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IGNOU EPS 15 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU EPS 15 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , EPS 15 SOUTH ASIA: ECONOMY, SOCIETY AND POLITICS Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : EPS 15 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU EPS 15 Assignment 2022-23, EPS 15 Assignment 2022-23 , EPS 15 Assignment , EPS 15 SOUTH ASIA: ECONOMY, SOCIETY AND POLITICS Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- BACHELOR OF ARTS Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for BACHELOR OF ARTS Programme for the year 2022-23. IGNOU BDP stands for Bachelor’s Degree Program. Courses such as B.A., B.Com, and B.Sc comes under the BDP category. IGNOU BDP courses give students the freedom to choose any subject according to their preference.  Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. Study of Political Science is very important for every person because it is interrelated with the society and the molar values in today culture and society. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23, ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .

IGNOU EPS 15 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

All questions are compulsory.

Assignment – I


Answer the following in about 500 words each.

1. Define human development bringing out it various dimensions. What is the status of South Asia in fulfilling the critical human choice of longevity?

Human development involves studies of the human condition with its core being the capability approach. The inequality adjusted Human Development Index is used as a way of measuring actual progress in human development by the United Nations. It is an alternative approach to a single focus on economic growth, and focused more on social justice, as a way of understanding progress.

The United Nations Development Programme defines human development as “the process of enlarging people’s choices”, said choices allowing them to “lead a long and healthy life, to be educated, to enjoy a decent standard of living”, as well as “political freedom, other guaranteed human rights and various ingredients of self-respect”.[1] Thus, human development is about much more than economic growth, which is only a means of enlarging people’s choices.[2] Fundamental to enlarging these choices is building human capabilities—the range of things that people can do or be in life. Capabilities are “the substantive freedoms [a person] enjoys to lead the kind of life [they have] reason to value”.

History

Human Development Theory has roots in ancient philosophy and early economic theory. Aristotle noted that “Wealth is evidently not the good we are seeking, for it is merely useful for something else”, and Adam Smith and Karl Marx were concerned with human capabilities. The theory grew in importance in the 1980s with the work of Amartya Sen and his Human Capabilities perspective, which played a role in his receiving the 1998 Nobel Prize in Economics. Notable early active economists who formulated the modern concept of human development theory were Mahbub ul Haq, Üner Kirdar, and Amartya Sen. The Human Development Index developed for the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) stems from this early research.[4] In 2000, Sen and Sudhir Anand published a notable development of the theory to address issues in sustainability.[5][6]

Martha Nussbaum’s publications in the late 1990s and 2000s pushed theorists to pay more attention to the human in the theory, and particularly to human emotion.[7] A separate approach stems in part from needs theories of psychology which in part started with Abraham Maslow (1968). Representative of these are the Human-Scale Development approach developed by Manfred Max-Neef in the mid-to-late 1980s which addresses human needs and satisfiers which are more or less static across time and context.[8]

Anthropologists and sociologists have also challenged perspectives on Human Development Theory that stem from neoclassical economics. Examples of scholars include, Diane Elson, Raymond Apthorpe, Irene van Staveren, and Ananta Giri. Elson (1997) proposes that human development should move towards a more diverse approach to individual incentives. This will involve a shift from seeing people as agents in control of their choices selecting from a set of possibilities utilizing human capital as one of many assets. Instead, theorists should see people as having more mutable choices influenced by social structures and changeable capacities and using a humanistic approach to theory including factors relating to an individual’s culture, age, gender, and family roles. These extensions express a dynamic approach to the theory, a dynamism that has been advocated by Ul Haq and Sen, in spite of the implicit criticism of those two figures.

Measurement

One measure of human development is the Human Development Index (HDI), formulated by the United Nations Development Programme.[2] The index encompasses statistics such as life expectancy at birth, an education index (calculated using mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling), and gross national income per capita. Though this index does not capture every aspect that contributes to human capability, it is a standardized way of quantifying human capability across nations and communities. Aspects that could be left out of the calculations include incomes that are unable to be quantified, such as staying home to raise children or bartering goods/services, as well as individuals’ perceptions of their own well being. Other measures of human development include the Human Poverty Index (HPI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure. It measures many aspects of development.

