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IGNOU MHI 08 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU MHI 08 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Attempt any five questions. The assignment is divided into two Sections ‘A’ and ‘B’. You have to attempt at least two questions from each section in about 500 words each. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Histories of various dimensions of nature have received attention of the Historians in the recent past. Examine with reference to Environmental Histories of Pre-colonial past.
Environmental history is the study of human interaction with the natural world over time, emphasising the active role nature plays in influencing human affairs and vice versa.
Environmental history first emerged in the United States out of the environmental movement of the 1960s and 1970s, and much of its impetus still stems from present-day global environmental concerns. The field was founded on conservation issues but has broadened in scope to include more general social and scientific history and may deal with cities, population or sustainable development. As all history occurs in the natural world, environmental history tends to focus on particular time-scales, geographic regions, or key themes. It is also a strongly multidisciplinary subject that draws widely on both the humanities and natural science.
The subject matter of environmental history can be divided into three main components. The first, nature itself and its change over time, includes the physical impact of humans on the Earth’s land, water, atmosphere and biosphere. The second category, how humans use nature, includes the environmental consequences of increasing population, more effective technology and changing patterns of production and consumption. Other key themes are the transition from nomadic hunter-gatherer communities to settled agriculture in the neolithic revolution, the effects of colonial expansion and settlements, and the environmental and human consequences of the industrial and technological revolutions. Finally, environmental historians study how people think about nature – the way attitudes, beliefs and values influence interaction with nature, especially in the form of myths, religion and science.
Origin of name and early works
In 1967, Roderick Nash published “Wilderness and the American Mind“, a work that has become a classic text of early environmental history. In an address to the Organization of American Historians in 1969 (published in 1970) Nash used the expression “environmental history”, although 1972 is generally taken as the date when the term was first coined. The 1959 book by Samuel P. Hays, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement, 1890-1920, while being a major contribution to American political history, is now also regarded as a founding document in the field of environmental history. Hays is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Pittsburgh. Alfred W. Crosby’s book The Columbian Exchange (1972) is another key early work of environmental history.
There is no universally accepted definition of environmental history. In general terms it is a history that tries to explain why our environment is like it is and how humanity has influenced its current condition, as well as commenting on the problems and opportunities of tomorrow. Donald Worster’s widely quoted 1988 definition states that environmental history is the “interaction between human cultures and the environment in the past”.
In 2001, J. Donald Hughes defined the subject as the “study of human relationships through time with the natural communities of which they are a part in order to explain the processes of change that affect that relationship”. and, in 2006, as “history that seeks understanding of human beings as they have lived, worked and thought in relationship to the rest of nature through the changes brought by time”. “As a method, environmental history is the use of ecological analysis as a means of understanding human history…an account of changes in human societies as they relate to changes in the natural environment”. Environmental historians are also interested in “what people think about nature, and how they have expressed those ideas in folk religions, popular culture, literature and art”. In 2003, J. R. McNeill defined it as “the history of the mutual relations between humankind and the rest of nature”.
Traditional historical analysis has over time extended its range of study from the activities and influence of a few significant people to a much broader social, political, economic, and cultural analysis. Environmental history further broadens the subject matter of conventional history. In 1988, Donald Worster stated that environmental history “attempts to make history more inclusive in its narratives” by examining the “role and place of nature in human life”, and in 1993, that “Environmental history explores the ways in which the biophysical world has influenced the course of human history and the ways in which people have thought about and tried to transform their surroundings”. The interdependency of human and environmental factors in the creation of landscapes is expressed through the notion of the cultural landscape. Worster also questioned the scope of the discipline, asking: “We study humans and nature; therefore can anything human or natural be outside our enquiry?“
Environmental history is generally treated as a subfield of history. But some environmental historians challenge this assumption, arguing that while traditional history is human history – the story of people and their institutions, “humans cannot place themselves outside the principles of nature”. In this sense, they argue that environmental history is a version of human history within a larger context, one less dependent on anthropocentrism (even though anthropogenic change is at the center of its narrative).
2. Write a note on the Coastal lowlands of India.
A coastal plain is flat, low-lying land adjacent to a sea coast. A fall line commonly marks the border between a coastal plain and a piedmont area. Some of the largest coastal plains are in Alaska and the southeastern United States. The Gulf Coastal Plain of North America extends northwards from the Gulf of Mexico along the Lower Mississippi River to the Ohio River, which is a distance of about 981 miles (1,579 km). The Atlantic Coastal Plain runs from the New York Bight to Florida.
