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IGNOU BPCS 184 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPCS 184 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries marks. 3 x 20 = 60
1. Define school psychology. Discuss the need and relevance of school psychology.
School psychology is a field that applies principles from educational psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, community psychology, and behavior analysis to meet the learning and behavioral health needs of children and adolescents. It is an area of applied psychology practiced by a school psychologist. They often collaborate with educators, families, school leaders, community members, and other professionals to create safe and supportive school environments.
They carry out psychological testing, psychoeducational assessment, intervention, prevention, counseling, and consultation in the ethical, legal, and administrative codes of their profession.
One of the primary roles and responsibilities of school psychologists working in schools is to develop and implement programs geared towards the optimal learning and mental well being of students. School psychologists call these programs ‘interventions’ when they are implemented in response to a significant issue affecting one or more students. Interventions in school psychology are typically classified as “direct” when practitioners work with students to rectify their own academic or behavioral problems and as “indirect” when they collaborate with the student’s family or teachers to correct academic or behavioral problems. Popular intervention formats include individual meetings, school assemblies, parent-teacher conferences, workshops, and awareness campaigns. After significant developments in related psychological fields over the latter half of the twentieth century, school psychologists have begun to move towards intervention frameworks that center on individually tailored assessments and evidence-based interventions, rather than diagnosed disabilities. This is part of a larger movement to expand the role of school psychologists outside of special education.
Check and Connect C&C is a structured mentoring intervention to promote student success and engagement at school with learning through relationship building and systematic use of data. It is structured to maximize personal contact and opportunities to build trusting relationships. It was developed in 1990 at the Institute on Community Integration University of Minnesota in collaboration with the Minneapolis Public School System. It emphasizes school completion, with academic, social, and emotional competencies. Students may be referred to the program if they exhibit signs of withdrawal in academic, emotional, or behavioral areas. The team consists of the student, check and connect coordinator, community services, school staff, monitor, and family. The essential components of this intervention are the mentor component, the check component, and the connect component. The program is implemented by a monitor, who serves multiple roles as a mentor, an advocate, and a service coordinator. These serve to build a strong relationship with the student based on mutual trust and open communication, nurtured through a long-term commitment focused on success at school and with learning. The “check” component is observed from the student levels of engagement. These are things such as attendance, suspension, credits, grades, and behavior that are “checked” for progress regularly by mentors and used to guide their efforts to increase and maintain students’ “connection” with the school. The “connect” component is timely, personalized, data-based interventions designed to provide support tailored to individual student needs, based on the student’s level of engagement with school. The monitor’s goal is to make education a priority for withdrawn students. This intervention gives students a person to motivate, encourage, and inform them on how important graduating is.
Academic interventions can be conceptualized as a set of procedures and strategies designed to improve student performance with the intent of closing the gap between how a student is currently performing and the expectations of how they should be performing. Short term and long term interventions used within a problem-solving model must be evidence-based. This means the intervention strategies must have been evaluated by research that utilized rigorous data analysis and peer review procedures to determine the effectiveness. Implementing evidence-based interventions for behavior and academic concerns requires significant training, skill development, and supervised practice. Linking assessment and intervention is critical for determining that the correct intervention has been chosen. School psychologists have been specifically trained to ensure that interventions are implemented with integrity to maximize positive outcomes for children in a school setting.
Historically, the main role of school psychologists has been to assess and diagnose students with behavioral or learning disabilities and determine their eligibility for exceptional needs programs. Within the contemporary field, the roles and responsibilities of individual practitioners have expanded significantly beyond the service of special needs students; however, assessment remains a central service performed by school psychologists.
Current trends in the field of school psychology call for practitioners to move away from IQ-based assessment practices and encourage assessments that consider students’ individual profiles and attainable, more tailored intervention practices. Individualized education programs (IEPs) are reports summarizing the student’s current performance, goals to guide the student’s progress, and proposed resources to meet any special educational needs.
