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IGNOU MHI 04 Solved Assignment 2022-23

 

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IGNOU MHI 04 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Attempt any five questions. The assignment is divided into two Sections ‘A’ and ‘B’. You have to attempt at least two questions from each section in about 500 words each. All questions carry equal marks.

Section-A


1. Write a note on early Tamil polity as described in Sangam literature.

The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், caṅka ilakkiyam😉 historically known as ‘the poetry of the noble ones’ (Tamil: சான்றோர் செய்யுள், Cāṉṟōr ceyyuḷ) connotes the ancient Tamil literature and is the earliest known literature of South India. The Tamil tradition and legends link it to three literary gatherings around Madurai and Kapāṭapuram (Pandyan capitals): the first over 4,440 years, the second over 3,700 years, and the third over 1,850 years before the start of the common era. Scholars consider this Tamil tradition-based chronology as ahistorical and mythical.[4]: 73  Most scholars suggest the historical Sangam literature era spanned from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE, while others variously place this early classical Tamil literature period a bit later and more narrowly but all before 300 CE. According to Kamil Zvelebil – a Tamil literature and history scholar, the most acceptable range for the Sangam literature is 100 BCE to 250 CE, based on the linguistic, prosodic and quasi-historic allusions within the texts and the colophons.

The Sangam literature had fallen into oblivion for much of the second millennium of the common era, but were preserved by and rediscovered in the monasteries of Hinduism, particularly those related to Shaivism near Kumbakonam, by colonial-era scholars in the late nineteenth century. The rediscovered Sangam classical collection is largely a bardic corpus. It comprises an Urtext of oldest surviving Tamil grammar (Tolkappiyam), the Ettuttokai anthology (the “Eight Collections”), the Pattuppattu anthology (the “Ten Songs”). The Tamil literature that followed the Sangam period – that is, after c. 250 CE but before c. 600 CE – is generally called the “post-Sangam” literature.

This collection contains 2381 poems in Tamil composed by 473 poets, some 102 anonymous. Of these, 16 poets account for about 50% of the known Sangam literature, with Kapilar – the most prolific poet – alone contributing just little less than 10% of the entire corpus. These poems vary between 3 and 782 lines long. The bardic poetry of the Sangam era is largely about love (akam) and war (puram), with the exception of the shorter poems such as in paripaatal which is more religious and praise Vishnu, Shiva, Durga and Murugan.

On their significance, Zvelebil quotes A. K. Ramanujan, “In their antiquity and in their contemporaneity, there is not much else in any Indian literature equal to these quiet and dramatic Tamil poems. In their values and stances, they represent a mature classical poetry: passion is balanced by courtesy, transparency by ironies and nuances of design, impersonality by vivid detail, austerity of line by richness of implication. These poems are not just the earliest evidence of the Tamil genius. The Tamils, in all their 2,000 years of literary effort, wrote nothing better.”

Nomenclature and tradition

Sangam literally means “gathering, meeting, fraternity, academy”. According to David Shulman, a scholar of Tamil language and literature, the Tamil tradition believes that the Sangam literature arose in distant antiquity over three periods, each stretching over many millennia. The first has roots in the Hindu deity Shiva, his son Murugan, Kubera as well as 545 sages including the famed Rigvedic poet Agastya. The first academy, states the legend, extended over four millennia and was located far to the south of modern city of Madurai, a location later “swallowed up by the sea”, states Shulman. The second academy, also chaired by a very long-lived Agastya, was near the eastern seaside Kapāṭapuram and lasted three millennia. This was swallowed by floods. From the second Sangam, states the legend, the Akattiyam and the Tolkāppiyam survived and guided the third Sangam scholars.

A prose commentary by Nakkiranar – likely about the eighth century CE – describes this legend. The earliest known mention of the Sangam legend, however, appears in Tirupputtur Tantakam by Appar in about the seventh century CE, while an extended version appears in the twelfth-century Tiruvilaiyatal puranam by Perumparrap Nampi. The legend states that the third Sangam of 449 poet scholars worked over 1,850 years in northern Madurai (Pandyan kingdom). He lists six anthologies of Tamil poems (later a part of Ettuttokai):

  • Netuntokai nanuru (400 long poems)
  • Kuruntokai anuru (400 short poems)
  • Narrinai (400 Tinai landscape poems)
  • Purananuru (400 Outer poems)
  • Ainkurunuru (500 very short poems)
  • Patirruppattu (Ten Tens)

These claims of the Sangams and the description of sunken land masses Kumari Kandam have been dismissed as frivolous by historiographers. Noted historians like Kamil Zvelebil have stressed that the use of ‘Sangam literature’ to describe this corpus of literature is a misnomer and Classical literature should be used instead. According to Shulman, “there is not the slightest shred of evidence that any such [Sangam] literary academies ever existed”, though there are many Pandya inscriptions that mention an academy of scholars. Of particular note, states Shulman, is the tenth-century CE Sinnamanur inscription that mentions a Pandyan king who sponsored the “translation of the Mahabharata into Tamil” and established a “Madhurapuri (Madurai) Sangam”.

According to Zvelebil, within the myth there is a kernel of reality, and all literary evidence leads one to conclude that “such an academy did exist in Madurai (Maturai) at the beginning of the Christian era”. The homogeneity of the prosody, language and themes in these poems confirms that the Sangam literature was a community effort, a “group poetry”. The Sangam literature is also referred sometimes with terms such as caṅka ilakkiyam or “Sangam age poetry”.