The Coastal Plains of India lie on either side of the Deccan Plateau, along the western and eastern coasts of India. They extend for about 6,150 km from the Rann of Kutch in the west to West Bengal in the east. They are broadly divided into the Western Coastal Plains and the Eastern Coastal Plains. The two coastal plains meet at Kanyakumari, the southernmost tip of the Indian mainland. The eastern coastal plain is located between The Bay of Bengal and the eastern Ghats and the western coastal plain is located between the Arabian Sea and the western Ghats.
The coastal plains of India lie on both sides of peninsular India. The eastern coastal plains of India are along the Arabian Sea and the western coastal plains of India are along the Bay of Bengal. The eastern coastal plains extend from West Bengal to the southernmost point of Kanyakumari and the western coastal plains extend from the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat to the southernmost point of Kanyakumari. As it is clear the coastal plains of India meet at the peninsular tip at Kanyakumari, also the southernmost tip of the Indian mainland. The coastal plains of India exist in-between the long-range mountain ranges and the water bodies on each side. The eastern coastal plains exist in-between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal and the western coastal plains exist between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea.
In India, the coastal regions are known for trade, agriculture, tourist centers, industrial centers, salt making, and fishing. They offer crucial hinterlands for the large ports. Different parts of the Indian coastal plains own fertile and rich soil where apart from the tice several other crops can be grown.
A coastal plain is called a low-lying and flat land that is adjacent to the sea coast. The coastal plains in India lay on either side of the Deccan Plateau with the eastern and western coast of India. The total extension of these two is 6150 km from the Rann of Kutch from the west to West Bengal.
What is a Coastal Plain?
A coastal plain is a flat low-lying area of land, which is adjacent to the sea coast. Geographically speaking, a coastal plain is a low-relief landmass that is surrounded by the sea or an ocean on one side and the highlands on the other. Thus, they are bounded seaward because of the shoreline and landward because of the highlands. As one follows from the sea to the highlands, there is a gradual increase in the elevation of the land area rising gently in a series of flat-land terraces separated by scraps or hills with altitudes reaching 100m-300m.
Western Coastal Plains
The western coastal plain is sandwiched between the Arabian sea and Western ghats. It is called a narrow plain. It comprises a three-section, Konkan (Mumbai Goa) is the northern part of India. Kannad Plain is the central stretch while the Malabar coast is known as the Southern Stretch.
Eastern Coastal Plains
The eastern coastal plain with the Bay of Bengal is leveled and wide. In the northern part, this is called the Northern Circar while the southern part is called the Coromandel Coast. The large rivers like Mahanadi, the Krishna, the Godavari and the Kaveri have also built enormous deltas on the coast. Chilika lake is a crucial feature of the eastern coast.
This is an overview of these two types of coastal plains, you will get the detailed definition of these two prepared by the Vedantu experts below.
Coastal Plains of India and How are they Formed?
The story of the coastal plains of India and how they are formed is an interesting one from the viewpoint of geography. The Indian subcontinent was part of a supercontinent called the Gondwanaland about 140 million years ago. As the supercontinent split, the Indian tectonic landmass got isolated and over millions of years traveled towards the Eurasian plate and eventually combined with it. Thus, the regular and quite straight coastline of India is the result of the breaking up of the Gondwanaland during the Cretaceous period. Because of this breaking, it not only gave rise to the coast-line in the south but with it the coastal plains of India also came into existence.
As is already known the coastal plains of India are divided into the following two coastal plains:
Eastern Coastal Plains
Western Coastal Plains
Both the coastal plains together form a coastline of 7516.6km. This coastline includes the Indian mainland coastline with a length of 6100km and the shorelines of the Lakshadweep and Andaman-Nicobar islands. The coastal plains of India are a part of 13 state and union territories of India. Altogether the coastal plains is a result of a beautiful formation of landmass because of the location of the three huge water bodies surrounding the Indian subcontinent.
3. Discuss the various principles defining the Water Rights in India.
4. Critically examine the Indian view of Conservation
5. Write a note on the regional spread of early agriculture in India.
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IGNOU MHI 08 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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6. Discuss the salient features of Indian Forest Act of 1927.
7. Write a note on the Environmental Discourse on Industrialism
8. Exploitation of environmental resources defines the Colonial environmental agenda. Comment
9. Biodiversity conservation is need of the time. Examine it with reference to People’s initiatives.
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IGNOU MHI 08 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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IGNOU MHI 08 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
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