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IGNOU BPC 005 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks
1. Explain the different hereditary factors that influence the development of personality.
Every person differs from the other, either physically or psychologically. Even the twins are no exception to this. They differ in some aspects or other. Particularly when we look at people from psychological point of view these differences are quite obvious. In many instances even the children differ from their parents.
They will have some similarities with some forefathers or grandparents instead of their parents. What makes these differences to exist? What are the causes? The answer to these queries can be traced from two factors, viz., heredity and environment.
The basic sources of personality development are heredity and environment.
Heredity refers to the genetic inheritance received by every individual at the time of conception. The origin of every human life can be traced to a single cell called zygote. It is formed by the union of sperm and ovum.
The sperm and ovum will contain 23 pairs of chromosomes out of which one will be sex determining chromosome. Female will have 23 pairs of XX chromosomes. Male will have 22 pairs of XX and 2 single, represented as XY. X chromosome from mother and Y chromosome from father will lead to male offspring, XX from both parents give rise to female. In each chromosome there are innumerable genes.
These genes are the real determiners of hereditary characteristics—which pass on from one generation to the other. At the time of conception, the genes from chromosomes of both the father and the mother fuse together and determine the traits of the offspring to be born.
The physical characteristics such as height, weight, colour of eye and skin, social and intellectual behaviour are determined by heredity. Differences in these characteristics are due to the change in the genes transmitted. Fraternal twins also differ from each other, because they are born out of different genes. However, we find more resemblances in identical twins because they are born out of monozygotic.
In simple terms environment means the society, the fields of society and even the whole world. But here, the word environment is restricted to mean the environment within mother’s womb and just born, as well as the environment around the individual.
Like heredity, environment also has been found to play a very important role in determining the behaviour and personality development of an individual. The environmental influences are those which act upon the organism at the earlier stages of development, i.e., before and also after birth.
The growing embryo is surrounded by amniotic fluid in the uterus which creates another environment. This fluid will provide the necessary warmth and protection against the dangers due to organisms and other chemical effects on fetus.
The fetus is also connected to the mother by the umbilical cord, through which the nourishment is supplied. Sufficient nourishment is necessary from the mother. Otherwise the child will suffer from malnutrition. The defects in mother like drug or alcohol addiction, smoking, malnutrition, diabetes, endocrinal disturbances, small uterus and such other problems cause many problems in child.
The psychological state of mother like over excitement, depression also may cause damaging effect on the child.
After nine months, the child is born and enters a new environment which is entirely different. A new life begins in a new environment. This new environment will have a different culture, ideology, values, etc.
The home atmosphere, parental love and affection, association with sibling, neighbours, peers, teachers, etc. will create an entirely different and new atmosphere. This is called social environment. All the social factors stated above shape the personality of the child.
There is a long standing controversy regarding the importance of heredity and environment. Supporters of heredity say that the environment cannot change a dog into a goat. On the other hand, the environmentalists are of the opinion that for the development of a plant only seed is not important but also environment like sunlight, manure, water, etc.
Innumerable studies have been conducted on both sides. However, the results indicate that heredity and environment are interdependent forces. Whatever the heredity supplies, the favourable environment brings it out. Personality characteristics attained by heredity are shaped by environment.
2. Describe the different implications of the principles of Pavlov’s classical conditioning in Understanding personality.
This is learning from the behavioristic viewpoint. According to this viewpoint learning is ‘formation of conditioned reflexes’ or “acquisition of involuntary anticipatory adjustment” or “a habit formation”, so that behaviour may become automatic.
By “anticipatory adjustment” he means “organic behaviour” which is “not complete” but “with a gap in the whole equilibrium pattern”. For example, hunger function of the stomach etc., are the organic behaviour with a gap and so incomplete.
It becomes complete when the object of hunger is obtained. Importance of anticipatory adjustment is very great because, firstly, it is the foundation of all voluntary behaviour. Secondly, it is the active desires that sets the goal and makes the organism strive. Thirdly, it determines “the mindset” or “organic pattern of readiness”.
Unless this organic pattern takes place within, no real learning can appear. If we can control this anticipatory adjustment we can also control learning. This controlled learning is the conditioned learning. In this the thing to be learnt is termed as, ‘cue stimulus,’ and this is then followed by a satisfying stimulus. This combination is repeated again and again and ultimately the learning of the “cue-stimulus” is established. This is conditioned learning.
Conditioned learning is also accompanied by a generalization of the experience. For example, a child whose fear is conditioned to a white rat also begins to fear a rabbit, cotton wool, a white fur coat and other alike objects. When the same process is repeated again and again for a long time, after the conditioning has taken place, it produces adverse effects. The conditioned S-R becomes extinguished. For example, repeated exposure of the rat may gradually reduce the fear after it has been conditioned.
Conditioned learning actually means responding normally by a natural response to an unnatural situation or stimulus, when in actual fact; the response is to be in the presence of the natural stimulus. We have watering of the mouth seeing a ‘Gulab Jamun’ or a child feels watering of the mouth when he sees or smells food and not by hearing a bell. But, it is the common experience that the ringing of the recess bell leads to watering of the mouth.
This learning of watering of the mouth on hearing the bell is conditioned learning. It is established when repeatedly the recess bell is followed by some refreshments, meals or lunch during recess and bell and food, are associated in quick secession. Much of the learning is by conditioning, Fear, anger and many such reactions are aroused by unnatural, irrelevant or unusual stimuli.
The approaching peon of the boss, for example, aroused nervousness and fear, though the peon is harmless and innocent. But, that peon almost always bought some unpleasant message, letters or news from the boss’s office and so the person is conditioned to the approaching of this peon which leads to rousing of fear and nervousness.
