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IGNOU BPY 002 Solved Assignment 202223
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Important Note – IGNOU BPY 002 Solved Assignment 20222023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
1. Give Answer of all five questions.
2. All five questions carry equal marks
3. Answer to question no. 1 and 2 should be in about 400 words each.
4. If any question has more than one part, please attempt all parts.
1. What is definition? Explain different kinds of definitions. Briefly explain the limit to
define something.
Or
Discuss,
a) Differentiate between inductive and deductive reasoning.
b) Relation between truth and validity in deductive logic.
A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term (a word, phrase, or other set of symbols). Definitions can be classified into two large categories: intensional definitions (which try to give the sense of a term), and extensional definitions (which try to list the objects that a term describes). Another important category of definitions is the class of ostensive definitions, which convey the meaning of a term by pointing out examples. A term may have many different senses and multiple meanings, and thus require multiple definitions.
In mathematics, a definition is used to give a precise meaning to a new term, by describing a condition which unambiguously qualifies what a mathematical term is and is not. Definitions and axioms form the basis on which all of modern mathematics is to be constructed.
Basic terminology
In modern usage, a definition is something, typically expressed in words, that attaches a meaning to a word or group of words. The word or group of words that is to be defined is called the definiendum, and the word, group of words, or action that defines it is called the definienS. For example, in the definition “An elephant is a large gray animal native to Asia and Africa”, the word “elephant” is the definiendum, and everything after the word “is” is the definiens.
The definiens is not the meaning of the word defined, but is instead something that conveys the same meaning as that word.
There are many subtypes of definitions, often specific to a given field of knowledge or study. These include, among many others, lexical definitions, or the common dictionary definitions of words already in a language; demonstrative definitions, which define something by pointing to an example of it (“This,” [said while pointing to a large grey animal], “is an Asian elephant.”); and precising definitions, which reduce the vagueness of a word, typically in some special sense (“‘Large’, among female Asian elephants, is any individual weighing over 5,500 pounds.”).
Intensional definitions vs extensional definitions
An intensional definition, also called a connotative definition, specifies the necessary and sufficient conditions for a thing to be a member of a specific set. Any definition that attempts to set out the essence of something, such as that by genus and differentia, is an intensional definition.
An extensional definition, also called a denotative definition, of a concept or term specifies its extension. It is a list naming every object that is a member of a specific set.
Thus, the “seven deadly sins” can be defined intensionally as those singled out by Pope Gregory I as particularly destructive of the life of grace and charity within a person, thus creating the threat of eternal damnation. An extensional definition, on the other hand, would be the list of wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony. In contrast, while an intensional definition of “Prime Minister” might be “the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of parliamentary government”, an extensional definition is not possible since it is not known who the future prime ministers will be (even though all prime ministers from the past and present can be listed).
The concept of the limits and continuity is one of the most important terms to understand to do calculus. A limit is stated as a number that a function reaches as the independent variable of the function reaches a given value. For example, consider a function f(x) = 4x, we can define this as,The limit of f(x) as x reaches close by 2 is 8.
Mathematically, It is represented as
limx→2f(x)=8limx→2f(x)=8
A function is determined as a continuous at a specific point if the following three conditions are met.

 f(k) is defined.
limx→kf(x)limx→kf(x)
 exists.
 \[\lim_{x\rightarrow k^{+}} f(x) = \lim_{x\rightarrow k^{}} f(x) = f(k).
A function will only be determined as continuity of a function if its graph can be drawn without lifting the pen from the paper. But a function is defined as discontinuous when it has any gap in between.
2. What is quantification? Write a note on the quantification rules.
Or
What is a dilemma? How can we avoid dilemma?
Quantification, in logic, the attachment of signs of quantity to the predicate or subject of a proposition. The universal quantifier, symbolized by (∀) or (), where the blank is filled by a variable, is used to express that the formula following holds for all values of the particular variable quantified. The existential quantifier, symbolized (∃), expresses that the formula following holds for some (at least one) value of that quantified variable.
Quantifiers of different types may be combined. For example, restricting epsilon (ε) and delta (δ) to positive values, b is called the limit of a function f(x) as x approaches a if for every ε there exists a δ such that whenever the distance from x to a is less than δ, then the distance from f(x) to b will be less than ε; or symbolically:
in which vertical lines mark the enclosed quantities as absolute values, < means “is less than,” and ⊃ means “if . . . then,” or “implies.”
Variables that are quantified are called bound (or dummy) variables, and those not quantified are called free variables. Thus, in the expression above, ε and δ are bound; and x, a, b, and f are free, since none of them occurs as an argument of either ∀ or ∃. See also propositional function.
3. Answer any two of the following questions in about 200 words each. 2*10= 20
a) Write a note on the sentential connectives.
b) Write a note on the rules of inference.
c) If ‘Some economists are not musicians.’ is true. Determine the truthvalue of the
followings and state the relation with the given statement.
i) All economists are musicians.
ii) Some economists are musicians.
iii) Some economists are nonmusicians.
iv) No economists are musicians.
v) Some musicians are economists.
d) What are the limits of Aristotelian logic? Do you think that symbolic logic sorts out the problems of Aristotelian logic?
4. Answer any four of the following questions in about 150 words each. 4*5= 20
a) State rules of logical division.
b) Write a note on contradictory and contrary relation.
c) Differentiate between constructive and simple dilemma with examples.
d) Differentiate between Proposition and sentence.
e) Write a note on existential import.
f) Write a note on the dagger function
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5. Write short notes on any five of the following in about 100 words each. 5*4= 20
a) Mood
b) The Stroke Function
c) Modus Tollens
d) Categorical Syllogism
e) Symbolic logic
f) Implication
g) Biconditional
h) Figure
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IGNOU Instructions for the BPY 002 Logic : Classical and Symbolic Logic Solved Assignment 202223
IGNOU BPY 002 Solved Assignment 20222023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
 Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
 Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
 Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
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IGNOU BPY 002 Solved Assignment 202223 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
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