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IGNOU MHI 01 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Attempt any five questions. The assignment is divided into two Sections ‘A’ and ‘B’. You have to attempt at least two questions from each section in about 500 words each. All questions carry equal marks.

Section-A


1. Discuss the impact of agriculture, invention of tools and discovery of fire in the development of human society.

Fire has also influenced human biology, assisting in providing the high-quality diet which has fuelled the increase in brain size through the Pleistocene. Direct evidence of early fire in archaeology remains rare, but from 1.5 Ma onward surprising numbers of sites preserve some evidence of burnt material. By the Middle Pleistocene, recognizable hearths demonstrate a social and economic focus on many sites. The evidence of archaeological sites has to be evaluated against postulates of biological models such as the ‘cooking hypothesis’ or the ‘social brain’, and questions of social cooperation and the origins of language. Although much remains to be worked out, it is plain that fire control has had a major impact in the course of human evolution.This article is part of the themed issue ‘The interaction of fire and mankind’.
Introduction
Fire is universally accepted as important to human life, with myriad expressions and uses in the modern world [1–7]. It was regarded by Darwin as the greatest discovery made by humanity, excepting only language [8]. Although open fire tends to be built out of Western technology, it persists in many forms as hidden fire, as in the internal combustion engine. Fire has underpinned the development of all modern technologies—from ceramics, to metal working, to the nuclear industry.This paper starts with the view that such human fire use is an offshoot or outgrowth of far older natural fire regimes [9–15] (figure 1), and it aims to address two main issues: when and how humans came to be engaged with fire; and what are the main long-term impacts that their fire use has had on the natural environment? In the first place, large numbers of lightning strikes would have made fire evident to early humans in the form of bush fires, even aside from other rarer forms of natural ignition such as volcanic activity [16]. Archaeology and anthropology have often treated fire as a technological ‘add on’ or invention, but fire awareness must inevitably go back to very early times because of the high visibility of natural fires. The early encounters have been followed by an intensification of use which has had profound impacts on human culture and even biology [17].
Fire has played a major role in transforming human diet [18], and apart from its major impact on environments, it has become socially embedded, even to the point of having religious significance and being incorporated in ritual [1,19,20].The evolution of the primates from about 70 Ma [21,22] provides the ultimate background for encounters with fires in landscapes. Their development is largely owed to the ‘angiosperm revolution’ [10,11,23], in which flowering and fruiting trees provided niches for tree-living insectivores and especially frugivores as well as folivores. By 35 Ma ape-like and monkey-like primates had appeared. For more than 20 Myr, recognizable apes were widespread as denizens of forests [24]. Although lightning can on occasion cause tropical forest fires, in general they would not have been considerably exposed to fire in these moist densely vegetated environments [25,26]. Within the last 10 Myr, however, pivotal climate and vegetation changes led to new habitats and new adaptations across the Old World, and in that context the evolution of the hominids [27]. Along with C4 plants such as grasses, mammal groups such as horses were able to disperse through Africa [23,28,29], and tropical forest was replaced over large areas by wooded, bushy or more open habitats.The earliest hominins probably diverged from apes around 6–8 Ma [30], and their evolution can be seen as a response to these changes—apes who, as the final part of a Miocene ape radiation, adapted to new wooded environments [31]. Rather than apes who came down from the trees, as traditionally seen, our ancestors were the bush country apes, and as such, through the last 3 Myr especially, some of them became exposed to more open habitats where natural fire was much more prevalent and obvious. The period 6–3 Ma, the first half of this evolution—the time of Ardipithecus and its relatives [32]—involved adaptations of bipedalism and life in wooded environments, accompanied by features such as reduction of jaws and teeth and lengthening of the thumb [31–33]. The second half indicates, for Homo lineages at least, a new complex of adaptation committed to long ranging, open environments, meat eating and other new foods [34–36]. In this context, encounters with fire must have become far more frequent and significant (figure 2).A series of recent finds has given us a changed deep picture of the hominins, showing that their engagement with technology reaches back as much as 50% of the way to hominin origins. Stone tool finds from Lomekwi 3 at West Turkana in northern Kenya push back the hard record of technology from 2.6 to 3.3 Ma [37].
