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IGNOU ESO 14 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU ESO 14 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , ESO 14 Society and Stratification Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : ESO 14 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU ESO 14 Assignment 2022-23, ESO 14 Assignment 2022-23 , ESO 14 Assignment , ESO 14 Society and Stratification Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- BACHELOR OF ARTS Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for BACHELOR OF ARTS Programme for the year 2022-23. IGNOU BDP stands for Bachelor’s Degree Program. Courses such as B.A., B.Com, and B.Sc comes under the BDP category. IGNOU BDP courses give students the freedom to choose any subject according to their preference.  Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. Study of Political Science is very important for every person because it is interrelated with the society and the molar values in today culture and society. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23, ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .

IGNOU ESO 14 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Answer all the questions

Section II


Answer the following in about 500 words each.

1. Critically examine the attributionalist approach to the study of Caste. 

ATTRIBUTIONAL THEORIES TO CASTE

G.S Ghurye

Ghurye wrote in the 1930’s and considered that each caste was separated from the other in a hierarchical order. This ordering sprang legitimately from its attributes of a caste. These were:

i) Segmental Division. Thus membership to a caste group is acquired by birth and with it come the position in the rank order relative to other castes.

ii) Hierarchy. Following from the above society was arranged in rank orders, or relations of superiority or inferiority. Thus Brahmins were accepted as highest in the hierarchy and untouchables at the very bottom.

iii) Caste Restrictions. These were placed on every caste which gave permission to its members only to interact with particular groups of people. This included its dress, speech, customs, rituals and from who they could accept food. The system was geared to maintain purity of the group members, hence of the caste group itself.

iv) Caste Pollution. In this idea the whole effort of a caste was to avoid contamination from polluting objects (those involved unclean occupations, or of the lowest caste). This shunning of pollution is reflected in the residential separation of the caste groups.

v) Traditional Occupation. Ghurye felt that every caste had a traditional occupation the clean castes had clean occupations whereas the unclean and impure caste had defiling ones.

vi) Endogamy. This trait of the castes was very distinct and essential to keeping it together as a group that maintained its own distinct character. Essentially it maintained that one could only marry within ones caste.

Thus through six attributes Ghurye sought to define the process by which a caste group maintained its caste identity. By preserving the various attributes of segmental division, hierarchy, caste restrictions, caste pollution, traditional occupation, and marriage within a particular caste circle, the caste group maintained its own separate (through interrelated) identity which it sought to perpetuate over generations.

Hutton

Hutton had described the caste structure in his book Caste in India. Hutton held that the central feature of the caste system was endogamy. Around this fact are built up the various restrictions and taboos. Interaction must not violate these restrictions placed on the various castes. Another important feature of the caste system as seen by Hutton was the taboo on taking cooked food from any caste but one’s own. Such restrictions raise questions in themselves: 

i) Who cooks the food?

ii) What type of pot was the food cooked in?

iii) Is the food “kaccha” uncooked or (cooked in water) or ‘pakka” (fried in oil). The latter is acceptable from other castes as well.

iv) There is a hierarchy of food and vegetarian food is ranked higher than non vegetarian food. Brahmins are usually vegetarian but not everywhere in B engal and Kashmir Brahmis eat non-vegetarian food as well.

These restrictions reflect the process of the formation of caste identity. They are reflective of separation and hierarchy between the caste groups. Thus nonacceptance of food reflects superiority of rank. The whole idea of maintaining purity’ and reducing pollution’ is also found to permeate the interactions. In parts of the South India for instance the fear of pollution gets translated into physical distance being maintained between the superior and inferior caste. Again the castes low in rank order have to avoid village temples and well and maintain
a physical distance in their interaction with higher caste members. Thus Hutton explains caste interactions with the notion of attributes of a caste, primarily in terms of endogamy, purity and impurity and restrictions on commensality. You will have noticed the overlap in Ghuryes Hutton’s approaches.

