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IGNOU BPY 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BPY 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , BPY 001 Indian Philosophy- I Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : BPY 001 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU BPY 001 Assignment 2022-23, BPY 001 Assignment 2022-23 , BPY 001 Assignment , BPY 001 Indian Philosophy- I Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- BACHELOR OF ARTS Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for BACHELOR OF ARTS Programme for the year 2022-23. IGNOU BDP stands for Bachelor’s Degree Program. Courses such as B.A., B.Com, and B.Sc comes under the BDP category. IGNOU BDP courses give students the freedom to choose any subject according to their preference.  Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. Study of Political Science is very important for every person because it is interrelated with the society and the molar values in today culture and society. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23, ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .

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IGNOU BPY 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

1. Give Answer of all five questions.
2. All five questions carry equal marks
3. Answer to question no. 1 and 2 should be in about 400 words each.
4. If any question has more than one part, please attempt all parts.


1. Write a note on the idea of liberation in Jain Philosophy. 

Or

How Buddhist philosophy establishes the concept of re-birth and action without accepting soul? 

Sanskrit moksha or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death. It is a blissful state of existence of a soul, attained after the destruction of all karmic bonds. A liberated soul is said to have attained its true and pristine nature of infinite bliss, infinite knowledge and infinite perception. Such a soul is called siddha and is revered in Jainism.

In Jainism, moksha is the highest and the noblest objective that a soul should strive to achieve. In fact, it is the only objective that a person should have; other objectives are contrary to the true nature of soul. With the right view, knowledge and efforts all souls can attain this state. That is why Jainism is also known as mokṣamārga or the “path to liberation”.

Bhavyata

From the point of view of potentiality of mokṣa, Jain texts bifurcates the souls in two categories–bhavya and abhavyaBhavya souls are those souls who have faith in mokṣa and hence will make some efforts to achieve liberation.[2] This potentiality or quality is called bhavyata.[2] However, bhavyata itself does not guarantee mokṣa, as the soul needs to expend necessary efforts to attain it. On the other hand, abhavya souls are those souls who cannot attain liberation as they do not have faith in mokṣa and hence never make any efforts to attain it.[

The path to liberation

According to Jainism, purification of soul and liberation can be achieved through the path of three jewels:[3][4][5] Samyak darśana (Correct View), meaning faith, acceptance of the truth of soul (jīva);[6] Samyak jnana (Correct Knowledge), meaning undoubting knowledge of the tattvas;[7] and Samyak charitra (Correct Conduct), meaning behavior consistent with the Five vows.[7] Jain texts often add samyak tap (Correct Asceticism) as a fourth jewel, emphasizing belief in ascetic practices as the means to liberation (moksha).[8] The four jewels are called moksha marg.[4] According to Jain texts, the liberated pure soul (Siddha) goes up to the summit of universe (Siddhashila) and dwells there in eternal bliss.[9]

According to Jainism, the Ratnatraya or “three Gems”, samyagdarśana (correct perception), samyagjñāna (right knowledge) and samyakchāritra (right conduct), together constitute the mokṣamarga or the path to liberation.[10] According to Acharya KundaKunda’s Samayasara:

Belief in the nine substances as they are is right faith (samyagdarśana). Knowledge of these substances without doubt, delusion or misapprehension, is right knowledge (samyagjñāna). Being free from attachment etc. is right conduct (samyakcāritra). These three, together, constitute the path to liberation.[11] 

Nirvāna

Nirvāna means final release from the karmic bondage. When an enlightened human, such as an Arihant or a Tirthankara, extinguishes his remaining aghatiya karmas and thus ends his worldly existence, it is called nirvāna. Technically, the death of an Arhat is called their nirvāṇa, as he has ended his worldly existence and attained liberation. Moksha (liberation) follows nirvāṇa. However, the terms moksa and nirvana are often used interchangeably in the Jain texts.[16][17] An Arhat becomes a siddha, the liberated one, after attaining nirvana.

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, died, freed from all pains, the eighteen confederate kings of Kasi and Kosala, the nine Mallakis and nine Licchavis, on the day of new moon, instituted an illuminations on the Poshadha, which was a fasting day; for they said: ‘Since the light of intelligence is gone, let us make an illumination of material matter!’

The   Jaina Sangha or community contains monks and nuns, and lay-brothers and lay-sisters. In Buddhism the clergy and the laity were not organically connected and the former were emphasized at the expense of the latter. In Jainism the two are organically related and the difference between them is only one of degree and not of kind. Laymen are afforded opportunities to rise to the spiritual height of the monks by easy steps. There is only one fundamental five-fold spiritual discipline in Jainism. In the case of monkdom it is extremely strict, rigid and puritanic, while in the case of lay life it is modified.

2. Write a note on pratutyasamutpada. 

Or

What is Upanishad? Discuss the central idea of Chhandogya Upanishad.

The principle is expressed in the links of dependent origination (dvādasanidānāni, dvādaśanidānāni) in Buddhism, a linear list of twelve elements from the Buddhist teachings which arise depending on the preceding link. Traditionally the list is interpreted as describing the conditional arising of rebirth in saṃsāra, and the resultant duḥkha (suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness). An alternative Theravada interpretation regards the list as describing the arising of mental formations and the resultant notion of “I” and “mine,” which are the source of suffering. Traditionally, the reversal of the causal chain is explained as leading to the annihilation of mental formations and rebirth. 