Such finds are important, because they almost certainly indicate a knowledge of working wood as well as stone, and hence of properties of friction and heat. At the same time, new finds from northern Ethiopia set the origins of our own genus, Homo, as early as 2.8 Ma [38]. These discoveries square with others that indicate a dispersal of hominins across the Old World far earlier than was expected a few years ago—dates of 1.8 Ma in Georgia and eastern Syria, 1.7 Ma in northern China and more than 1.5 Ma in Java are strong indicators that the actual dispersal goes back further, perhaps more than 2 Myr [39–43]. It has the effect of putting hominids as far north as 40°N, at this early date, indicating that unlike the great majority of primates they had evolved means to cope with summer–winter seasonality.Altogether, a more complex picture of early Homo has emerged, with regional diversity, smaller brains than were expected, and coexistence with other hominins such as the robust australopithecines for at least 1.5 Myr. Stone tool transport distances show that these animals ranged over large territories which were often open in character . Recent research has also given a broader picture of other primate behaviour. The sophistication of ape behaviour has been recognized, including their technology. In West Africa, Pruetz and LaDuke have shown the use of wood weapons by savanna chimpanzees, and their awareness of fire. We must be alert then to possibilities that hominins could have been interacting with fire in simple ways from an early date .
2. Origins of interactions with fire
Archaeological research has tended to concentrate narrowly on the presence or the absence of hearths, largely because of its own focus on living sites [48]. In broader evolutionary scenarios, it is evident that we have to consider at least three distinct but potentially intergrading forms of fire use: first, fire foraging for resources across landscapes; second, social/domestic hearth fire, for protection and cooking; and third, fires used as tools in technological process, e.g. for firing pottery.Modern fire use is highly complex, but its origins are likely to have been simple: a common biological rationale is that there is one main selective pressure for a new development of this kind [49]. For humans, fire became important for many reasons, including cooking, protection and warmth, but most of these presuppose some degree of control. Fire foraging, in contrast, demands only an attraction towards fires, in the hope of benefitting from additional resources For hominins, benefits could include retrieval of birds eggs, rodents, lizards and other small animals, as well as of invertebrates. Although fire does not create such resources, it renders them far more visible, and chance cooking might well improve their digestibility.Support for the primacy of foraging comes from the animal world. Although only humans have full mastery of fire, and it has been said that there is no analogue, there are occasional instances, largely anecdotal, of mammalian predators such as cheetahs positioning themselves to spring on prey fleeing fires. Bird ‘fire followers’ are much better recorded. They amount to many species across continents . They show the availability of resources, the potential selective advantage, and by inference that this kind of fire harvesting would be within the cognitive capabilities of early hominins .From simple interactions, the challenge to hominins would be to stretch fire, both in space and time, to enhance its utility. In Alaska—a reasonable proxy for parts of ice age Europe—the fires burn largely from June to September. Thus, fire would not be available through the cold parts of the year, unless it could be maintained effectively. In Africa, the challenge might be to maintain fires through the wet seasons. Any such efforts, indeed almost all fire management, pushes towards a division of labour. Slow-burning materials such as animal dung or plant material tapers need to be selected and guarded, while other subsistence activities go on.Without doubt, natural fire was available on the landscapes inhabited by hominins. Of the millions of lightning strikes that are recorded each year [16], many lead to bush and forest fires, especially at the start of a rainy season: then lightning from the first thunder storms often strikes when much of the vegetation remains dry [52–58]. Most of the instances of relevance are in forest, woodland and savanna, but the fire regimes operate surprisingly far north. Farukh & Hayasaka give the example of Alaska, where up to 100 fires are burning on a given day in the summer season, and important for hominins, they have an average duration of more than 20 days.
3. Sampling the record of early fire
In total, the early archaeological record documents many thousands of events of hominin activity, but the chances of fire being preserved are exceptionally small. This is in part because of its ‘disappearing act’—there remain scant traces of burning, rather than the fire itself —and partly because of the overall low density of sampling. As stone tools endure far better, their record is full enough to give some insights into sampling. When the Lomekwi 3 site at West Turkana in Kenya was published it took the record back from 2.6 to 3.3 Ma —amounting to one sampling of the ‘new’ 700 000 years. If hominins had actually made tools (say) 10 times a year, then with a population of (say) 10 000, current sampling would give a 1 in 70 billion chance of recovery. If that seems excessively hypothetical, we can come forward to the period 2–1 Ma: there are some hundreds of archaeological occurrences in total, but currently a maximum of five preserving evidence of burning (mentioned below). Fire is therefore about 10–100 times less likely to feature than hard artefacts. In that light, it seems remarkable that overall we do have so much fire in the record.
