empire showed that grain trade between two predominantly Austrian territories, or two predominantly Slavic territories, led to a gradual decrease in grain prices from the 1870s up to World War I. This was mainly due to the increased presence of railroads in the late 1800s. The only trade pairing that did not observe decreasing grain prices were two territories of varying nationality. Overall, grain prices were cheaper, and the price gap was smaller, when the two territories trading more closely resembled each other ethnically and linguistically.
At the Financial Conference on Inflation in September 1974, one topic of discussion was the gradual dissolution of economic barriers to the movement of goods, people and services across borders in the post World War II era. According to William E. Simon, who was United States Treasury Secretary at that time, there was concern that inflation would motivate economic nationalism: “This has had enormously beneficial effect; Now, however, there is some danger that inflation may drive countries in economic nationalism.”
The philosophical foundations of economic nationalism are difficult to trace due to the ideology’s lengthy history and its unique appeal to different types of groups. The four general pillars come from its political, cultural, economic, and social roots. Though details surrounding these four pillars may differ depending on a nation’s status, generally a nation’s own status and economic stability takes precedence over another. During the late-19th and early-20th century this meant an emphasis on protectionism, increased role of the government, and even colonialism, as it was a means of modifying an occupied country’s culture and creed.
In both Germany and Italy, Fredrich List played a role in the rise in economic nationalism during the 1800s. List brought elements of economic theory and national identity together, as he postulated that an individual’s quality of life was in correlation with the success of their country and was a well-known proponent of tariffs in the United States. List’s ideas on economics and nationalism directly challenged the economic theories of Adam Smith, as List felt that Smith reduced the role of national identity too much and favored of a globalized approach which ignored certain complexities of political life.
As a policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes, the following list of would be examples of an economic nationalistic policy, where there is consistent and rational doctrine associated with each individual protectionist measure:
- Proposed takeover of Arcelor (Spain, France and Luxembourg) by Mittal Steel Company (India) French governmental listing of Danone (France) as a ‘strategic industry’ to pre-empt a potential takeover bid by PepsiCo (USA)
- Blocked takeover of Autostrade, an Italian toll-road operator by the Spanish company Abertis
- Proposed takeover of Endesa (Spain) by E.ON (Germany), and the counter-bid by Gas Natural (Spain)
- Proposed takeover of Suez (France) by Enel (Italy), and the counter-bid by Gaz de France (France)
- United States Congressional opposition to the takeover bid for Unocal (USA) by CNOOC (PR China), and the subsequent takeover by Chevron (USA)
- Political opposition in 2006 to sell port management businesses in six major U.S. seaports to Dubai Ports World based in the United Arab Emirates
Limits on foreign participation and ownership in Russia’s natural resource sectors and selected Russian industries, beginning in 2008
3. Write a note on the Non-cooperation movement.
4. Analyse the achievements of the Congress ministries between 1937 and 1939.
5. Write short notes in about 250 words each on any two of the following:
a) Non-modernist theories of nationalism
b) Swadeshi movement
c) Political ideas of the Swaraj Party
d) Political mobilisation in the Princely States
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IGNOU MHI 09 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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6. Describe the various forms which the popular protests took between 1945 and 1947.
7. Discuss the views of various historians regarding the relationship between nationalism and peasantry.
8. Write a note on the relationship between the nationalist movement and the Dalits.
9. Analyse the Gandhian strategy to fight against the colonial state in India.
10. Write short notes in about 250 words each on any two of the following:
a) Reasons for Congress’ Acceptance of Partition
b) The Attitude of the Indian Capitalists towards the Congress
c) The Relations between Congress and Muslims from 1885 to 1914
d) Salient Features of the Indian Constitution.
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