Human rights

In seeking that something else, human development shares a common vision with human rights. The goal is human freedom. Therefore, human development is interconnected with human rights and human freedom, because in well-managed prisons life expectancy and literacy as measured by the Human Development Index could be quite high.[13] And in pursuing capabilities and realizing rights, this freedom is vital. People must be free to exercise their choices and to participate in decision-making that affects their lives. Human development and human rights are mutually reinforcing, helping to secure the well-being and dignity of all people, building self-respect and the respect of others.[2] In the days of fast globalization, human rights issues surface in relation to multilateral corporations and poverty issues. The idea of human development stipulates the need for education, better conditions for work and more choices for individuals. The idea goes with human rights. The two concepts are simultaneously promoted first by good governance, implementation of human rights policy and a formation of participation of community in decision making processes, second by the promotion of civil and political rights and economic and social rights, which are components of the level of development. For instance, the right for education relates to intellectual development, and political rights relates to the level of the political development of that society.

Health

The axis of development is that it may harm or benefit human health, and eventually human development, as it proceeds. In concern of health, we divided it into disease and poverty issues. On 16 June 2006 the World Health Organization (WHO) presented the report Preventing disease through healthy environments.[15] No one in the world is without the environmental health issues and wealth problems. Development had been first approached as the future for more cure and hope. However, the criticism argues of the side effects such as environmental pollution and the gap between increasing wealth and poor. The ineffectiveness of many public health policies in terms of health inequality issues and social problems should be held by global community.[16] Therefore, the ultimate goal is to achieve environmental sustainability. Some critics say development is undermined by health concerns as it both directly and indirectly influences growth to be lower. HIV/AIDS, in addition to malaria, has negatively influenced development and increased poverty in many places, especially in Africa. Achieving adequate health standards is important for the success of development and the abolition of poverty.

Human Development Report

The Global Human Development Reports (HDR) is an annual publication released by the UNDP’s Human Development Report Office and contains the Human Development Index. Within global HDR there are four main indexes: Human Development Index, Gender-related Development Index, Gender Empowerment Measure and the Human Poverty Index.[2] There are not only a global Human Development Reports but there are also regional and national reports. The Regional, National and subnational (for portions of countries) HDRs take various approaches, according to the strategic thinking of the individual authorship groups that craft the individual reports. In the United States, for example, Measure of America has been publishing human development reports since 2008 with a modified index, the human development index American Human Development Index, which measures the same three basic dimensions but uses slightly different indicators to better reflect the U.S. context and to maximize use of available data.


2) What are the challenges facing states in South Asia in the context of globalization?

Introduction

The twenty first century is an Era of greater connectivity and interdependence where no one can afford isolation in the umbrella of nationalism. State as an international person is imagined to be losing its personality to the dawn of Globalization. Globalization is a process which generates flows and connections, not simply across nation-states and national territorial boundaries but between global regions, continents and civilizations. This invites a definition of globalization as ‘an historical process,’ which engenders a significant shift in the spatial reach of networks and systems of social relations to transcontinental or interregional patterns of human organization, activity and the exercise of power.
Post world war II trends
Some researchers are of the view that:
  1. Globalization is a concept that acknowledges the solution of all the problems of nation-states
  2. It further encourages the nation state to get together and move towards one global system.

Globalization involves economic integration the transfer of policies across borders, the transmission of knowledge, cultural stability, the reproduction and relations. It is a global process, a concept, a revolution, and establishment of the global free market.2There is a perception that the global system which emerged in the post World War II has become so strong that today it can affect the regional and sub regional systems and trans-national social structure. Observed that in the twentieth century the global system was greatly influential on national societies and the regions of the world, in post 1945 period this influence is further strengthened and more specifically in the last twenty years3.

