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IGNOU BPCE 021 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPCE 021 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks
- Psychological testing and assessment
- Legal proceedings and deliberation
- Criminal profiling
Forensic Psychology and Clinical Psychology
- Intelligence testing, competence evaluation, and psychological in criminal cases
- Custody evaluations, including parental and child evaluations
- Threat evaluations in schools
- Counseling for victims and perpetrators of crimes
- Death notification processes
- Psychological evaluation of police officers and cadets in training
- Design and implementation of treatment programs in correctional facilities
- Providing expert witness courtroom testimonies
2. Explain various approaches to causes of criminal behaviour.
Biological theories of crime asserted a linkage between certain biological conditions and an increased tendency to engage in criminal behaviour. In the 1890s great interest, as well as controversy, was generated by the biological theory of the Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso, whose investigations of the skulls and facial features of criminals led him to the hypothesis that serious or persistent criminality was associated with atavism, or the reversion to a primitive stage of human development. In the mid-20th century, William Sheldon won considerable support for his theory that criminal behaviour was more common among muscular, athletic persons (mesomorphs) than among tall, thin persons (ectomorphs) or soft, rounded individuals (endomorphs). During the 1960s, significant debate arose over the possible association between criminal tendencies and chromosomal abnormalities—in particular, the idea that males with the XYY-trisomy (characterized by the presence of an extra Y chromosome) may be more prone to criminal behaviour than the general population.
Although the popularity of such earlier biological theories has waned, research has continued, yielding important findings. For example, studies have found general evidence for a connection between biology and criminality for both twins and adoptees. Twins are more likely to exhibit similar tendencies toward criminality if they are identical (monozygotic) than if they are fraternal (dizygotic). The fact that identical twins are more similar genetically than fraternal twins suggests the existence of genetic influences on criminal behaviour. Similarly, studies of adopted children have shown that the likelihood of criminality generally corresponds with that of their biological parents. The rate of criminality is higher among adopted children with one biological parent who is a criminal than it is among children who have one adoptive parent who is a criminal but whose biological parents are not criminals. The highest rates of criminality are found among children whose biological and adoptive parents are criminals.
Biochemical research in the 1980s and ’90s attempted to identify specific factors associated with an increased risk of engaging in criminal behaviour. For example, certain neurotransmitter imbalances in the brain (e.g., low levels of serotonin), hormonal imbalances (e.g., higher levels of testosterone), and slower reactions of the autonomic nervous system appear to be associated with increased criminality. These factors do not absolutely determine whether a person will commit a crime; indeed, most people with these factors do not commit crimes. Instead, the presence of these factors merely increases the chance that the person will engage in criminal behaviour. Because these various biological factors may be influenced by environmental conditions, however, the direction of causation is unclear.
Psychologists approach the task of explaining delinquent and criminal behaviour by focusing on an individual’s personality. In particular, they examine the processes by which behaviour and restraints on behaviour are learned. These processes often are conceived as being the result of the interaction of biological predispositions and social experiences.
Among the earliest psychological theories of crime were those based on the work of Sigmund Freud (1856–1939). Freud argued that human nature includes a great reservoir of instinctual drives (the “id”) that demand gratification. These drives are restrained by moral and ethical codes (the “superego”) that children internalize as a result of their great love for and attachment to their parents. Adults develop a rational part of their personality (the “ego”) that mediates between the drives of the id and the restraints of the superego. Because the id is a relatively constant drive, criminality is assumed to result from the failure of the superego, a consequence of its incomplete development. However, the empirical evidence for this theory is thin.
Later psychological theories of crime were based on behaviour theory, such as that of the American psychologist B.F. Skinner (1904–90), who viewed all human behaviour—criminal and otherwise—as learned and thus manipulable by the use of reinforcement and punishment (see behaviourism). The social learning theory of Ronald Akers expanded behaviour theory to encompass ways in which behaviour is learned from contacts within the family and other intimate groups, from social contacts outside the family (particularly from peer groups), and from exposure to models of behaviour in the media, particularly television.
