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IGNOU ESO 15 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU ESO 15 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , ESO 15 Society and Religion Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : ESO 15 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU ESO 15 Assignment 2022-23, ESO 15 Assignment 2022-23 , ESO 15 Assignment , ESO 15 Society and Religion Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- BACHELOR OF ARTS Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for BACHELOR OF ARTS Programme for the year 2022-23. IGNOU BDP stands for Bachelor’s Degree Program. Courses such as B.A., B.Com, and B.Sc comes under the BDP category. IGNOU BDP courses give students the freedom to choose any subject according to their preference.  Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. Study of Political Science is very important for every person because it is interrelated with the society and the molar values in today culture and society. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23, ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .

IGNOU ESO 15 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Answer all the questions

Section II


Answer the following in about 500 words each.

1. Explain the evolutionary theories of religion. 

The evolutionary psychology of religion is the study of religious belief using evolutionary psychology principles. It is one approach to the psychology of religion. As with all other organs and organ functions, the brain’s functional structure is argued to have a genetic basis, and is therefore subject to the effects of natural selection and evolution. Evolutionary psychologists seek to understand cognitive processes, religion in this case, by understanding the survival and reproductive functions they might serve.

Mechanisms of evolution

Scientists generally agree with the idea that a propensity to engage in religious behavior evolved early in human history. However, there is disagreement on the exact mechanisms that drove the evolution of the religious mind. There are two schools of thought. One is that religion itself evolved due to natural selection and is an adaptation, in which case religion conferred some sort of evolutionary advantage. The other is that religious beliefs and behaviors, such as the concept of a protogod, may have emerged as by-products of other adaptive traits without initially being selected for because of their own benefits. A third suggestion is that different aspects of religion require different evolutionary explanations but also that different evolutionary explanations may apply to several aspects of religion.

Religious behavior often involves significant costs—including economic costs, celibacy, dangerous rituals, or the expending of time that could be used otherwise. This would suggest that natural selection should act against religious behavior unless it or something else causes religious behavior to have significant advantages.

Religion as an adaptation

Richard Sosis and Candace Alcorta have reviewed several of the prominent theories for the adaptive value of religion. Many are “social solidarity theories”, which view religion as having evolved to enhance cooperation and cohesion within groups. Group membership in turn provides benefits which can enhance an individual’s chances for survival and reproduction. These benefits range from coordination advantages to the facilitation of costly behavior rules.

Sosis also researched 200 utopian communes in the 19th-century United States, both religious and secular (mostly socialist). 39 percent of the religious communes were still functioning 20 years after their founding while only 6 percent of the secular communes were. The number of costly sacrifices that a religious commune demanded from its members had a linear effect on its longevity, while in secular communes demands for costly sacrifices did not correlate with longevity and the majority of the secular communes failed within 8 years. Sosis cites anthropologist Roy Rappaport in arguing that rituals and laws are more effective when sacralized.[10] Social psychologist Jonathan Haidt cites Sosis’s research in his 2012 book The Righteous Mind as the best evidence that religion is an adaptive solution to the free-rider problem by enabling cooperation without kinship. Evolutionary medicine researcher Randolph M. Nesse and theoretical biologist Mary Jane West-Eberhard have argued instead that because humans with altruistic tendencies are preferred as social partners they receive fitness advantages by social selection,[list 1] with Nesse arguing further that social selection enabled humans as a species to become extraordinarily cooperative and capable of creating culture.

Edward O. Wilson’s theory of “eusociality” strongly suggests group cohesion as the impetus for the development of religion. Wilson posits that the individuals of a small percentage of species (including homo sapiens, ants, termites, bees and a few other species) replicated their genes by adhering to one of a number of competing groups. He further postulates that, in homo sapiens, thanks to their enormous forebrains, there evolved a complex interplay between group evolution and individual evolution within a group.

2. What are the similarities and differences between Bhakti and Sufism?

Sufism is a mystic tradition of Islam that includes a range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Allah, divine love and cultivation of the heart. On the other hand, Bhakti stands for complete devotion to one particular deity. Both Sufism and Bhakti started as an answer to the ever-growing orthodoxy of various religions. The similarities between them are as follows:

(1) Devotion to God: Sufism believes that one can become closer to God only through love and devotion. Bhakti, which means devotion, also emphasised devotion to the Almighty.

(2) Compassion for all: Sufism emphasised love and compassion towards all human beings. Bhaki saints and their followers also emphasised love for all.

(3) Equality for all: Sufism did not differentiate between people. Bhakti followers also preached equality for all and did not believe in caste discrimination.

(4) Against rituals: Both Sufism and Bhakti were against elaborate rituals of several religions.

(5) Music: The followers of Sufism and Bhakti expressed their love for God through music, poetry and dance.

Differences Between Bhakti and Sufi Movements

Bhakti Movement Sufi Movement
The movement largely influenced Hindus  It was followed mainly by Muslims
The Saints of the Bhakti Movement sang Bhajans to worship Gods and Goddesses Sufi Saints sang Qawwalis – a form of music  to inspire religious devotion
The Bhakti movement has its originated in eighth-century South India The Origins of Sufism can be traced to the early days of Islam in seventh-century Arabian Peninsula
The Bhakti Movement is regarded by scholars as an influential social revival and reformation movement in Hinduism It has been misunderstood as another sect of Islam, but it is a religious order for any Islamic denomination
From its point of origins in South India, the Bhakti movement swept over East and North India from the 15th century onwards It spans many continents and cultures.

Section II


Answer the following in about 250 words each.
3. Explain Weber’s understanding of the prophet.
4. Discuss the social significance of pilgrimages.
5. Discuss the social context of secularisation process in Europe .
6. Explain the origins of Veerashaivism.


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Section III


Answer the following in about 100 words each.
7. What do understand by the concept of cult?
8. What are life-cycle rituals?


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IGNOU Instructions for the ESO 15 Society and Religion Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU ESO 15 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

IGNOU ESO 15 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU ESO 15 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU ESO 15 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU ESO 15 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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