2. Analyse the various approaches to the study of early medieval polity.

The various approaches to study medieval Indian towns are as follows:The establishment of Sultanat of Delhi brought an urban revolution.The factors responsible for this include centralisation, political and economic stability, ruling class and craft and trade; increasing monetisation. Some major towns during medieval pe­riod included Delhi, Multan, Patan, Kara etc.The iqta head quarters emerged in early phase as camp sites. Most of the 13th century towns are infact defined as iqta head quarters in our sources for e.g. Hansi, Kara etc.The role played by rulers in setting up new towns is also significant. Feroze Shah Tughlaq settled Ferozabad, Hissar Firoza & Jaunpur. Akbar built the town of Fatehpur Sikri while Shah Jahan settled Shahjahanabad.

Some cities gained importance because of their administrative function where other roles such as manufacturing or religion were secondary. Such cities included Delhi, Agra Lahore, Pune etc.Their period of rule witnessed almost a renais­sance in the fields ‘of ancient and medieval learning brought about by scholars of all races, religious com­munities and linguistic groups. Persian as a court lan­guage prospered by leaps and bounds during Mughal period. The use of Arabic was confined to the produc­tion of Islamic treaties and scriptures only.Humayun Namah written by Guladan Begum in colloquial Persian mixed with Turki words. Another book written in Persian during Mughal period was Akbarnama by Abul Fazl. A1 Badaoni another scholar was also asked by Akbar to make translation from Ara­bic and Sanskrit to Persian. Ramayana was translated by him into Persian. Other books written in Persian include Muntakhab ut Tawauh by Al Badaoni. Tuzuk- i-Jahangiri by Jahangir etc.The post Gupta period ranging from about the sixth to the thirteenth century has been seen to constitute the early medieval period in Indian history. It is seen as a stage anticipating the transition to the medieval times. Serious efforts at defining the early medieval period can be dated to the later part of the 1950s onwards. The works of D. D. Kosambi and R. S. Sharma together with those of Lallanji Gopal and B. N. S. Yadava inaugurated a trend which focused on the interrelationship between economy, society and polity. This helped the explanation of historical developments, including transitions in early India, and raised discussions to the level of conceptualizations. Thus was born the school of Indian feudalism, which distinguished the early historical from the early medieval and equated the latter with
feudalism. In the course of discussing and accounting for change this historiography enriched the understanding of society and economy of the times within wider generalizations, thanks to the contributions of many eminent historians. This historiography identified large, durable, common institutional structures with trans regional reach, spread over centuries. By the later 1970s and early 1980s the intellectual unease with the feudal framework resulted in alternative models or explanations of state and society. While Burton Stein argued for a peasant state and society, leading to a segmentary state, Hermann Kulke and B. D. Chattopadhyaya put forward their integrative model. At this juncture two brief but obvious clarifications may be necessary. First, the opposition to Indian feudalism did not wait to emerge till the late1970s, almost immediately after the publication of Sharma’s Indian Feudalism the idea was questioned by D. C. Sircar in 1966. The believers and opponents of the formulation grew in course of time. The long debate had both factual and ideological foundations. However the long drawn debate on terms set by its proponents almost up to the end of the 1970s led to the making of a stereotype.
Early Medieval India, Indian Feudalism and Alternative Histories
There are three different contending explanatory models for understanding the early medieval Indian situation. The Indian feudal model of self-sufficient, relatively closed rural economy characterized by an essentially bipolar world of lords and peasants and proliferation of castes as also decentralized feudal states; the model of ‘ peasant state and society’ visualizing a Brahmana-peasant alliance and segmentary state focusing on the pyramidal repetition of the structures in the numerous autonomous segments (Nadus), as were available in the core; and the model of integrative state and social formation demonstrating the phased structural evolution of imperial kingdoms or regional/supra regional states and societies across regions. At present the first and the third formulations are in contention for the minds of people, while the second framework, which had generated interesting debates in the 1980s, suffered relative eclipse owing to the dearth of passionate adherents. Notwithstanding their relative merits, these concepts “succeeded in effectively destroying the ‘conventional’ picture of the medieval regional kingdoms as centrally governed unitary states for North as well as South India”. They also undid the notion of the Dark Ages which was usually ascribed to the early medieval centuries by focusing on the processes and potentials of change. These centuries are increasingly being seen as dynamic, generative and foundational.

3. Discuss various interpretations explaining the nature of the Mughal state.

4. Discuss the nature of sovereignty and administrative mechanism in the Princely states.
5. Write short notes in about 250 words each on the following:
(a) The colonial military apparatus
(b) The bureaucracy under the colonial state.


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IGNOU MHI 04 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Section-B


6. Write a note on the Mauryan administration.

7. Analyse the judicial system prevailing in Ancient India.

8. Discuss the provincial and local administration under the Delhi Sultanate.

9. How did the colonial and nationalist legacy shape the post-colonial Indian polity?

10. Write short notes in about 250 words each on the following:
(a) Land revenue settlements under the British rule
(b) Anglo-Oriental controversy and Educational Despatch of 1854.


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IGNOU MHI 04 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



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IGNOU MHI 04 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU MHI 04 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU MHI 04 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU MHI 04 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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