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IGNOU BPCE 014 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks
1. Explain various approaches to intervention for anxiety disorders.
Treating anxiety disorders with therapy
Whether you’re suffering from panic attacks, obsessive thoughts, unrelenting worries, or an incapacitating phobia, it’s important to know that you don’t have to live with anxiety and fear. Treatment can help, and for many anxiety problems, therapy is often the most effective option. That’s because anxiety therapy—unlike anxiety medication—treats more than just the symptoms of the problem. Therapy can help you uncover the underlying causes of your worries and fears; learn how to relax; look at situations in new, less frightening ways; and develop better coping and problem-solving skills. Therapy gives you the tools to overcome anxiety and teaches you how to use them.
Anxiety disorders differ considerably, so therapy should be tailored to your specific symptoms and diagnosis. If you have obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), for example, your treatment will be different from someone who needs help for anxiety attacks. The length of therapy will also depend on the type and severity of your anxiety disorder. However, many anxiety therapies are relatively short-term. According to the American Psychological Association, many people improve significantly within 8 to 10 therapy sessions.
While many different types of therapy are used to treat anxiety, the leading approaches are cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and exposure therapy. Each anxiety therapy may be used alone, or combined with other types of therapy. Anxiety therapy may be conducted individually, or it may take place in a group of people with similar anxiety problems. But the goal is the same: to lower your anxiety levels, calm your mind, and overcome your fears.
Online vs. in-person therapy
Accessing help online can help you avoid the expense and inconvenience of having to meet in-person and being in a familiar, comfortable environment can make it easier to talk openly about your issues. For many people with anxiety, online therapy can be just as effective as traditional, in-person therapy.
However, not all online therapy is the same. Communicating via a messaging app, phone, or email, for example, is no substitute for live face-to-face interaction using video chat.
Facial expressions, mannerisms, and body language are important tools in therapy. They allow your therapist pick up on any inconsistencies between your verbal and nonverbal responses, recognize things that you’re unable to put into words, and understand the true meaning behind what you’re saying. From your point of view, interacting face-to-face is crucial to building a strong connection with a therapist that so often determines the success of therapy.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most widely-used therapy for anxiety disorders. Research has shown it to be effective in the treatment of panic disorder, phobias, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, among many other conditions.
CBT addresses negative patterns and distortions in the way we look at the world and ourselves. As the name suggests, this involves two main components:
- Cognitive therapy examines how negative thoughts, or cognitions, contribute to anxiety.
- Behavior therapy examines how you behave and react in situations that trigger anxiety.
The basic premise of CBT is that our thoughts—not external events—affect the way we feel. In other words, it’s not the situation you’re in that determines how you feel, but your perception of the situation.
For example, imagine that you’ve just been invited to a big party. Consider three different ways of thinking about the invitation, and how those thoughts would affect your emotions.
Emotions: Happy, excited.
Thought #2: Parties aren’t my thing. I’d much rather stay in and watch a movie.
Thought #3: I never know what to say or do at parties. I’ll make a fool of myself if I go.
Emotions: Anxious, sad.
As you can see, the same event can lead to completely different emotions in different people. It all depends on our individual expectations, attitudes, and beliefs.
For people with anxiety disorders, negative ways of thinking fuel the negative emotions of anxiety and fear. The goal of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety is to identify and correct these negative thoughts and beliefs. The idea is that if you change the way you think, you can change the way you feel.
Thought challenging in CBT for anxiety
Thought challenging—also known as cognitive restructuring—is a process in which you challenge the negative thinking patterns that contribute to your anxiety, replacing them with more positive, realistic thoughts. This involves three steps:
- Identifying your negative thoughts. With anxiety disorders, situations are perceived as more dangerous than they really are. To someone with a germ phobia, for example, shaking another person’s hand can seem life threatening. Although you may easily see that this is an irrational fear, identifying your own irrational, scary thoughts can be very difficult. One strategy is to ask yourself what you were thinking when you started feeling anxious. Your therapist will help you with this step.
- Challenging your negative thoughts. In the second step, your therapist will teach you how to evaluate your anxiety-provoking thoughts. This involves questioning the evidence for your frightening thoughts, analyzing unhelpful beliefs, and testing out the reality of negative predictions. Strategies for challenging negative thoughts include conducting experiments, weighing the pros and cons of worrying or avoiding the thing you fear, and determining the realistic chances that what you’re anxious about will actually happen.
- Replacing negative thoughts with realistic thoughts. Once you’ve identified the irrational predictions and negative distortions in your anxious thoughts, you can replace them with new thoughts that are more accurate and positive. Your therapist may also help you come up with realistic, calming statements you can say to yourself when you’re facing or anticipating a situation that normally sends your anxiety levels soaring.
Replacing negative thoughts with more realistic ones is easier said than done. Often, negative thoughts are part of a lifelong pattern of thinking. It takes practice to break the habit. That’s why cognitive behavioral therapy includes practicing on your own at home as well.
