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IGNOU MHI 04 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU MHI 04 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Attempt any five questions. The assignment is divided into two Sections ‘A’ and ‘B’. You have to attempt at least two questions from each section in about 500 words each. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Write a note on early Tamil polity as described in Sangam literature.
The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், caṅka ilakkiyam😉 historically known as ‘the poetry of the noble ones’ (Tamil: சான்றோர் செய்யுள், Cāṉṟōr ceyyuḷ) connotes the ancient Tamil literature and is the earliest known literature of South India. The Tamil tradition and legends link it to three literary gatherings around Madurai and Kapāṭapuram (Pandyan capitals): the first over 4,440 years, the second over 3,700 years, and the third over 1,850 years before the start of the common era. Scholars consider this Tamil tradition-based chronology as ahistorical and mythical.: 73 Most scholars suggest the historical Sangam literature era spanned from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE, while others variously place this early classical Tamil literature period a bit later and more narrowly but all before 300 CE. According to Kamil Zvelebil – a Tamil literature and history scholar, the most acceptable range for the Sangam literature is 100 BCE to 250 CE, based on the linguistic, prosodic and quasi-historic allusions within the texts and the colophons.
The Sangam literature had fallen into oblivion for much of the second millennium of the common era, but were preserved by and rediscovered in the monasteries of Hinduism, particularly those related to Shaivism near Kumbakonam, by colonial-era scholars in the late nineteenth century. The rediscovered Sangam classical collection is largely a bardic corpus. It comprises an Urtext of oldest surviving Tamil grammar (Tolkappiyam), the Ettuttokai anthology (the “Eight Collections”), the Pattuppattu anthology (the “Ten Songs”). The Tamil literature that followed the Sangam period – that is, after c. 250 CE but before c. 600 CE – is generally called the “post-Sangam” literature.
This collection contains 2381 poems in Tamil composed by 473 poets, some 102 anonymous. Of these, 16 poets account for about 50% of the known Sangam literature, with Kapilar – the most prolific poet – alone contributing just little less than 10% of the entire corpus. These poems vary between 3 and 782 lines long. The bardic poetry of the Sangam era is largely about love (akam) and war (puram), with the exception of the shorter poems such as in paripaatal which is more religious and praise Vishnu, Shiva, Durga and Murugan.
On their significance, Zvelebil quotes A. K. Ramanujan, “In their antiquity and in their contemporaneity, there is not much else in any Indian literature equal to these quiet and dramatic Tamil poems. In their values and stances, they represent a mature classical poetry: passion is balanced by courtesy, transparency by ironies and nuances of design, impersonality by vivid detail, austerity of line by richness of implication. These poems are not just the earliest evidence of the Tamil genius. The Tamils, in all their 2,000 years of literary effort, wrote nothing better.”
Nomenclature and tradition
Sangam literally means “gathering, meeting, fraternity, academy”. According to David Shulman, a scholar of Tamil language and literature, the Tamil tradition believes that the Sangam literature arose in distant antiquity over three periods, each stretching over many millennia. The first has roots in the Hindu deity Shiva, his son Murugan, Kubera as well as 545 sages including the famed Rigvedic poet Agastya. The first academy, states the legend, extended over four millennia and was located far to the south of modern city of Madurai, a location later “swallowed up by the sea”, states Shulman. The second academy, also chaired by a very long-lived Agastya, was near the eastern seaside Kapāṭapuram and lasted three millennia. This was swallowed by floods. From the second Sangam, states the legend, the Akattiyam and the Tolkāppiyam survived and guided the third Sangam scholars.