School psychologists are equipped to provide assessment and to determine when an assessment is warranted. School psychologist have completed in depth advanced preparation in selecting and administering tests as well as interpreting and evaluating information obtained from assessment. Advanced training allows school psychologists to be extremely familiar with the central principles of measurement employing multi-method, multi-source, and multi-setting approaches that are sensitive to contextual influences. They select and use the most appropriate assessment instruments and techniques, for the purpose for which they were designed, and for which there is supporting psychometric evidence. School psychologists are aware of the limitations of assessment and the information that is collected, interpreted, and reported.
2. Explain internalizing behavioural problems in children.
The concept of ‘internalizing behaviour’ reflects a child’s emotional or psychological state and typically includes depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, somatic complaints and teenage suicide. Genetic and environmental causes have been largely implicated, although research continues to explore social etiological factors. Some research suggests females may be especially vulnerable to internalizing disorders, while data across ethnicities are somewhat variable. Regarding treatment, cognitive-behavioural therapies and use of pharmacological approaches (i.e. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) have both shown great promise in reducing symptoms of internalizing disorders. However, given the role of the social environment, prevention programmes aimed at reducing exposure to drugs, violence/abuse and environmental toxins are highly important. Internalizing disorders are associated with a host of deleterious outcomes (e.g. school drop-out, substance use and potentially suicide) as well as psychopathological outcomes (e.g. co-morbid anxiety or depression, externalizing disorders – including suicide). Children with mental health problems suffer educationally and are more likely to become entangled in the justice and welfare systems. Clearly, early treatment and prevention programmes for internalizing disorders need to be a priority from a public health perspective as well as from a family and community perspective.
Depression is a psychiatric mood disorder characterized by excessive sadness and loss of interest in usually enjoyable activities. The mean age of onset for adolescents is 14.9 years, but some children can develop depression as early as age 3 (Lewinsohn et al. 1994, Copeland et al. 2009). Depression occurs in 1% of preschoolers, 2% of school-aged children, and 5–8% of adolescents (Birmaher et al. 1998, Jellinek & Snyder 1998), although prevalence rates appear to be increasing from generation to generation with earlier onset ages (Gershon et al. 1987, Gotlib & Hammen 2008). The current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association (APA) 1994] splits depression into two primary diagnoses: major depression and dysthymia.
Anxiety can be described as a ‘state of apprehension without cause’ (Johnson & Melamed 1979). Anxiety disorders result when anxiety is consistent and negatively interferes with school, social interactions, activities or family functioning. Anxiety disorders are the most common type of psychiatric disorders in children (Costello & Angold 1995), with separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism occurring exclusively in children (APA 1994). Depending on the diagnosis, mean age of onset can be as early as 7.5 years (e.g. separation anxiety disorder) (Last et al. 1992). In worldwide studies, the prevalence of anxiety disorders in children was greater than 10% (Pine 1994) and ranged from 12% to 20% in the USA (Pine 1994). There are five main anxiety disorders: separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder (Tandon et al. 2009). Generic descriptions are shown in Table 2; specific criteria for diagnoses are outlined in DSM-IV (APA 1994, Bernstein et al. 1996).
Somatic complaints are physical symptoms with no identifiable, specific physiological cause (Brown 2007). Common paediatric somatic complaints include headaches, nausea or abdominal pain. Non-specific causes usually include psychological distress, anxiety, family patterns and life events (Chapman 2005). Somatic complaints may result in a vicious cycle wherein the physical symptoms lead to emotional stress, which further exacerbates the somatic symptoms (Vaalamo et al. 2002). Somatic complaints have been mainly studied in children greater than 3 or 4 years of age, making it difficult to determine the onset age. However, prevalence rates have been estimated at 20%, increasing to 40% if children are 10 years old or younger, and 55% at 15 years old or younger (Bass & Murphy 1995, Domenech et al. 2004).
