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IGNOU ECO 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU ECO 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , ECO 03 MANAGEMENT THEORY Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : ECO 03 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU ECO 03 Assignment 2022-23, ECO 03 Assignment 2022-23 , ECO 03 Assignment , ECO 03 MANAGEMENT THEORY Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- B.COM 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for B.COM Programme for the year 2022-23. IGNOU B.COM stands for Bachelor’s in Commerce. IGNOU B.COM courses give students the freedom to choose any subject according to their preference.  Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. Study of Political Science is very important for every person because it is interrelated with the society and the molar values in today culture and society. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23, ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .

IGNOU ECO 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU ECO 03 Solved Assignment 2022-2023  Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

All questions are compulsory.


1. Describe organizing as a function of management. What are the characteristics of organization? Explain.

The organizing of information could be noticed since human beings learned to write in the 4th millennium BC. Prior to that, history was passed down only through song and word.[citation needed] This can be seen through multiple aspects of geography such as religion, books, spoken word and science. Organizing is not only considered history, but also supports the communication of history. Organizing involves coordinating and arranging people in order to meet up and establish a set planned objective.

During the early 20th century was when large companies began to monopolize and capitalism was at its peak. Management and what it meant to be a manager was not a topic at hand for these companies because being a leader was a skill you were born with. However, as time went on during the 20th century new ways of thinking started to emerge from a few important names. Max Weber believed that to run a well organized environment, workers needed to be controlled to work together like a well oiled machine. Henri Fayol was an engineer who developed 14 principals of management; division of work, authority, discipline, unity of demand, unity of direction, subordination of individual interest to the general interests, remuneration, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, stability of tenure of personnel, initiative, and esprit de corps. He also developed six primary functions of management; forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling. Mary Parker Follett, on the other hand, was a management consultant and American social worker who believed that managers should work with their workers to accomplish their tasks instead of having control over them. She opened the door to relations between managers and workers, and interpersonal relationships in the work place.

Objectives

  • Helps to achieve organizational goal. Organization is employed to achieve the overall objectives of business firms. Organization focuses attention of individual’s objectives towards overall objectives.
  • Optimum use of resources. To make optimum use of resources such as men, material, money, machine and method, it is necessary to design an organization properly. Work should be divided equally and qualified people should be given the right jobs to reduce the wastage of resources in an organization.
  • To perform managerial function. Planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling cannot be implemented without proper organization.
  • Facilitates growth and diversification. A good organization structure is essential for expanding a business activities. Organization structure determines the input resources needed for expansion of a business activity; similarly organization is essential for product diversification such as establishing a new product line. it also stimulates creativity in managers by organizing.
  • Humane treatment of employees. Organization has to operate for the betterment of employees and must not encourage monotony of work due to higher degree of specialization. Now, organization has adapted the modern concept of systems approach based on human relations and it discards the traditional productivity and specialization approach.

Applications

Organizing, is the management function that follows after planning, it involves the assignment of tasks, the grouping of tasks into departments and the assignment of authority with adequate responsibility and allocation of resources across the organization to achieve common goals. Organizing involves the establishment of an intentional structure of roles through determination and enumeration of the activities required to achieve the goals of an enterprise. These roles include, the grouping of these activities, the assignment of such groups of activities to managers, the delegation of authority to carry them out, and the provision for coordination of authority and informal relationships.

Structure

The framework in which the organization defines how tasks are divided, resources are deployed, and departments are coordinated.

  1. A set of formal tasks assigned to individuals and departments.
  2. Formal reporting relationships, including lines of authority, decision responsibility, number of hierarchical levels and span of managers control.
  3. The design of systems to ensure effective coordination of employees across departments.

 

2. Explain Herzberg’s two-factor theory and differentiate it from Maslow’s theory of Need Hierarchy.

As per the theory, hygiene factors, are essential to keep a reasonable level of satisfaction among employees. Such factors do not actually result in satisfaction, but their absence causes dissatisfaction, that is why, they are known as dissatisfiers. Secondly, motivational factors are inherent to the job, and so the increase in these factors will lead to the rise in the satisfaction level, while the decrease does not cause dissatisfaction in employees.

Key Difference Between Maslow and Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation

The basic points of difference between Maslow and Herzberg’s theory of motivation can be summed up as follows:

  1. Maslow’s Theory is a general theory of motivation which expresses that the urge to satisfy needs is the principle variable in motivation. In contrast, Herzberg’s Theory on motivation reveals that there are some variables existing at the workplace that results in job satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
  2. Maslow’s theory is descriptive, whereas the theory propounded by Herzberg is simple and prescriptive.
  3. The basis of Maslow’s theory is human needs and their satisfaction. On the other hand, the Herzberg’s theory relies on reward and recognition.
  4. In Maslow’s theory, there is a proper sequence of needs from lower to higher. Conversely, no such sequence exists in the case of Herzberg’s theory.
  5. Maslow’s theory states that unsatisfied needs of an individual act as the stimulator. As against, Herberg’s theory reveals that gratified needs govern the behaviour and performance of an individual.
  6. The needs of an individual are divided into two categories i.e. survival/deficiency needs and growth needs as per Maslow. On the contrary, in Herzberg’s model, the needs of an individual are classified into Hygiene and motivator factors.
  7. In Maslow’s theory, any unsatisfied need of an individual serves as the motivator. Unlike in the case of Herzberg, only higher level needs are counted as the motivator.
  8. Maslow theory talks about the needs that are to be fulfilled in order to motivate a person while Herzberg theory talks about the causes of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Herzberg’s theory explains the factors that lead to motivation and demotivation.

  9. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, human needs can be classified into five basic categories as physiological needs, security needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs.
  10. According to Herzberg’s two factor theory, there are two factors as hygiene factors and motivational factors which affect the employee’s level of satisfaction.

Conclusion

The two models developed by the two experts aims at simplifying the motivational process which proved that motivation is an important factor to improve the performance level of employees. Herzberg’s theory is an addition to the Maslow’s theory. These are not contradictory but complementary to one another.


3. Write short notes on the following :
(a)Qualities of an effective leader
(b)Budgetary control
(c) Functional Organization
(d)PERT

4. Differentiate between the following :
(a)Positive and negative motivation
(b)Formal and informal communication
(c) Coordination and cooperation
(d)Policies and Objectives


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IGNOU ECO 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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5 Comment briefly on the following statement :

(a)Morale is an important factor which contributes to the willingness of people to work.
(b)Contingency approach is based on the view that there is no one best way to manage.
(c) Control is a fundamental management function that ensures worth accomplishment according to plans.
(d)The biggest drawback from which form of organisation suffers is the conflict between line and staff.


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IGNOU Instructions for the ECO 03 MANAGEMENT THEORY Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU ECO 03 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

IGNOU ECO 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU ECO 03 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU ECO 03 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU ECO 03 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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ECO 03 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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