A prose commentary by Nakkiranar – likely about the eighth century CE – describes this legend. The earliest known mention of the Sangam legend, however, appears in Tirupputtur Tantakam by Appar in about the seventh century CE, while an extended version appears in the twelfth-century Tiruvilaiyatal puranam by Perumparrap Nampi. The legend states that the third Sangam of 449 poet scholars worked over 1,850 years in northern Madurai (Pandyan kingdom). He lists six anthologies of Tamil poems (later a part of Ettuttokai):
- Netuntokai nanuru (400 long poems)
- Kuruntokai anuru (400 short poems)
- Narrinai (400 Tinai landscape poems)
- Purananuru (400 Outer poems)
- Ainkurunuru (500 very short poems)
- Patirruppattu (Ten Tens)
These claims of the Sangams and the description of sunken land masses Kumari Kandam have been dismissed as frivolous by historiographers. Noted historians like Kamil Zvelebil have stressed that the use of ‘Sangam literature’ to describe this corpus of literature is a misnomer and Classical literature should be used instead. According to Shulman, “there is not the slightest shred of evidence that any such [Sangam] literary academies ever existed”, though there are many Pandya inscriptions that mention an academy of scholars. Of particular note, states Shulman, is the tenth-century CE Sinnamanur inscription that mentions a Pandyan king who sponsored the “translation of the Mahabharata into Tamil” and established a “Madhurapuri (Madurai) Sangam”.
According to Zvelebil, within the myth there is a kernel of reality, and all literary evidence leads one to conclude that “such an academy did exist in Madurai (Maturai) at the beginning of the Christian era”. The homogeneity of the prosody, language and themes in these poems confirms that the Sangam literature was a community effort, a “group poetry”. The Sangam literature is also referred sometimes with terms such as caṅka ilakkiyam or “Sangam age poetry”.
2. Analyse the various approaches to the study of early medieval polity.
The various approaches to study medieval Indian towns are as follows:The establishment of Sultanat of Delhi brought an urban revolution.The factors responsible for this include centralisation, political and economic stability, ruling class and craft and trade; increasing monetisation. Some major towns during medieval period included Delhi, Multan, Patan, Kara etc.The iqta head quarters emerged in early phase as camp sites. Most of the 13th century towns are infact defined as iqta head quarters in our sources for e.g. Hansi, Kara etc.The role played by rulers in setting up new towns is also significant. Feroze Shah Tughlaq settled Ferozabad, Hissar Firoza & Jaunpur. Akbar built the town of Fatehpur Sikri while Shah Jahan settled Shahjahanabad.
feudalism. In the course of discussing and accounting for change this historiography enriched the understanding of society and economy of the times within wider generalizations, thanks to the contributions of many eminent historians. This historiography identified large, durable, common institutional structures with trans regional reach, spread over centuries. By the later 1970s and early 1980s the intellectual unease with the feudal framework resulted in alternative models or explanations of state and society. While Burton Stein argued for a peasant state and society, leading to a segmentary state, Hermann Kulke and B. D. Chattopadhyaya put forward their integrative model. At this juncture two brief but obvious clarifications may be necessary. First, the opposition to Indian feudalism did not wait to emerge till the late1970s, almost immediately after the publication of Sharma’s Indian Feudalism the idea was questioned by D. C. Sircar in 1966. The believers and opponents of the formulation grew in course of time. The long debate had both factual and ideological foundations. However the long drawn debate on terms set by its proponents almost up to the end of the 1970s led to the making of a stereotype.
3. Discuss various interpretations explaining the nature of the Mughal state.
4. Discuss the nature of sovereignty and administrative mechanism in the Princely states.
5. Write short notes in about 250 words each on the following:
(a) The colonial military apparatus
(b) The bureaucracy under the colonial state.
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IGNOU MHI 04 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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6. Write a note on the Mauryan administration.
7. Analyse the judicial system prevailing in Ancient India.
8. Discuss the provincial and local administration under the Delhi Sultanate.
9. How did the colonial and nationalist legacy shape the post-colonial Indian polity?
10. Write short notes in about 250 words each on the following:
(a) Land revenue settlements under the British rule
(b) Anglo-Oriental controversy and Educational Despatch of 1854.
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IGNOU MHI 04 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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IGNOU MHI 04 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
- Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU MHI 04 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
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