Beyond these broad psychological theories, it is sometimes argued that crime is associated with certain mental conditions. Mental illness is generally the cause of a relatively small proportion of crimes, but its perceived importance may be exaggerated by the seriousness of some of the crimes committed by persons with mental disorders. The closure of many American mental institutions in the 1960s and ’70s thrust many mentally ill people into the surrounding communities, where some of them later became troublesome. Because authorities had no other place to put them, there was a strong tendency for mentally ill people to end up in jails and prisons.
One particular personality configuration—antisocial personality disorder—is thought to be strongly associated with criminality. However, because the criteria for diagnosing the disorder emphasize committing crimes and engaging in crimelike behaviour, it is unclear whether the disorder is a cause of crime or simply a label that psychiatrists use to describe people who happen to be criminals. In the 1990s, psychological research was focused on early childhood experiences that tended to lead to criminality in later life, including poor parental child-rearing techniques, such as harsh or inconsistent discipline. Research also isolated impulsivity—the tendency to engage in high levels of activity, to be easily distracted, to act without thinking, and to seek immediate gratification—as a personality characteristic associated with criminality.
The largest number of criminological theories have been developed through sociological inquiry. These theories have generally asserted that criminal behaviour is a normal response of biologically and psychologically normal individuals to particular kinds of social circumstances.
Another set of sociological theories also denies the existence of subcultural value systems. Neutralization theory, advanced by the American criminologists David Cressey, Gresham Sykes, and David Matza, portrays the delinquent as an individual who subscribes generally to the morals of society but who is able to justify his own delinquent behaviour through a process of “neutralization,” whereby the behaviour is redefined to make it morally acceptable. Control theory emphasizes the links between the offender and his social group—his bond to society. According to this view, the ability of the individual to resist the inclination to commit crime depends on the strength of his attachment to his parents, his involvement in conventional activities and avenues of progress, and his commitment to orthodox moral values that prohibit the conduct in question.
The theory of low self-control retains the focus on restraints from engaging in crime but argues that those restraints are primarily internal. People with low self-control, according to this theory, are impulsive and insensitive to others, tend to engage in physical rather than mental activities and to take risks, and are oriented toward the short term rather than the long term. Advocates of self-control theory argue that these characteristics result from parental child-rearing practices and coalesce in the individual by about age eight, remaining stable throughout life.
3. Explain the psychological assessment and evaluation in forensic psychology.
Psychological assessment is a process of gathering and integration of psychology – related data to make a psychological evaluation by using tools such as tests, interviews, case studies, behavioral observation, and specially designed apparatus and measurement procedures. In general, the process of assessment begins with a referral for assessment from a source such as a teacher, a school psychologist, a counselor, a judge, a clinician, or a corporate human resources specialist, in order to answer one or more referral questions, solve a problem, or arrive at a decision through the use of tools of evaluation.
Psychological assessment can help in understanding psychological and mental health status of individuals who are caught up in the legal process, assessment can cover depression, substance abuse, competency, criminal intent, dangerousness, parental fitness, and intelligence, and the purpose of psychological assessment in forensic setting (e.g., juvenile justice programs, correctional institutions, and non-correctional settings in which therapy services are provided to forensic populations such as abuse and crime victims) is to assist legal-decision maker, by providing him with clinical and scientific data gathered from psychological evaluations that are performed by mental health professionals such as psychologist or psychiatrist, this assessment is different from other assessments conducted for therapeutic purposes such as treatment planning and diagnosis, which will be discussed in the next section.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FORENSIC ASSESSMENT AND THERAPEUTIC ASSESSMENT
Heibrun and his colleagues determined differences between forensic assessment and therapeutic assessment in many aspects as following:
The first differences has to do with the purposes of each of them, while the primary purpose of forensic assessment as mentioned before is to provide the legal decision-maker by information about an individual’s relevant capacities underlying the specific civil (e.g., child custody, personal injury) or criminal (e.g., competence to stand trial, sanity at the time of the offense) legal question. Therapeutic evaluation, by contrast, is usually conducted for diagnosis and treatment reasons.