Scholars have noted inconsistencies in the list, and regard it to be a later synthesis of several older lists. The first four links may be a mockery of the Vedic-Brahmanic cosmogony, as described in the Hymn of Creation of Veda X, 129 and the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. These were integrated with a branched list which describe the conditioning of mental processes, akin to the five skandhas. Eventually, this branched list developed into the standard twelvefold chain as a linear list. While this list describes the processes which give rise to rebirth, it also analyzes the arising of dukkha as a psychological process, without the involvement of an atman.

The twelve nidanas explain the rebirth / reincarnation mechanism in Buddhism. Starting with Avidya (ignorance, misconception) as first. The 12 nidanas are often shown in wheel of life’s outer rim (above) in the traditional bhavachakra.

Etymology and meaning

Etymology

Pratityasamutpada (प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद) consists of two terms:

  • pratitya: “having depended”; it appears in various Vedas and Upanishads, such as hymns 4.5.14, 7.68.6 of the Rigveda and 19.49.8 of Atharvaveda, in the sense of “confirmation, dependence, acknowledge origin”. The Sanskrit root of the word is prati* whose forms appear more extensively in the Vedic literature, and it means “to go towards, go back, come back, to approach” with the connotation of “observe, learn, convince oneself of the truth of anything, be certain of, believe, give credence, recognize”. In other contexts, a related term pratiti* means “going towards, approaching, insight into anything”.
  • samutpada: “arising”, “rise, production, origin” In Vedic literature, it means “spring up together, arise, come to pass, occur, effect, form, produce, originate”.

The term has been translated into English variously as dependent originationdependent arisinginterdependent co-arisingconditioned arising, and conditioned genesis.

The term may also refer to the twelve nidānas, dvādasanidānāni, dvādaśanidānāni, from dvāvaśa (“twelve”) + nidānāni (plural of “nidāna“, “cause, motivation, link”). Generally speaking, in the Mahayana tradition, pratityasamutpada (Sanskrit) is used to refer to the general principle of interdependent causation, whereas in the Theravada tradition, paticcasamuppāda (Pali) is used to refer to the twelve nidānas.

Meaning

Conditionality

The Pratityasamutpada teachings asserts neither direct Newtonian-like causality nor a single causality. Rather, it asserts an indirect conditioned causality and a plural causality. The “causal link” propositions in Buddhism is very different from the idea of causality that developed in Europe. Instead, the concept of causality in Buddhism is referring to conditions created by a plurality of causes that necessarily co-originate phenomena within and across lifetimes, such as karma in one life creating conditions that lead to rebirth in a certain realm of existence for another lifetime. The Pratītyasamutpāda principle asserts that the dependent origination is a necessary condition. This is expressed in Majjhima Nikaya as “When this is, that is; This arising, that arises; When this is not, that is not; This ceasing, that ceases.”

Ontological principle

According to Peter Harvey, Pratityasamutpada is an ontological principle; that is, a theory to explain the nature and relations of being, becoming, existence and ultimate reality. Buddhism asserts that there is nothing independent, except nirvana. All physical and mental states depend on and arise from other pre-existing states, and in turn from them arise other dependent states while they cease. The ‘dependent arisings’ have a causal conditioning, and thus Pratityasamutpada is the Buddhist belief that causality is the basis of ontology, not a creator God nor the ontological Vedic concept called universal Self (Brahman) nor any other ‘transcendent creative principle’.

The Pratītyasamutpāda ontological principle in Buddhism is applied not only to explain the nature and existence of matter and empirically observed phenomenon, but also to the nature and existence of life. In abstract form, according to Peter Harvey, “the doctrine states: ‘That being, this comes to be; from the arising of that, this arises; that being absent, this is not; from the cessation of that, this ceases’.” There is no ‘first cause’ from which all beings arose.

Workings of the mind

Against Harvey’s ontological interpretation, Eviatar Shulman argues that

dependent-origination addresses the workings of the mind alone. Dependent-origination should be understood to be no more than an inquiry into the nature of the self (or better, the lack of a self). Viewing pratitya-samutpada as a description of the nature of reality in general means investing the words of the earlier teachings with meanings derived from later Buddhist discourse.”

Shulman grants that there are some ontological implications that may be gleaned from dependent origination, but that at its core it is concerned with “identifying the different processes of mental conditioning and describing their relations”.

Noa Ronkin states that while Buddha suspends all views regarding certain metaphysical questions, he is not an anti-metaphysician: nothing in the texts suggests that metaphysical questions are completely meaningless, instead Buddha taught that sentient experience is dependently originated and that whatever is dependently originated is conditioned, impermanent, subject to change, and lacking independent selfhood.


3. Answer any two of the following questions in about 200 words each. 2*10= 20

a) Write a note on Buddhist moral philosophy.
b) What is Shunyata in Nagarjuna’s philosophy? Discuss.
c) What is syadavada? Discuss the moral significance of Syadavada.
d) How does Charvaka refute inference? Evaluate Charvaka’s arguments against inference.

4. Answer any four of the following four questions in about 150 words each.

a) Write a note on the meaning of Tajjalaniti.
b) Write a short essay on the subject matter of Ishavasyaopanishad.
c) Write a short essay on the concept of Rta.
d) Write a short essay on veda and its divisions.
e) Write a short note on the concept of knowledge of Vaibhashik Buddhist school.
f) Write a note on the various transitions in the development of vaidik gods. 


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5. Write short notes on any five of the following in about 100 words each. 5*4= 20

a) Samatva Manobhava (equanimity of mind)
b) Pudgala in Jainism
c) Sat
d) Hiranyagarbha
e) Para Vidya
f) Arya satya
g) Samyak Jnana
h) Astangika marga


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IGNOU BPY 001 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
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  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BPY 001 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BPY 001 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BPY 001 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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