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IGNOU MHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , MHI 03 HISTORIOGRAPHY Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : MHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU MHI 03 Assignment 2022-23, MHI 03 Assignment 2022-23 , MHI 03 Assignment , MHI 03 HISTORIOGRAPHY Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- M.A History Second Year Courses Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for M.A History Second Year Courses Programme for the year 2022-23. IGNOU MHI courses give students the freedom to choose any subject according to their preference.  Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. Study of Political Science is very important for every person because it is interrelated with the society and the molar values in today culture and society. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23, ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .

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IGNOU MHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Attempt any five questions. The assignment is divided into two Sections ‘A’ and ‘B’. You have to attempt at least two questions from each section in about 500 words each. All questions carry equal marks.

Section-A


1. What is generalisation? Discuss the role of generalisation in history-writing.

Generalisation is a process of framing principles, theories, and concepts by establishing relationships between facts. Generalisations can be drawn out from the facts through systematic analysis and interpretation. Though historians have different views regarding the role of historical generalisation, it is widely accepted as an inevitable part of historical research. In the words of Lord Acton “History is a generalized account of the personal stories of men united in bodies for any public purposes whatever”. E.H. Carr emphatically contended that history is a social science, not art, because historians, like scientists, seek generalizations that help to broaden the understanding of one’s subject.

In the development of historiography, several historians tried to find out general laws or principles in explaining the historical process. Thucydides synthesized historical facts in order to construct general principles based on morality and ethics. St. Augustine formulated his providential philosophy of history to present historical progress. Positive philosophers formulated new principles and generalizations on a scientific basis. Many philosophers of history and theoreticians tried to explain historical events through theoretical and conceptual frames. An array of intellectuals like Rousseau, Gibbon, Carlyle, Niebuhr, Ranke, Comte, Mill, Kant, Hegel, Buckle, Spengler, Marx, Toynbee, and so on used history to draw generalizations to explain the fundamental forces and factors that prompted historical events.

Lower and Higher Levels of Generalisation

There are two levels of generalisations: Lower and Higher.

  • A lower level generalisation is a descriptive statement about the past delivered by the historian after the verification of his various sources and its interpretation. Here, Generalizations are descriptive statements of relationships between two or more concepts. In the presentation of research work, a historian makes several general statements about the past, which he/she thinks are correct.
  • Higher-level generalisation aims to formulate general principles, theories, and concepts about the past by establishing relations with the facts. Empirical disciplines, like history use theory to generalize from many specific findings. Ideas are indispensable for generalizations.

The Process of Historical Generalisation

  • The initial stage in the process of generalisation is the formulation of a hypothesis, which helps the researcher, to begin with, a focus.
  • Then, the process of generalisation begins with the grouping of the facts. Facts must be grouped, arranged, and organised according to their similarities and dissimilarities.
  • Reasoning and further interpretation of the facts help the researcher to organise his facts in a defined manner. In the process of interpretation, events may be serialised on the basis of the facts.
  • Establishing a connection or relation between the facts is the next stage of generalisation. This factual connection enables the researcher to outline general schemes or principles. It helps the researcher to generalise the related facts by connecting them with concepts.

Features and Importance of Generalisation

  • Many historians consider the purpose of generalization is to learn lessons from history.
  • Generalisations are necessary in history in order to explain the fundamental forces that prompted events in the past.
  • A generalisation of a series of historical events will help draw all the separate details into an overall pattern.
  • Generalisation enables the historian to predict the future by outlining overall patterns in historical progress. 
  • Generalisations enable us to explain the processes and events we experience.
  • Generalisation often explains the cause and its effect.
  • Generalisation describes two or more concepts and relationships among them.
  • Generalizations link facts and concepts and summarize human experiences.

Debate on Historical Generalisation

The idea of historical generalisation was rejected by many historians. They argue that in history, it is not possible to formulate generalizations, because the fact cannot be directly observed. History deals with a sequence of unique events, hence it is not possible to draw generalisation. History does not repeat itself and thereby, generalization is not possible and the future cannot be predicted with certainty.

Another view holds that the generalisation is the duty of every historian, which makes his account knowledgeable. History can offer broad principles and generalizations and exhibits common trends, tendencies, and patterns. Cultural content is common to humanity. All the known civilizations have developed along similar lines. This repetitive nature of history enables the historian to generalize. Generalization is possible because historical events are strikingly similar.