CBT may also include:
- Learning to recognize when you’re anxious and what that feels like in the body.
- Learning coping skills and relaxation techniques to counteract anxiety and panic.
- Confronting your fears (either in your imagination or in real life).
Exposure therapy for anxiety
Anxiety isn’t a pleasant sensation, so it’s only natural to avoid it if you can. One of the ways that people do this is by steering clear of the situations that make them anxious. If you have a fear of heights, you might drive three hours out of your way to avoid crossing a tall bridge. Or if the prospect of public speaking leaves your stomach in knots, you might skip your best friend’s wedding in order to avoid giving a toast. Aside from the inconvenience factor, the problem with avoiding your fears is that you never have the chance to overcome them. In fact, avoiding your fears often makes them stronger.
Exposure therapy, as the name suggests, exposes you to the situations or objects you fear. The idea is that through repeated exposures, you’ll feel an increasing sense of control over the situation and your anxiety will diminish. The exposure is done in one of two ways: Your therapist may ask you to imagine the scary situation, or you may confront it in real life. Exposure therapy may be used alone, or it may be conducted as part of cognitive behavioral therapy.
Rather than facing your biggest fear right away, which can be traumatizing, exposure therapy usually starts with a situation that’s only mildly threatening and works up from there. This step-by-step approach is called systematic desensitization. Systematic desensitization allows you to gradually challenge your fears, build confidence, and master skills for controlling panic.
2. Explain the types and causes of learning disabilities.
When a child has a specific learning disability, they struggle significantly with certain learning areas and tasks. Teachers will notice if a student is performing at a level much lower than what is standard for their age. Parents see their child struggling with homework (or avoiding it altogether), or they notice that their child hates, and does poorly with, reading or games and activities involving reading, writing, or math. Whether it’s mild, moderate, or severe, a specific learning disability interferes in academic performance and affects a child’s self-esteem, emotions, behavior, and friendships.
Two terms are used for the learning problems that hinder kids. “Specific learning disability” is a technical description used in the educational and legal systems. “Specific learning disorder,” a new diagnosis introduced in the DSM-5 in 2013, is the medical term used in officially diagnosing someone with a learning problem.
Learning disabilities are disorders that affect a person’s ability to understand or respond to new information, or they are disorders that affect the ability to remember information that appears to have been taken in. Learning disabilities tend to cause problems with listening skills, language skills (including speaking, reading or writing), and mathematical operations. Learning disabilities can also cause problems in coordinating movements, making the child seem (and feel) awkward.
Learning disabilities are a brain operational difference and do not affect intelligence (IQ). In fact, they are the most severe, pervasive, and chronic form of learning difficulty in children with average or above-average intellectual abilities. Because most learning disabilities are diagnosed in childhood, this article will focus on the childhood effects of these conditions.
Although often present from birth (caused by unique features in brain structure that may be hereditary), most learning disabilities are discovered when the child is school age and begins to show significant gaps in learning when compared with peers. Learning disabilities are continual and can cause considerable lifelong challenges. In some cases, mildly affected adults learn to adapt their learning styles, making the learning disability less problematic.
There’s a bit of difference between the two official terms, but outside of education, law, medicine, and psychiatry, many people use them interchangeably. Therefore, this article uses both terms to refer to the same concept: a substantial set of difficulties that disrupt the learning and life of a child.
What Is a Specific Learning Disability? Definition of Specific Learning Disorder
To understand what a specific learning disability is, it’s helpful to know what it is not. It isn’t an intellectual disability (formerly called mental retardation). Intelligence isn’t a factor in the inability to learn certain things. In fact, most people with a learning disability are of average or above-average intelligence. The issue with specific learning disabilities is that kids can’t acquire certain academic skills.
A specific learning disorder definition is academic underachievement that is unanticipated. A child is doing poorly in school, and at first this is surprising to teachers and parents. When a kid’s potential is strong, but their academic performance is weak, specific learning disability is often at work.
Some factors that describe what a specific learning disorder is include:
- Low scholastic achievement despite potential
- High levels of support needed for average achievement
- Fewer academic skills than agemates
- Deficiencies not explained by developmental disabilities, intellectual disabilities, neurological disorders, sensory disorder, or motor disorders
- Unrelated to external circumstances like poverty or a lack of education in the child’s family
- Persistence—learning problems don’t improve with time
A specific learning disability, then, is a permanent disorder that disrupts the ability to learn and to keep up with classmates. It has a negative impact on a child’s learning and life in general. There are multiple types of specific learning disorders that interfere with academic learning and progress.
Specific Learning Disability Types
After thorough testing and other assessments, a child might receive a diagnosis of specific learning disorder. Then, at least one subtype will be specified. The three subtypes in the DSM-5 are
- Dyslexia, a reading disorder
- Dysgraphia, a writing disorder
- Dyscalculia, a math disorder
Disabilities in reading, writing, and math are the most common specific learning disorders, but they aren’t the only ones. Other types of specific learning disabilities include:
- Auditory or processing disorders affect how the brain interprets and processes sounds and visual input
- Language processing disorder, a component of auditory processing disorder, disrupts a child’s ability to make sounds meaningful
- Non-verbal learning disorder creates problems with interpreting facial expression and body language which in turn can cause poor social skills
Specific learning disabilities can cause problems in all areas of learning. However, there isn’t a science or social studies or other learning disorder because the problems in these areas are caused by dyslexia or dysgraphia.