Lack of global governance
The lack of global governance is a serious conflict for Globalization. There is a misunderstanding regarding the global problems and regional politics. It is obvious that there is no global decision making mechanism to safeguard the interests of the weak countries.4 Regionalism is meant for the benefit of the concerned region in effect to the benefit of regional countries. Taking globalism alone could not be a remedy for the ailments of the world politics and economy. It would be undermining the importance of social and cultural values, history, language and technology and most importantly the political systems. So regionalism is regarded as a co-actor of globalization. Some researchers consider globalization as a threat to the nation-state system. They argue that today regionalism looks the only means of cooperation. They further hold that it looks able enough to deal the threats of Globalization through institutional mechanism or in a decentralized manner. It is notable that only regional arrangement looks capable to act efficiently in the governing of Globalization.5 Researchers and analysts argue that regionalism and multilateralism are tools for governing ‘globalization.’ A researcher comments that it is imperative for the states to respond the exhortative dictations of globalization through multilateral cooperation for preventing the loss of their role in the international arena.6
Uni-polarity of the world
Globalization refers to all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society, global society.7The cold war period experienced ‘ideological differences’ during which the world was expressed to be ‘bipolar,’ the two powerful blocs were leading the world into two opposite directions. The ideological differences were represented by
  1. Capitalist bloc under the leadership of U.S.A
  2. Communist bloc under the sponsorship of U.S.S.R.

During this Era the world was imagined to be divided into two ideological regions. But soon after the collapse of the former U.S.S.R the world became uni-polar and there are slogans for one global system. It is assumed that, after the collapse of soviet styled communism in Eastern Europe the elites of the global north made their version of globalization public.8