M.N. Srinivas

Before proceeding further it may be mentioned that the scholars using the attributional approach stress the attributes of a caste. However each of them lays emphasis on one or other of these attributes and how they affect interaction. In the case of Srinivas writing in the 50’s we find that he chooses to study the structure of relations arising between castes on the basis of these attributes. Thus he introduces a dynamic aspect of caste identity very forcefully. This aspect becomes clearer in Srinivas’s work on positional mobility known as ‘Sanskritization’. Sanskritization is a process whereby a caste attempts to raise its rank within the caste hierarchy by adopting in practice, the attributes of the caste or castes above them, in the rank order. This is to say the ‘low’ attributes are gradually dropped and the ‘high’ attributes of the castes above them are imitated. This involves adoption of vegetarianism, clean occupations of so on. Closely connected is the concept of dominant caste. The dominant caste in a village is conspicuous by its:

i) Sizeable numerical presence

ii) Ownership of land

iii) Political power.

Thus a dominant caste has numerical significance as well as economic and political power. It is also interesting to note that the dominant caste need not be the highest ranking caste in the village caste hierarchy. The dominant caste commands the service of all other castes.

2. Discuss class as a form of social stratification.

Class stratification is a form of social stratification in which a society is separated they are giaynto parties whose members have different access to resources and power. An economic, natural, cultural, religious, interests and ideal rift usually exists between different classes.

Process of class stratification

In the early stages of class stratification, the majority of members in a given society have similar access to wealth and power, with only a few members displaying noticeably more or less wealth than the rest.

As time goes on, the largest share of wealth and status can begin to concentrate around a small number of the population. When wealth continues to concentrate, pockets of society with significantly less wealth may develop, until a sharp imbalance between rich and poor is created. As members of a society spread out from one another economically, classes are created.

When a physical gap is added, a cultural rift between the classes comes into existence, an example being the perception of the well-mannered, “cultured” behavior of the rich, versus the “uncivilized” behavior of the poor. With the cultural divide, chances for classes to intermingle become less and less likely, and mythos becomes more and more common between them (i.e. “the wrong side of the railroad tracks”). The lower class loses more of its influence and wealth as the upper class gains more influence and wealth, further dividing the classes from one another.

Class schema

Social class is usually regarded as being conceived of as sets of positions rather than as individuals who happen to fill them at any particular time. Class structure is the “empty spaces” that persons occupy without altering the shape of the class structure.

Erik Olin Wright produced class schemata, in attempts to retain a Marxist approach to class analysis. In Wright’s first schema he states that in capitalism simple production exists alongside the capitalist mode of production. In this schema the bourgeoisie, the self-employed working who engage in simple production are one class. In the model there are two distinctive classes, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The bourgeoisie owns the means of production, and the proletariat are the exploited workers. Both of these classes can be broken down into six classes that make up Wright’s first schema. The supervisors and managers are in a contradictory class because they dominate over the proletariat and yet they are still dominated by the bourgeoisie. The small employers are both petty bourgeois and bourgeois; and the semi-autonomous employees while they do not own the means of production, they benefit from having more autonomy over their work than the normal proletariat. These classes are based upon exploitation and domination. Exploitation exists between those who own the means of production and those who do not. Domination is measured according to the amount of autonomy that can be exercised by the workers and to which extent they are supervised.

Wright’s second schema involve a 12-class schema and is based upon exploitation. In the second schemata exploitation has three dimensions: ownership of the means of production, ownership of organization assets that permit control and coordination of technical processes of production, and ownership of skills or credentials.

John Goldthorpe’s class schema is to differentiate positions within labor markets and production units, or more specifically to differentiate such positions in terms of the employment relations that they entail. Goldthorpe schema distinguishes the employers, the self-employed, and employees. Within the group of employees eleven classes are defined on the basis of the employment relationship they enjoy. The aim of the schema is to group occupational title/employment relations, and the employment relationships joined by given combinations may differ cross-nationally.

As the theories relate to class stratification the common characteristic shared by the actors involve the position they occupy in relations defined by labor markets and productive processes. Class has often been defined as the significant determinant of life chances. The deliberate acts of individual actors are undertaken from a position of social power which is determined by class membership. The resources an individual possesses and the constraints they face and the course of action they take leads to having a higher probability of being undertaken than others. These processes lead to class position becoming a powerful predictor of many kinds of behavior.


Section II


Answer the following in about 250 words each.
3. How are gender identities constructed? Discuss.
4. Explain status as an organising principle of social stratification.
5. Write a brief note on ethnic minorities.
6. Describe the factors that influence social mobility.


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Section III


Answer the following in about 100 words each.
7. Explain the concept of power elite.
8. What do you understand by the term sanskritisation ?


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IGNOU ESO 14 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
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  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
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