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IGNOU BPC 003 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPC 003 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks
1. Explain the different steps of designing a case study research.
There are several steps to be taken for the case study method. To know
- Determine and define research questions
- Select cases and determine data collection and analysis techniques
- Preparation for data collection
- Collection of data in the field
- Evaluate and analyze data
- Prepare the report
- By following these six steps the case study is complete. For each step to be well understood, let’s look at each separately.
Determine and define research questions
The first step in the scientific research is to establish a firm research focus that the researcher can refer to throughout the study of a complex phenomenon or object. The researcher establishes the focus of the study by asking questions about the situation or problem being studied and determining a purpose for the study. The object of research in a study may often be
- a program, an entity, A person, a group of people. Each object is likely to be intrinsically linked to issues
- political, social,historical, personal, providing ample possibilities of questions and adding complexity to the study to be carried out. The investigator investigates the object of in-depth study using a variety of data collection methods to produce evidence that leads to the understanding of the case and answers the research questions.
Select cases and determine data collection and analysis techniques
During the research design phase, the researcher determines which approaches will be used in the selection of single or multiple real-life cases to examine in depth, and which instruments and approaches to data collection will be used.
When using multiple cases, each case is treated as unique. The conclusions of each case can then be used as information that contributes to the entire study, however each case remains a single case.
The researcher must determine whether to study cases that are unique in some way or cases that are considered typical and can also select cases to represent a variety of geographic regions, a variety of size parameters or other parameters.
A useful step in the selection process is to repeatedly go back to the purpose of the study in order to draw attention to where to look for cases and evidence that will satisfy the purpose of the study and answer the raised research questions. Selecting multiple or unique cases is a key element.
Preparation for data collection in the Case Study Method
Because case-study research generates a large amount of data from multiple sources, systematic organization of data is important to prevent the researcher from becoming overwhelmed by the amount of data and to prevent the researcher from losing sight of the original goal and questions of the researcher. search.
Prepaid preparation assists in the handling of large amounts of data in a documented and systematic manner. The researchers prepare databases to assist in the categorization, classification, storage and retrieval of data for analysis.
Collection of data in the field
The researcher must collect and store multiple sources of evidence comprehensively and systematically in formats that can be referenced and classified so that convergent lines of inquiry and patterns can be discovered. The researchers carefully observe the object of the case study and identify causal factors associated with the observed phenomenon.
The renegotiation of the arrangements with the objects of the study or the addition of questions to the interviews may be necessary as the study progresses. Case study research is flexible, but when changes are made, they are documented systematically.
Evaluate and analyze data
The researcher examines the raw data using many interpretations to find links between the search object and the results with reference to the original search questions. Throughout the process of evaluation and analysis, the researcher remains open to new opportunities and insights.
The case study method, using multiple methods of data collection and analysis techniques, offers researchers the opportunity to triangulate data to strengthen the findings and conclusions of the research.
The tactics used in the analysis force researchers to go beyond initial impressions to improve the likelihood of accurate and reliable findings.
Examples of case studies allow you to deliberately sort data in many different ways to expose or create new ideas and look for conflicting data to disallow the analysis. Researchers categorize, tabulate, and recombine data to address the initial propositions or purpose of the study, and perform cross-checks of facts and discrepancies in the accounts.
Prepare the report
Examples of case studies report the data in a way that transforms a complex issue into one that can be understood, allowing the reader to question and examine the study and come to an independent understanding of the researcher.
The purpose of the written report is to portray a complex problem in a way that conveys an experience passed on to the reader. The studies present the data in a very accessible way to the public and can lead the reader to apply the experience to their own actual situation.
Researchers pay close attention to sufficient evidence to gain the confidence of the reader that all routes have been explored, clearly communicating the boundaries of the case and giving special attention to conflicting propositions.
The introduction of the report includes acknowledging all participants, indicating the problem, listing the research questions, describing the methods used to conduct the research and any potential flaws in the method used, explaining the data collection and analysis techniques used and concluding with the answers to questions and suggestions for future research.
Key features of the report include a feeling of specific stories related to the successes or losses experienced by organizations that were transmitted during data collection and responses or comments illuminating issues directly related to the research questions.
The researcher develops each question using quotes or other details of the data collected, and points to triangulation of data where applicable. The report also includes confirmation and departures from the conclusions of the literature used.
The report’s conclusion makes affirmations and suggestions for new research activities so that another researcher can apply these techniques to another community network and its participants to determine if similar findings are identifiable in other communities.
We know that studies are complex because they often involve multiple sources of data, can include multiple cases within a study, and produce large amounts of data for analysis. Researchers from many disciplines use the case study method to construct theory, produce a new theory, discuss or challenge theory, explain a situation, provide a basis for applying solutions to situations, exploring or describing an object or phenomenon.
The advantages of this method of study are its applicability to real, contemporary, human situations and its public accessibility through written reports. The results of case studies relate directly to the everyday experience of the average reader and facilitate the understanding of complex real-life situations.
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2. How can you construct a questionnaire for a survey research?
A questionnaire is a list of questions or items used to gather data from respondents about their attitudes, experiences, or opinions. Questionnaires can be used to collect quantitative and/or qualitative information.
Questionnaires are commonly used in market research as well as in the social and health sciences. For example, a company may ask for feedback about a recent customer service experience, or psychology researchers may investigate health risk perceptions using questionnaires.