The second difference between the two types of assessments concerns with the nature of the examiner-examinee relationship. In forensic assessment, the psychologist or the psychiatrist plays an objective role or quasi- objective role in data collection and documentation, he or she concerns with objectivity and accuracy. While the role of the psychologist or the psychiatrist in therapeutic assessment is a helping role, he or she concerns with the person being evaluated.
The standards used in forensic and therapeutic assessment are different. Standards in therapeutic assessment help in diagnosis and treatment, and serve organizing, condensing, and orienting functions. While the forensic assessment include both clinical and legal standards. For example, when the evaluator is asked to consider the relation between the underlying mental, emotional, and cognitive deficits and a variety of legal issues, such as sentencing considerations, competencies, or criminal responsibility.
The fourth significant difference between the two types of assessment concerns with the sources of information used in each. Both of them rely on clinical data and psychosocial information through the utilization of self-report measures, psychological testing, and behavioral assessment. Unlike the therapeutic assessment, these sources are not sufficient for forensic assessment. More information is needed through the use of collateral information (e.g., document review, interviews) to assess the accuracy and consistency of gathered information by self-reports.
Individuals who are evaluated through forensic assessment have a lot of reasons to give inaccurate information. For example, some people may over-estimate their parent skills to obtain custody of their children, while others may exaggerate mental health problems in order to avoid criminal responsibility or to obtain monetary gain in personal injury cases, While in most therapeutic evaluation cases, there is usually limited expectation about the possibility that the individual being evaluated will deliberately (through exaggeration or minimization) distort the nature of symptoms or experiences.
Another difference between the therapeutic assessment and the forensic assessment has to do with the clarification of reasoning and the limits on knowledge. In therapeutic assessment, there is little expectation that the assumptions and methods used to complete the evaluation will be challenged, because therapeutic evaluation relies on the training, theoretical orientation, professional expertise, and knowledge of the evaluator. Unlike the therapeutic evaluation, forensic evaluation is conducted in an adversarial legal context, and is subject to challenge through rules of evidence or by cross-examination by opposing counsel.
Documentation and communication of results is another difference between therapeutic assessment and forensic assessment. In therapeutic evaluation, there is no identified expectation about the structure, format, level of detail, and content of the written report needed to document such evaluation. The reverse is true in forensic assessment, forensic evaluation reports tend to be lengthy and detailed due to the legal referral questions that require more information about the procedures, findings, and reasoning used in the assessment, and that has to do with the expectation that the assumptions and methods used in the evaluation will be challengeD.
Also there is an important distinction between the two type of assessment in light of verbal communication about the evaluation results. The likelihood that the therapeutic evaluator will give an expert witness in legal issues is rare. While the forensic evaluator should always testify as an expert witness and that testimony would be associated with the assessment, the forensic evaluator as an expert witness have to explain clearly to the trier of fact (often a jury, in some cases the judge) the theory that forms the context and framework for the tests used in the evaluation , how the tests were created, the ways in which the tests are used, how the results are interpreted, and the ways in which the test results at hand can be validly and reliably used, so that the attorney is unable to demonstrate that the expert is in fact not an expert in this area and has misunderstood, misused, or misstated the workings and results of the tests.
The last difference between therapeutic assessment and forensic assessment is relevant to the previous point, the forensic assessment emphasis on psychometric considerations such as normative data, reliability, validity, and sensitivity. In contrast, therapeutic assessment relies on theoretical orientation of the practitioner and a corresponding array of assessment approaches and instruments .
Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks
4. Explain the potential attractions and drawbacks of careers in forensic psychology.
5. Highlight the risk factors that contribute a young person becoming a deviant or criminal.
6. Define criminal responsibility and describe the factors that have to be considered in regard to criminal responsibility.
7. Elucidate malingering with a focus on its assessment and evaluation.
8. Describe the Polygraph test.
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IGNOU BPCE 021 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks
9. Clinical- forensic psychology
10. Crime analysis
11. Violent crimes
12. Paranoid personality disorder
13. Mens Rea
14. Competency to stand trial
15. NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI- R)
16. Potential criteria for civil commitment
17. Police stress
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