Teenage suicide is a significant public health problem. Suicide is the third leading cause of death for young people aged 10–24 years in the USA (National Center for Health Statistics 2007). Suicide can occur in childhood, but the rate of incidence appears to increase over time (Pelkonen & Marttunen 2003). In addition, according to the 2007 Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance, about 14.5% of high school students had seriously considered attempting suicide within the 12 months prior to the survey, with 11.3% actually having made a plan how they would attempt suicide (Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al. 2009).
Familiality is considered one of the most highly implicated factors in the development of depression (Tully et al. 2008) and anxiety (Biederman et al. 2001a). Negative life events in the social environment, particularly violence, poverty, abuse, bereavement/loss of loved ones, or parental separation, are thought to increase the risk for depression (Toth & Cicchetti 1996, Maughan & McCarthy 1997, Conger et al. 1999, Reinherz et al. 1999), anxiety (Stein et al. 1996) and somatic complaints (Friedrich & Schafer 1995).
Environmental hazards such as high serum lead levels and prenatal maternal tobacco exposure have been associated with higher levels of somatic complaints (Sciarillo et al. 1992, Carter et al. 2008), while the evidence linking depression to chemical exposure, toxicity, lead exposure, prenatal tobacco use, or prenatal cocaine use is weaker (Sciarillo et al. 1992, Bada et al. 2007, Carter et al. 2008). Prenatal marijuana exposure was linked with increased levels of depressive symptoms in 10-year-old children (Gray et al. 2005).
3. Discuss play therapy as an intervention for emotional and behavioural problems in children.
Play therapy is a form of psychotherapy and can be effective in helping children through emotional and mental issues.
Children often use play to express themselves and navigate the world and play therapy takes advantage of this. Play therapy is primarily used with children. Although, it can also be used with adults. It is typically used with children who are aged between 3 and 12.
A play therapist will guide a person through play therapy in a free and safe environment where they feel most comfortable expressing themselves. Play therapists use play activities a child might enjoy from painting to dancing to board games. At times play therapist will ask other family members or parents and guardians to also get involved in the playtime activities.
Types of Play Therapy
There are two main forms of play therapy used by play therapists:
- Directive Play Therapy: With directive play therapy, the therapist takes a hands-on approach and leads the child through guided play activities to help them express themselves. They’ll typically give specific instructions and supervise the child as they go through it.
- Non-directive Play Therapy: Non-directive play therapy makes use of a less controlled environment. The therapist leaves the child to engage in whatever play activities they might enjoy and express themselves with limited interference.
Many different techniques can be applied during play therapy. The technique used during a therapy session largely depends on your child’s needs and what play mediums they feel most comfortable using.
A typical play therapy session usually lasts between 30 and 45 minutes. During a play therapy session, the therapist will create a comfortable and safe environment for the child to play. The therapist will then observe the child’s interactions with the toys that are provided.
As the child grows more comfortable in the therapist’s playroom, more specific play activities that target the issues the child is dealing with will be introduced. Some of the most common techniques used by play therapists across the world include:
- Using building blocks
- Using art
- Sand play
- Board games
- Play with dolls
- Puppet play
- Tea party play
- Card games
- Strategy games like chess or checkers
- LEGO play
Play therapy is particularly beneficial for people who struggle with communicating and expressing themselves in a positive and healthy manner.
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- Anxiety disorders
- Post-traumatic stress disorder
- Physical and emotional trauma
- Sexual abuse
- Physical or emotional abuse
Benefits of Play Therapy
People are often dismissive of play therapy and the benefits they hold. Concerned parents often find it hard to understand what benefits their children gain from “just playing.” However, the fact is that with or without the guidance of a therapist, children like to communicate through play, whether you might have noticed it or not.
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IGNOU BPCS 184 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BPCS 184 SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
IGNOU BPCS 184 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries marks. 8 x 5 = 40
4. Assessment of children with disability
5. Negative outcomes of substance use and dependence
6. Lifespan development is multi-directional
7. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory
9. Child labour
10. Role of school psychologist in special education
11. Gilligan’s view on moral development
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