Questionnaires vs. surveys
A survey is a research method where you collect and analyze data from a group of people. A questionnaire is a specific tool or instrument for collecting the data.
Designing a questionnaire means creating valid and reliable questions that address your research objectives, placing them in a useful order, and selecting an appropriate method for administration.
But designing a questionnaire is only one component of survey research. Survey research also involves defining the population you’re interested in, choosing an appropriate sampling method, administering questionnaires, data cleaning and analysis, and interpretation.
Sampling is important in survey research because you’ll often aim to generalize your results to the population. Gather data from a sample that represents the range of views in the population for externally valid results. There will always be some differences between the population and the sample, but minimizing these will help you avoid sampling bias.
Questionnaires can be self-administered or researcher-administered. Self-administered questionnaires are more common because they are easy to implement and inexpensive, but researcher-administered questionnaires allow deeper insights.
Self-administered questionnaires can be delivered online or in paper-and-pen formats, in person or through mail. All questions are standardized so that all respondents receive the same questions with identical wording.
Self-administered questionnaires can be:
- easy to administer for small and large groups
- anonymous and suitable for sensitive topics
But they may also be:
- unsuitable for people with limited literacy or verbal skills
- susceptible to a nonreponse bias (most people invited may not complete the questionnaire)
- biased towards people who volunteer because impersonal survey requests often go ignored.
Researcher-administered questionnaires are interviews that take place by phone, in-person, or online between researchers and respondents.
Researcher-administered questionnaires can:
- help you ensure the respondents are representative of your target audience
- allow clarifications of ambiguous or unclear questions and answers
- have high response rates because it’s harder to refuse an interview when personal attention is given to respondents
But researcher-administered questionnaires can be limiting in terms of resources. They are:
- costly and time-consuming to perform
- more difficult to analyze if you have qualitative responses
- likely to contain experimenter bias or demand characteristics
- likely to encourage social desirability bias in responses because of a lack of anonymity
Open-ended vs. closed-ended questions
Your questionnaire can include open-ended or closed-ended questions or a combination of both.
Using closed-ended questions limits your responses, while open-ended questions enable a broad range of answers. You’ll need to balance these considerations with your available time and resources.
Closed-ended, or restricted-choice, questions offer respondents a fixed set of choices to select from. Closed-ended questions are best for collecting data on categorical or quantitative variables.
Categorical variables can be nominal or ordinal. Quantitative variables can be interval or ratio. Understanding the type of variable and level of measurement means you can perform appropriate statistical analyses for generalizable results.
Examples of closed-ended questions for different variables
Nominal variables include categories that can’t be ranked, such as race or ethnicity. This includes binary or dichotomous categories.
It’s best to include categories that cover all possible answers and are mutually exclusive. There should be no overlap between response items.
In binary or dichotomous questions, you’ll give respondents only two options to choose from.
3. Explain the meaning, characteristics and functions of hypothesis.
What is Hypothesis?
A hypothesis is an assumption that is made based on some evidence. This is the initial point of any investigation that translates the research questions into predictions. It includes components like variables, population and the relation between the variables. A research hypothesis is a hypothesis that is used to test the relationship between two or more variables.
Following are the characteristics of the hypothesis:
- The hypothesis should be clear and precise to consider it to be reliable.
- If the hypothesis is a relational hypothesis, then it should be stating the relationship between variables.
- The hypothesis must be specific and should have scope for conducting more tests.
- The way of explanation of the hypothesis must be very simple and it should also be understood that the simplicity of the hypothesis is not related to its significance.
Following are the sources of hypothesis:
- The resemblance between the phenomenon.
- Observations from past studies, present-day experiences and from the competitors.
- Scientific theories.
- General patterns that influence the thinking process of people.
There are six forms of hypothesis and they are:
- Simple hypothesis
- Complex hypothesis
- Directional hypothesis
- Non-directional hypothesis
- Null hypothesis
- Associative and casual hypothesis
- Consumption of sugary drinks every day leads to obesity is an example of a simple hypothesis.
- All lilies have the same number of petals is an example of a null hypothesis.
- If a person gets 7 hours of sleep, then he will feel less fatigue than if he sleeps less. It is an example of a directional hypothesis.
Following are the functions performed by the hypothesis:
- Hypothesis helps in making an observation and experiments possible.
- It becomes the start point for the investigation.
- Hypothesis helps in verifying the observations.
- It helps in directing the inquiries in the right direction.
Researchers use hypotheses to put down their thoughts directing how the experiment would take place. Following are the steps that are involved in the scientific method:
- Formation of question
- Doing background research
- Creation of hypothesis
- Designing an experiment
- Collection of data
- Result analysis
- Summarizing the experiment
- Communicating the results
Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks
4. Concept of pilot test.
5. Guidelines for writing a summary.
6. Advantages and disadvantages of an experiment.
7. Differences between field study and survey research.
8. Goals and objectives of a psychological research.
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Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks
9. Meaning of variable.
10. Purpose of content analysis.
11. Definition of interview.
12. Difference between direct and indirect observation.
13. Purpose of qualitative research.
14. Difference between individual test and group test.
15. Biases of research.
16. Meaning of grey literature.
17. Importance of writing an abstract in a research report.
18. Concept of structured observation.
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