The Post 9/11 World Order
The post 9/11 international order has an inclination towards the sole super power tendency. The new global order acknowledges American lead in the military, political, economic and technological spheres. Regionalism is a resilient attempt to global changes and is being practiced according to the nature and requirement of circumstances across the globe. In the recent past the world has experienced developments in international trade and foreign investment. Other contemporary developments are the revival of regional arrangements and inception of varied regional and international organizations like European Union, NAFTA, ASEAN, Andean Community, Mercosur, SADA and SAARC etc.1
The question of state sovereignty
Globalization does not guarantee peace and security across the globe in its complete sense. But it wants the global actors to do more to ensure global security paradigm. Seemingly there is a feeling of insecurity inside the particular regions as for example in the Asian region and the state sovereignty has been at stake as Pakistan.10 Pakistan has been a U.S non–NATO ally in the ‘war against terror’ since 9/11. The U.S involvement in Afghanistan has been threatening the peace of the Asian region in general and Pakistan’s state sovereignty in particular. Globalization is also defined as “the weakening of state sovereignty and state structure.11 On the other hand regionalism presents itself as a kind of solution in the regional security scenario. Globalization makes the security status of the state more complex that is why we are to support that the state is incapable of licensing the protection of its populous and territory.12 Globalization may indeed mean the end of the nation-state if the nation-state fails to redefine itself in the new global context.13
Regionalism and the world order approach
After getting through a series of globalization definitions we are clear that the present time globalization is enduring for political and economic integration of the world system.14 On the other hand regionalization is an attempt towards political, economic, social, cultural and institutional integration of the regional fiber. If compared under existing conditions one would not be exaggerating that regionalism has brought Europe under EU to the glory. South East Asian nations are on the road to prosperity under the emblem of ASEAN, South Asian region is also trying to enhance cooperation and development under SAARC. After discussing globalization theory in the regional perspective it is imperative that “regionalism is a process that provides stability, flexibility and harmonization to the existing world order.” It further solidifies the world order approach by providing arch to the global system.15 The proponents of this approach profess that, “Global governmental mechanism can tackle the existing world problems in a best possible way”.16A regions’ capacity is measured in its power to influence beyond its region. The Asian region as a whole is becoming a vibrant player in the world economy and has achieved tremendous bargaining power in the world political field for it hosts about 60 percent of world population, supports one-third of the world economy, more than a quarter of international exports and recipient of the largest amount of world foreign direct investment. The region is vital for its share in the global economy and attractive natural and human resource. The rising China and India are speaking beyond the Asian continent. China commands changes in the East Asia and African continent while India influences the Gulf region and to some extent the Central Asia. Pakistan’s influence in the region and outside is growing, particularly with reference to Afghanistan in the U.S war on terror.
Impacts of globalization on south Asia
Analyses about SAARC and ASEAN are made that they have reached the limits where the emergence of a new Asia could be laid. South Asian leadership is about to cash the dashing potential of the Asian resurgence in the global perspective. The Indian Prime Minister Singh has rightly insisted that: A dynamic Asia could well power global growth and provide new opportunities of growth for EU and North America,” He added, “China’s trebling and India’s doubling share to world GDP in the past decades indeed needs global institutions and new global rules of the game that would facilitate the peaceful rise of new nations in Asia.17 The Indian leader has assumed prosperity, stability and closer economic integration by terming Asian economic community as an ‘Arc of advantage’ for large scale movement of people, capital, labour, ideas and creativity.18The Asian Development Bank (ADB) in a recent study has argued that regional cooperation should be a high priority for Asia. It would transfer stimulus of China and India to their neighbors and create integration with promotion of commercial linkages. Former Pakistani Prime Minister, Shaukat Aziz, suggests an integrated framework for intra-regional cooperation (in Asia) in strategic areas such as energy, water, food, infrastructure connectivity, investment in human capital and economic and social transformation through structural reforms.19
Observers role
In this direction the role of observer states is very important. Observer status of south Asian nations in ASEAN and other regional grouping can create an opportunity for SAARC to extend its cooperation with other regional organizations of Asia. The expansion of Central Asian Gateway (CAG) project to other members as for example in the case of Central Asian Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) which include Afghanistan as member state, the cooperation between Afghanistan and Pakistan can bridge Central Asia with South Asia. The growing interdependence among the Asian countries in different areas like economic, environmental, financial and social areas is of great impact. This cooperation is now affecting strategic and political fields which include counter-terrorism, maritime security and exchange of expertise. ASEAN and SAARC may cooperate in trade, investment and finance.Following areas could be remarkable for inter-regional cooperation. In energy sector, Central Asia and Gulf region can play a vital role. ASEAN can play a role in maritime security and economic fields. Communication and transport development can create inter-regional connectivity. In this connection the Asian Highway roject of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) needs to be mentioned.20 SAARC can also benefit from the experiences as well as cooperation of the East Asian community (EAC), the East Asia Summit (EAS), Shangai Cooperation Organization (SCO) etc.Today the world is so connected that the proceedings of regional and international organizations are observed from outside. The world regions seem as global actors. In the increasing interdependence of the world no country, group of countries or organization is in a position to achieve the goals economic development and trade expansion without cooperation from other countries.21 Foreign diplomats and delegates from different regional and international organizations attend the deliberations of different organizations as observers with a view for political, economic and cultural interaction with the member states. For example, Pakistan and Iran attend the Summit meetings of Shangai Cooperation Organization (SCO) as observers with the hope to become full–pledge members of the organization. Similarly, many countries like U.S, China, Japan and organizations like EU are joining SAARC as observers. Afghanistan has become a member of the SAARC in 2007. China, Iran and Myanmar are keen to join SAARC as full-pledge members.

Assignment – II


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.

3. Examine the areas of tension in Indo-Nepal relations.
4) Describe the salient features of the Sri Lankan Constitution of 1978.
5) Describe the various theoretical explanations for the military intervention in Pakistani politics.
6) Identify the major changes in the Bangladeshi polity during the military rule


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IGNOU EPS 15 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Assignment – III


Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.

7. Two-nation theory
8) Consociational model of pluralism


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IGNOU Instructions for the EPS 15 SOUTH ASIA: ECONOMY, SOCIETY AND POLITICS Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU EPS 15 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



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IGNOU EPS 15 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU EPS 15 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU EPS 15 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU EPS 15 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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