Conclusion

A generalization must be based upon a balanced approach. Theories are one of the prominent sources of generalisation in history. Many historical generalisations are driven by life experiences. Historians also derive generalisations from the study of the present. Also, derive generalisations from active data collection and its systematic analysis. In short, “All historians practice generalization anyway”.

2. What do you understand by ‘microhistory’? Describe the historians and their works related to this tradition of history-writing. 

Microhistory is a genre of history that focuses on small units of research, such as an event, community, individual or a settlement. In its ambition, however, microhistory can be distinguished from a simple case study insofar as microhistory aspires to “[ask] large questions in small places”, according to the definition given by Charles Joyner. It is closely associated with social and cultural history

Origins

Microhistory became popular in Italy in the 1970s. According to Giovanni Levi, one of the pioneers of the approach, it began as a reaction to a perceived crisis in existing historiographical approaches. Carlo Ginzburg, another of microhistory’s founders, has written that he first heard the term used around 1977, and soon afterwards began to work with Levi and Simona Cerutti on Microstorie, a series of microhistorical works.

The word “microhistory” dates back to 1959, when the American historian George R. Stewart published Pickett’s Charge: A Microhistory of the Final Attack on Gettysburg, July 3, 1863, which tells the story of the final day of the Battle of Gettysburg. Another early use was by the Annales historian Fernand Braudel, for whom the concept had negative connotations, being overly concerned with the history of events. A third early use of the term was in the title of Luis González’s 1968 work Pueblo en vilo: Microhistoria de San José de Gracia.[6] González distinguished between microhistory, for him synonymous with local history, and “petite histoire“, which is primarily concerned with anecdotes.

Approach

The most distinctive aspect of the microhistorical approach is the small scale of investigations. Microhistorians focus on small units in society, as a reaction to the generalisations made by the social sciences which do not necessarily hold up when tested against these smaller units. For instance, Ginzburg’s 1976 work The Cheese and the Worms – “probably the most popular and widely read work of microhistory”- investigates the life of a single sixteenth-century Italian miller, Menocchio. The individuals microhistorical works are concerned with are frequently those whom Richard M. Tristano describes as “little people”, especially those considered heretics.

Carlo Ginzburg has written that a core principle of microhistory is making obstacles in sources, such as lacunae, part of the historical account. Relatedly, Levi has said that the point of view of the researcher becomes part of the account in microhistory. Other notable aspects of microhistory as a historical approach are an interest in the interaction of elite and popular culture, and an interest in the interaction between micro- and macro-levels of history.

Wolfgang Behringer (born July 17, 1956 in Munich) is a German historian specialising in the witchcraft beliefs of Early Modern Europe. He has worked at the University of Munich, University of York and the University of Bonn as well as published multiple books. He is the author of the book Shaman of Oberstdorf.[1] He also authored A Cultural History of Climate. First published in German in 2000, it was translated into English in 2009.[2] Since 2003 Behringer teaches at Saarland University.

Wolfgang Behringer’s book, A Cultural History of Climate makes numerous negative references to climate scientists, which has resulted in concerns of factual inaccuracies and possible bias. For example, page 14 of the original version of the book in German depicts a cartoon from controversial cartoonist Götz Weidenroth depicting climate scientists financially profiting from speaking up about the anthropogenic causes of climate change. On page 104 he makes reference to 3 °C temperature increase in springtime temperatures in the early Middle Ages (1170 to 1310) in Europe and then compares this to an apparently lower rise in temperatures between 1891 and 1960. Without providing references this seems to be cherry picking of the data in order to make an unsubstantiated claim. Furthermore, on page 288 Behringer makes the claim that climate change has been historically good for humanity while appealing for calm. He claims that we will simply adapt to a changing climate without citing any scientific sources.

3. Discuss the distinctive features of Greco-Roman historiography.

4. Who are considered to be the founders of the Annales School of historiography? Discuss  their works.

5. Describe the important features of Indo-Persian tradition of history-writing during the Sultanate period. 


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IGNOU MHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Section-B


6. Write a note on the Marxist historiography in the West after Second World War.

7. Compare the colonial historiography in India with the nationalist historiography.

8. What do you understand by the term ‘History from Below’? Discuss with particular reference to Indian historiography.

9. Write a note on the feminist historiography in India.

10. Write short notes in about 250 words each on any two of the following: 10+10
a) Objectivity and Interpretation
b) Colonial perception of caste
c) Early Indian history-writing
d) Historians and causation


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IGNOU MHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
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  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU MHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU MHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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