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IGNOU MHI 05 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MHI 05 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , MHI 05 HISTORY OF INDIAN ECONOMY Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : MHI 05 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU MHI 05 Assignment 2022-23, MHI 05 Assignment 2022-23 , MHI 05 Assignment , MHI 05 HISTORY OF INDIAN ECONOMY Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- M.A History First Year Courses Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for M.A History First Year Courses Programme for the year 2022-23. IGNOU MHI courses give students the freedom to choose any subject according to their preference.  Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. Study of Political Science is very important for every person because it is interrelated with the society and the molar values in today culture and society. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23, ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .

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IGNOU MHI 05 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Attempt any five questions. The assignment is divided into two Sections ‘A’ and ‘B’. You have to attempt at least two questions from each section in about 500 words each. All questions carry equal marks.

Section-A


1. Discuss major approaches to the study of medieval economy.

APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF EARLY MEDIEVAL POLITY
Historians have largely characterised early mediaeval India as a dark period in Indian history marked by political fragmentation and a decline in culture. As a result of this characterization, this time period has been largely ignored in historical research. In the last few decades, new research has unearthed many important and fascinating aspects of this
time period. Fresh studies have helped to dispel the idea of a ‘dark age’ associated with this time period. Even the lack of political unity that was considered a negative attribute by earlier scholars is now seen as the factor that allowed for the development of rich regional cultures during the mediaeval period. Hypotheses about the early mediaeval period have
been divided into two broad categories based on two sets of assumptions. Assumptions such as this one assume that the traditional political system is essentially immutable According to this hypothesis, early mediaeval India’s polity was described as “traditional” or as “Oriental despotic” by historians (originally derived from Marx) According to Hermann Kulke, “Occidental prejudice against an alleged oriental despotism” influenced Marx’s model of oriental despotism.
Recent works on this era also assume that the Indian political system has the potential to change, rather than the previous assumption that it is immutable. The “imperial model” or “centralised state model” is perhaps the first type of model that assumes change. Changing dynasties and expanding the empire’s territory were seen by historians who adhered to the
imperial model, according to this interpretation. Because of this, it was considered a departure from the standard set by “imperial rulers until the time of Harsha who tried to tame the tide of disintegration” (B.D. Chattopadhyaya, The Making of Early Medieval India). As a result, the early mediaeval period was viewed as a deviation from the ideal imperial system in this model. Here, change is seen as a negative shift toward an unstable state, rather than as the norm of a stable, centrally-controlled nation. A lack of understanding of state formation processes during this time period can be gained by using this method. As a result, it does not go much further than describing military victories and dynastic history. The “Hindu political order” as the ideal or normative ideal of this approach, which was mainly adopted by nationalist Indian historians, is also prone to communal interpretations of Indian history.
Indian feudalism was first conceptualised by D. D. Kosambi. R. S. Sharma made the most significant contribution to the study of this era through the feudalism approach in subsequent years. Since the beginning of the Christian era, Brahmins and religious institutions have received an ever-increasing number of land grants from the government, as well as from government officials. Grantees were granted more and more immunity, which allowed them to encroach on communal village land and exploit the peasantry, according to Sharma.
According to him, the decline in urbanism and trade, particularly foreign trade, exacerbated the problem. The scarcity of coins was yet another consideration. Consequently, this period was viewed as one of decline and decay by him in the economy. Politically, he described it as one of constant fragmentation and decentralisation, caused by the widespread practise of granting large and small territories to feudatories and officials who established their control over territories and emerged as independent potentates through the granting of land. In other words, the Mauryan state is the key to understanding how feudal polity developed from the gradual disintegration of a centralised bureaucratic state system. In the early mediaeval period, land-assignment systems gradually spread and were linked to the transfer of the centralised state’s administrative rights and rights over its revenue sources. As a result of this process, the state’s authority began to erode, and sovereignty began to decline.

2. Examine the nature and pattern of Mauryan economy.

Mauryan Administration:

The establishment of the Mauryan empire in contrast to the earlier smaller kingdoms ushered in a new form of government, that of a centralized empire.

The Mauryan Empire indicates the triumph of monarchy as a political system over tribal republics. A study of the Arthasastra in conjunction with the edicts provides information regarding the administrative structure.

At the centre of the structure was the king who had the power to enact laws. Kautilya advises the King to promulgate dharma when the social order based on the varnas and ashramas (stages in life) perishes.

The king is called by him dharmapravartaka or promulgator of the social order. There was a council of ministers or mantri- parishad to advise the king and at times this may have acted as a political check.

The Mauryan centralized monarchy became a paternal despotism under Ashoka. Ashoka in his 1st separate Edict (Dhauli and Jauguda) says “Savve Munisse Paja Mama”. (All men are my children). The Mauryan king did not claim any divine origin yet they attempted to emphasize the connection between kinship and divine power.

Council of Ministers:

The council of ministers or mantri-parishad advised the king and at times may have acted as a political check. But the powers of the council were limited owing to the fact that it was the king who appointed the ministers in the first instance. Three qualities of a minister that the Arthasastra stresses are those of birth, integrity and intelligence.