4. Major biological models
Fire foraging would lead inevitably to consumption of foods cooked accidentally, including the ‘roots made digestible’ mentioned by Darwin. The basis of the cooking hypothesis as set out by Wrangham and colleagues is that hominins living in more open environments would be unable to feed through the year from the fruit and herb resources which sustain apes in tropical forest. They would need to adopt other foods, particularly during dry seasons [34]. Extending their use of meat and particularly of carbohydrates in the form of roots and tubers would be necessary for filling this gap . Large teeth—megadonty—hint at dietary stress in the period before 3 Ma, and isotopic studies at the incorporation of new foods such as grasses and sedges . From as early as 2.6 Ma, increased meat eating is well attested by archaeological sites that link stone tools and cut-marked bones .But the new foods are hard to digest. Cooking greatly increases their digestibility: in the view of Wrangham and colleagues, this would have come with Homo erectus at about 1.7 Ma [64–66]. Part of the evidence advanced is that a modern human body plan emerges at this time, with features including lengthened hindlimbs , and reduction of sexual dimorphism . In particular, the teeth of Homo erectus are reduced in size, sometimes as much as those of modern humans making allowance for body size ([68], cf. [69]).In a sense, the cooking hypothesis is proved, in that all modern humans need cooked food [66]: the question therefore is whether the hypothesis can be locked into a fixed position in the past, a rapid switch of adaptation. This is far harder to demonstrate, given our inadequate picture of early hominin species variation, and the variety of environments which they inhabited. As a working hypothesis, however, this set of ideas brings to life the problems that early hominins were working against in terms of processing foods, and living alongside large predators.A striking increase in human brain size is also one of the major developments in Homo. It has risen from an average ca 600 to 1300 cc in the course of the Pleistocene . As a larger brain is costly in energy, it needs explanation. The social brain hypothesis aims to explain the phenomenon in terms of increases in group size and pressures towards social cognition . High-quality diets are a necessity of fuelling the larger brain, from early times and especially from half a million years ago . Social brain calculations suggest rapid change at this stage, and a link with language origins.These hypotheses can be seen as promoting ‘step changes’ in hominin evolution—but the genetic comparisons now possible from whole genome studies indicate a steady progression of many complex changes, rather than any Rubicon .
5. Recognizing fire in the record
Fire on landscape is of deep interest, but it is practically impossible to distinguish between wildfires and similar fires that may have been started by humans. Some of our best clues as to how this might be done come from Australia. In a modern instance, the Martu people of the western desert only gave up their traditional fire stick farming methods in the 1960s. The change led to a great rise in the size of individual fires [78,79]. Through the systematic use of small fires the aborigines had habitually managed small mammal communities in a way that appears to enhance resources [80]; other hunter–gatherer studies imply also a concern for enhancing vegetation [54].More generally, archaeological methodology has to focus on the restricted domains of sites where there has been notable human activity—possible home bases. The idea of the home base has been much debated [80–82], but dense concentrations of stone tools as much as 2.5 Ma show that hominins remained in one place long enough or frequently enough that overnight stays were likely —and if fire was in use it was likely to be employed on some of these, although the chances of preservation are very slight.On occasion archaeology is capable of recognizing artefact evidence of fire beyond all doubt. One case is a preserved wooden fire ‘hearth’ from Guitarrero Cave in Peru, directly dated by radiocarbon to around 2000 years BP; cord and dowels from the site date to ca 10 ka [85,86]. The sockets where the fire drill was inserted are plainly visible.Another is lumps of pitch preserved from a Neanderthal site at Königsaue in the foothills of the Harz Mountains in Germany [87]. Pitch, probably used as a fixative in hafting, can be made from tree bark only by maintaining high temperatures in a controlled fire for several hours. This can be regarded as almost the ideal case of fire documentation, since one piece of pitch retained a human fingerprint, and direct radiocarbon dating gave an age of ca 48 000 BP, on the limits of the technique, and compatible with a geological age of approximately 80 000 years. The use of gypsum plaster for hafting in the Middle East also implies the use of fire.