Similarly, if two girls have been seen together a number of times, seeing one makes you think of the other. These are all illustrations of associative connections. This idea of association has been the basis of the conditioned response theory, according to which learning consists in building up of new associative bonds between a stimulus and a response. According to Guilford, “The most simile interpretation of this phenomenon is that when two stimuli are presented repeatedly together, the new one first, then the original, effective one, the new one also becomes effective”.
Experimental Evidences of Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Theory:
The Russian Psychologist Ivan Pavlov experimented for long on dogs to study how the stimuli and responses are associated with different types of the stimuli of bell, different colours or lights and established conditioned response of salivation in the dog. In his experiment, he took a dog, kept him in a room and repeatedly gave the ringing of the bell, as a stimulus, soon followed by food (piece of meat) which led to salivation.
Bell and food were presented in a sequence over a number of times (about seven days) and at every trial there was the bell. A stage reached when ringing of the bell led to normal salivation even when there was no food supplied. Neurologically it could be explained that the stimulus bell followed by food led to the response of salivation in this manner.
This process is by making the nerves carrying the stimulus of the food which leads to the response of salivation, coming closer and closer, with every trail to the nerves carrying the stimulus of the bell that a stage reached that there was an over lapping reinforcement of the nerves carrying the stimulus of food with the nerves carrying stimulus of the bell.
In other words, a stage reached when the bell meant the food and the natural response of salivation was there to the unnatural stimulus of the bell. Such establishment of the nervous connections was the conditioned reflex. Here ‘sight of food’ was termed as UCS, the ringing of the bell as ‘CS’ and the ‘salivating’ on the ringing of the bell only was termed as CR.
3. Elucidate the Carl Rogers’ humanistic theory of personality.
Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was a humanistic psychologist who agreed with the main assumptions of Abraham Maslow. However, Rogers (1959) added that for a person to “grow”, they need an environment that provides them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listened to and understood).
Without these, relationships and healthy personalities will not develop as they should, much like a tree will not grow without sunlight and water.
Rogers believed that every person could achieve their goals, wishes, and desires in life. When, or rather if they did so, self actualization took place.
This was one of Carl Rogers most important contributions to psychology, and for a person to reach their potential a number of factors must be satisfied.
Central to Rogers’ personality theory is the notion of self or self-concept. This is defined as “the organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself.”
The self is the humanistic term for who we really are as a person. The self is our inner personality, and can be likened to the soul, or Freud’s psyche. The self is influenced by the experiences a person has in their life, and out interpretations of those experiences. Two primary sources that influence our self-concept are childhood experiences and evaluation by others.
According to Rogers (1959), we want to feel, experience and behave in ways which are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self. The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to each other, the more consistent or congruent we are and the higher our sense of self-worth.
A person is said to be in a state of incongruence if some of the totality of their experience is unacceptable to them and is denied or distorted in the self-image.
The humanistic approach states that the self is composed of concepts unique to ourselves. The self-concept includes three components:
Self-worth (or self-esteem) comprises what we think about ourselves. Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and were formed from the interaction of the child with the mother and father.
How we see ourselves, which is important to good psychological health. Self-image includes the influence of our body image on inner personality.
At a simple level, we might perceive ourselves as a good or bad person, beautiful or ugly. Self-image affects how a person thinks, feels and behaves in the world.
This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals and ambitions in life, and is dynamic – i.e., forever changing.
The ideal self in childhood is not the ideal self in our teens or late twenties etc.
Positive Regard and Self Worth
Carl Rogers (1951) viewed the child as having two basic needs: positive regard from other people and self-worth.
How we think about ourselves, our feelings of self-worth are of fundamental importance both to psychological health and to the likelihood that we can achieve goals and ambitions in life and achieve self-actualization.
Self-worth may be seen as a continuum from very high to very low. For Carl Rogers (1959) a person who has high self-worth, that is, has confidence and positive feelings about him or herself, faces challenges in life, accepts failure and unhappiness at times, and is open with people.
A person with low self-worth may avoid challenges in life, not accept that life can be painful and unhappy at times, and will be defensive and guarded with other people.
Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and were formed from the interaction of the child with the mother and father. As a child grows older, interactions with significant others will affect feelings of self-worth.
Rogers believed that we need to be regarded positively by others; we need to feel valued, respected, treated with affection and loved. Positive regard is to do with how other people evaluate and judge us in social interaction. Rogers made a distinction between unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard.
Unconditional Positive Regard
Unconditional positive regard is where parents, significant others (and the humanist therapist) accepts and loves the person for what he or she is. Positive regard is not withdrawn if the person does something wrong or makes a mistake.
The consequences of unconditional positive regard are that the person feels free to try things out and make mistakes, even though this may lead to getting it worse at times.
People who are able to self-actualize are more likely to have received unconditional positive regard from others, especially their parents in childhood.
Conditional Positive Regard
Conditional positive regard is where positive regard, praise, and approval, depend upon the child, for example, behaving in ways that the parents think correct.
Hence the child is not loved for the person he or she is, but on condition that he or she behaves only in ways approved by the parent(s).
At the extreme, a person who constantly seeks approval from other people is likely only to have experienced conditional positive regard as a child.
Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks
4. Merits and demerits of Allport’s theory of personality.
5. Definition of personality.
6. Schedules of reinforcement in operant conditioning.
7. Stages and factors of learning.
8. Category of needs propounded by Karen Horney.
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Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks
9. Sheldon’s typology theory of personality.
10. Difference between the characteristic features of introverts and extroverts.
11. Types of conflict.
12. Meaning of vicarious conditioning.
13. Example of ‘regression’ as one of the defense mechanism.
14. Concept of positive psychology.
15. Relevance of personality assessment.
16. Hedonistic motives of human beings.
17. Difference between field dependent and field independent personalities.
18. Characteristic features of Type A personality
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