There was no fixed numberforthe members of the council and it varied according to the need. The Arthasastra lists the Chief Minister or the mahamantri and also distinguishes between the ministers and the assembly of ministers (mantrinomantriparisadamca).

It would seem that the ministerial council or mantri-parisad, a small group of perhaps three or four councillors, together with the Chief Minister, was selected to act as an inner council or a close advi­sory body. It’s important members included the Purohita, Senapati (Commander-in-chief), the Mahamantri and the Yuvaraja.

Amatyas:

Amatyas were some sort of administrative personnel or civil servants who filled the highest admin­istrative and judicial appointments. Their pay scales, service rules and method of payment were clearly laid down. Their role and functions were very important, for all governmental work proceeded from them.

Superintendent or Adhyaksha:

The Central administration was conducted by a highly skilled Superintendents or Adhyakshas who looked after various departments. Kautilya in the second book of his Arthasastra, Adhyakshaprachara, gives an account of the working of nearly 27 adhyaksas. Some of the important officials are mentioned below.

The Akshapataladhyaksha was the Accountant-General who was in charge of the two offices of currency and accounts. The Sitadhyaksha was the superintendent of the agriculture of crown lands or government agricultural farms.

The Akaradhyaksha was the superintendent of mining and possessed scientific knowledge of mines, metallurgy, gems and precious stones. Lavananyadhyaksha was the salt superintendent, as the manufacture of salt was a government monopoly.

Navadhyaksha was the Superintendent of Ports who controlled traffic and transit by waterways. The Panyadhyaksha was the controller of commerce who was in the charge of the control of supply, purchase and sale of commodi­ties.

The Sulkadhyaksa was the collector of customs and tolls. TheSuradhyaksha was the Superin­tendent of Excise who controlled the manufacture and sale of liquor. Pautavadhyaksha was the super­intendent of weights and measures. The Lakshanadhyaksha was the superintendent of the mint, etc.

Military and Espionage Department:

The army was often led by the king himself. It was only in the days of the last Maurya that we find a Senapati overshadowing the king and transferring the allegiance of the troops to himself. The army of Chandragupta, according to Pliny, included 6, 00,000 foot soldiers, 30,000 cavalry and 9,000 elephants, besides chariots.

It was under the control of the Senapati under whom there were several adhyakshas of different wings and units of the army such as those of infantry (Padadhyaksha), cavalry (asvadhyaksha), war elephants (hastyadhyaksha), navy (navadhyaksha), chariots (rathadhyaksha), and armoury (ayudhagaradhyaksha).

Kautilya classifies troops into the hereditary ones (Maula), the hired troops (bhritakas), troops supplied by forest tribes (atavivala), and those furnished by the allies (mitravala). The first were of primary importance and constituted the standing army of the king.

They were probably the troops referred to by Megasthenes in describing the fifth class, that of the soldiers. Kautilya’s also talks about the salaries of different ranks of military commanders. For example, the Senapati received a salary of 48,000 panas per annum.

Megasthenes describes the administration of the armed forces as comprising of six committees with five members on each. The first committee was concerned with naval warfare, second equivalent to the modern commissariat supervising the transport of war materials, third supervising the infantry, the fourth supervising cavalry, the fifth was concerned with chariots and the sixth supervised the elephant corps.

The espionage department was manned by guddhapurushas (secret agents) under the control of mahamatyapasarpa, both stationary (Samsthan) and wandering (Sanchari). Officials formed the per­sonnel of this cadre.

Different types of agents, from recluses and students to householders and ‘poi­sonous’ girls (vishkanyas) were employed. They correspond to the ‘overseers’ of Megasthenes and the Pativedakas or special reporters and Pulisanis or king’s agent of Asokan edicts.

3. Analyse the features of the agrarian order and revenue organization of the Cholas during the 9th to 13th centuries.

4. Critically examine the nature of the organization of the craft production during the medieval period.

5. Write short notes on any two of the following. Answer in about 250 words each.
i) Chiefdom-societies of Ahar and Jorwe Cultures
ii) Long distance trade of the Harappans
iii) Roman coins and their distribution pattern in peninsular India
iv) Khwud-kashta and Pahi-kashta peasants.


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IGNOU MHI 05 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Section-B


6. Write a note on the business practices of medieval India with special reference to partnership and brokerage.

7. Discuss the impact of European intervention on Indian merchants and trade during the eighteenth century. 

8. Critically analyse te socio-economic impact of commercialization during the colonial period. 

9. Give a brief account of the changes that took place in the Indian small scale industries during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

10. Write short notes on any two of the following. Answer in about 250 words each. 
i) Irrigation technology during the medieval period
ii) Mughal Bridges
iii) Birla Brothers
iv) Five Year Plans


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IGNOU MHI 05 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



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IGNOU MHI 05 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU MHI 05 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU MHI 05 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU MHI 05 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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