2. Give a detailed account of the various mediums used for writing and communication in different civilizations.

The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by systems of markings.

In the history of how writing systems have evolved in human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols (symbols or letters that make remembering them easier). True writing, in which the content of a linguistic utterance is encoded so that another reader can reconstruct, with a fair degree of accuracy, the exact utterance written down, is a later development. It is distinguished from proto-writing, which typically avoids encoding grammatical words and affixes, making it more difficult or even impossible to reconstruct the exact meaning intended by the writer unless a great deal of context is already known in advance.

Inventions of writing

Writing was long thought to have been invented in a single civilization, a theory named “monogenesis”. Scholars believed that all writing originated in ancient Sumer (in Mesopotamia) and spread over the world from there via a process of cultural diffusion.[2] According to this theory, the concept of representing language by written marks, though not necessarily the specifics of how such a system worked, was passed on by traders or merchants traveling between geographical regions.

However, the discovery of the scripts of ancient Mesoamerica, far away from Middle Eastern sources, proved that writing had been invented more than once. Scholars now recognize that writing may have independently developed in at least four ancient civilizations: Mesopotamia (between 3400 and 3100 BCE), Egypt (around 3250 BCE),[4][5][2] China (1200 BCE),[6] and lowland areas of Southern Mexico and Guatemala (by 500 BCE)

Regarding ancient Egypt, several scholars have argued that “the earliest solid evidence of Egyptian writing differs in structure and style from the Mesopotamian and must therefore have developed independently. The possibility of ‘stimulus diffusion’ from Mesopotamia remains, but the influence cannot have gone beyond the transmission of an idea.”Regarding China, it is believed that ancient Chinese characters are an independent invention because there is no evidence of contact between ancient China and the literate civilizations of the Near East, and because of the distinct differences between the Mesopotamian and Chinese approaches to logography and phonetic representation.

Debate surrounds the Indus script of the Bronze Age Indus Valley civilisation, the Rongorongo script of Easter Island, and the Vinča symbols dated around 5500 BCE. All are undeciphered, and so it is unknown if they represent authentic writing, proto-writing, or something else.

The Sumerian archaic (pre-cuneiform) writing and Egyptian hieroglyphs are generally considered the earliest true writing systems, both emerging out of their ancestral proto-literate symbol systems from 3400–3100 BCE, with earliest coherent texts from about 2600 BCE. The Proto-Elamite script is also dated to the same approximate period.

Writing systems

Pre-cuneiform tags, with drawing of goat or sheep and number (probably “10”), Al-Hasakah, 3300–3100 BC, Uruk culture

Symbolic communication systems are distinguished from writing systems. With writing systems, one must usually understand something of the associated spoken language to comprehend the text. In contrast, symbolic systems, such as information signs, painting, maps, and mathematics, often do not require prior knowledge of a spoken language. Every human community possesses language, a feature regarded by many as an innate and defining condition of humanity (see Origin of language). However the development of writing systems, and their partial replacement of traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic, uneven, and slow. Once established, writing systems on the whole change more slowly than their spoken counterparts and often preserve features and expressions that no longer exist in the spoken language.

3. Explain the nature of conflict between aristocracy and peasantry in ancient Greece. How did this conflict culminate in the establishment of democracy?

Greek city-states created various types of administration with altogether different political structures and qualities.

Greek colonization prompted the spread of the Greek language and Greek culture, however it additionally brought about pressures with the neighboring Persian realm, finishing in the Persian Wars.

Athens created law based organizations and a culture of theory, science, and culture; it developed as an amazing state and aligned with other city-states, framing the Delian League.

Protection from Athens’ capacity among the other Greek city-states, especially Sparta, provked the Peloponnesian War.

The Ascent Of The Polis

The domain of Greece is bumpy; thus, antiquated Greece comprised of numerous littler locales, each with its own tongue, social characteristics, and personality. Regionalism and local clashes were a noticeable component of antiquated Greece. Urban areas would in general be situated in valleys between mountains or on waterfront fields and ruled the wide open around them.

As indicated by the unbelievable artist Homer, whose verifiable credibility is discussed, around 1200 BCE, the Mycenaeans were engaged with a contention with the city of Troy in Anatolia, called the Trojan war. As Homer wrote in his well known work, the Iliad, simultaneously as the war, different outside “Ocean Peoples” started attacking Mycenaean settlements, provoking the occupants to relocate to islands in the Aegean, Anatolia, and Cyprus. Around then, composing appeared to have vanished, and life in the Greek promontory and Greek islands was described by strife and precariousness.

A guide of Greece demonstrating the Aegean, Cretan, and Adriatic oceans. Different old Greek city-states are portrayed in brilliant hues. The guide shows a portion of the numerous city-states and incorporates the spots that different characters from _The Iliad_ and _The Odyssey_ should have originated from.

A guide of Greece demonstrating the Aegean, Cretan, and Adriatic oceans. Different old Greek city-states are delineated in splendid hues. The guide shows a portion of the numerous city-states and incorporates the spots that different characters from The Iliad and The Odyssey should have originated from.