Specific learning disability types cause significant problems for a child. What causes these learning disorders?
Specific Learning Disability Causes
Specific learning disorder is complex, and the cause isn’t straightforward. Nonetheless, some causes have been identified: genetics or heredity and environment.
Learning disabilities have a strong genetic component. If a child has a parent with a learning disability, the child’s risk for having a specific learning disorder is much higher.
Sometimes, exposure to toxins like lead can cause or contribute to the development of a specific learning disorder. Studies have shown, too, that prenatal poor nutrition or exposure to toxic substances can cause specific learning disorder.
A specific learning disability, or specific learning disorder, is a deficit that negatively impacts a child’s ability to learn. With understanding and support from parents and teachers, kids can learn and thrive despite learning disabilities.
3. Explain the socio-cultural factors in the etiology of psychopathology
The individual evolution of language behaviors is, to a certain extent, formed by sociocultural pressures. However, studies conducted in the laboratory of Jacques Mehler have shown that human babies are prepared, in advance, for language. As soon as babies leave the uterus, (a) the voice of their mother is already familiar, (b) they already recognize the noises relevant for language, (c) they are able to make a distinction between their mother tongue and other languages, and (d) the majority process language information with the left hemisphere more than with the right hemisphere (Mehler & Fox, 1985). In other respects, one should not forget that upon leaving the uterus, human babies and babies of other mammals have been listening for a long time, but they have never seen anything. This fact is essential if one wants to have a good appreciation of the impact of environmental information on the actualization of innate properties of the brain.
Undoubtedly, the ontogenesis of language starts very early in the human being, even before birth, and will last for a very long time. First, oral language or the “primary code” will take place, followed, in several societies, by written language or the “secondary code.” Beyond the intrauterine mysteries, the “primary code” is first learned by imitation, within the restricted boundaries of family and neighborhood. This functioning allows a normal child to deal with his or her native language, syntax included, around the age of 4 or 5. However, except very rare cases, there is no consciousness, at first, for the rules underlying language. One should remember that the myelinogenetic maturation of thalamic projections to the primary auditive cortex ends around the age of 4 or 5.
It is around the age of 7, that the learning of the “secondary code” begins, only this time the child will follow the formal and explicit conventions of the primary school. This learning will take place in a “transitive” mode, by referring to the sounds of the “primary code.” Inherent to the social privilege of schooling, this dichotomy between the “primary code” and the “secondary code” is certainly valid. However, this concept should not hide the fact that after primary school and its formalism, the learning of language will continue without any dependency of written language on oral language. In the case of individuals who integrate written language into their life, it is undeniable that they first learn numerous words and some syntactic arrangements with their eyes, and not with their ears. Later, they will use these elements in writing or in speech.
- In some parts of the world, in Vietnam, for example, people speak so-called isolating tongues. In these tongues, most of the words only consist of one syllable. The meaning of each word is specified by the tonal pitch given to its vowel. Each word may have as many as six different meanings depending on the pitch of the vowel (which can be increased, decreased, or modulated). The brain must then adjust its functioning during all its ontogenesis to enable individuals to use that many tonal pitches, which, elsewhere in the species, have no role to play in the comprehension and production of the speech.
- In other parts of the world, in Poland, for example, people speak so-called flectional tongues. In these tongues, most of the words consist of many syllables that correspond, in several cases, to prefixes and suffixes. The brain must then mold its functioning in a way that enables individuals to juggle an impressive number of syllables all their life. These syllables only play a role in modifying the meaning of the root to which they are tied.
- “Logographic” writing systems—the one of China, for example—which allow people speaking different languages to read the same newspapers, exploit maximally one of these genetic potentials, which is to memorize written words in their global form.
- Other writing systems, related to only one spoken tongue, favor the other genetical potential, which permits the processing of written information by the “conversion” of smaller entities of words from their auditive forms to their visual forms or vice versa. Spanish reading and Italian writing are good examples of these systems.
- Other writing systems—French, English, and Japanese, for example—ask the brain to actualize and utilize the two biological potentials described.
These sociocultural differences may have an important impact on the biology of the normal brain, of course, but also on clinical manifestations of learning disorders in oral and written language. In addition, with comparable cerebral lesions, these sociocultural differences will affect clinical manifestations of acquired diseases of language.
Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks
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Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks
9. Bulimia nervosa
10. Childhood disintegrative disorder
11. Projective tests
12. Symptoms of catatonic schizophrenia
13. Symptoms of avoidant personality disorder
15. Postpartum depression
17. Sub-categories of ADHD
18. Dissociative amnesis
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