This guide shows a portion of the numerous city-conditions of old Greece and incorporates the spots that different characters from The Iliad and the Odyssey should have originated from. Picture credit: Wikipedia, Creative Commons 3.0 permit, Pinpin

This precariousness was the setting for the development of Greek city-states. Without an incredible, concentrated state, littler overseeing bodies made political request. One such kind of administering body was the city-state or polis. At first, the term polis alluded to an invigorated territory or fortress which offered security during times of war. As a result of the relative wellbeing these structures managed, individuals ran to them and set up networks and business focuses. After some time, poleis—the plural of polis—became urban focuses whose force and impact stretched out to the encompassing horticultural areas, which gave assets and made good on charges.

By around 800 BCE, there were numerous poleis which worked freely. In light of their own particular settings, every city-state made an alternate type of administration, going from governments and theocracies to battle ready social orders and proto-vote based systems. Governments were in some cases managed by a despot—a ruler who didn’t observe any set laws. Theocracies were little gatherings of influential people who ran city-state government. Oligarchs and dictators regularly sought force. Majority rules systems were governments that enabled residents to decide on and take an interest in settling on state choices.

Probably the most significant city-states were Athens, Sparta, Thebes, Corinth, and Delphi. Of these, Athens and Sparta were the two most dominant city-states. Athens was a majority rules system and Sparta had two rulers and an oligarchic framework, yet both were significant in the advancement of Greek society and culture.

What were a portion of the impacts of the absence of an amazing focal state?

Sparta

Situated in a rich territory of the Peloponnesus, a promontory in southern Greece, Sparta’s populace consistently developed somewhere in the range of 800 and 600 BCE. As Sparta built up an intricate and solid economy, it expanded its capacity all through the Peloponnesus and brought the individuals of neighboring towns under its influence. The individuals in these towns, nonetheless, were not agreed equivalent status with Spartans. Rather, they became helots, who were a class of unfree workers. Not at all like oppressed individuals who were possessed secretly, helots were subjects of the Spartan state. They had the option to have families and practiced some level of opportunity, however they were attached to the land and were required to supply Sparta with nourishment.

Spartans consumed tremendous assets to build up an amazing and organized military mechanical assembly to forestall and quell uprisings.

In spite of the fact that there was an extremely sharp differentiation among Spartans and helots, Spartan culture itself didn’t have a mind boggling social chain of importance, from a certain perspective. Rather than riches being a distinctive marker, societal position was dictated by military accomplishments. Quality and order were underlined, even in youngsters at a youthful age. At age seven, Spartan young men were isolated from their families and sent to live in military garisson huts, where they experienced genuine military preparing, paving the way to dynamic help when they were scarcely out of their teenagers.

In spite of the fact that Spartan culture didn’t have an unbending social chain of importance, despite everything it had some persuasive gatherings. Like every single Greek society, Sparta was ruled by male residents, and the most dominant of these originated from a select gathering of families. The Spartan political framework was strange in that it had two innate lords from two separate families. These rulers were especially amazing when one of them drove the military on crusade.

The rulers were additionally clerics of Zeus, and they sat on the board of seniors known as the gerousia, which was likewise the most noteworthy court in Sparta. There was likewise an official advisory group of five ephors picked by parcel from the resident body, capable just to serve for a limit of one year after which point they were ineligible for future office. Two of the ephors additionally went with one of the lords when on crusade. Exactly how these diverse political components interfaced isn’t known for certain, yet plainly a level of agreement was fundamental for the state contraption to work.

Ladies in Sparta had a greater number of rights than ladies in other Greek city-states. In Sparta, they could claim property, which they regularly increased through shares and legacies. A few ladies became rich when the men in their families were murdered in war. Actually, ladies in the long run controlled almost 50% of Spartan land. What’s more, Spartan ladies could move around with sensible opportunity, wear non-tightening attire, appreciate games, and even beverage wine.

4. What do you understand by Nomadic Empire? Discuss the pattern of Nomadic migration during the period of your study.

5. Write short notes on any two of the following in 250 words each:
i) Kinship
ii) Burial practices in early civilizations
iii) Patricians and Plebeians
iv) Religious life of the Inkas and the Aztecs 


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Section-B


6. Analyse the process of decline of feudalism. Did the growth of urban centres contribute to decline of feudalism?

7. Write a note on the Imperial State in pre-modern Chinese civilization.

8. Discuss the overseas trade of Indian merchants in the 15th century. What was the impact of Portuguese on Indian overseas trade?

9. Give a brief account of the developments in the area of science and technology in medieval period.

10. Write short notes on any two of the following in 250 words each:
i) Armenian trading network
ii) Rise of Islam in Arab
iii) Towns of Arab and Islamic World
iv) Family structures in medieval Europe.
 


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