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IGNOU BPC 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPC 001 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks
1. Define psychology. Discuss the branches or divisions of general and applied psychology.
There are different types of psychology that serve different purposes. There is no fixed way of classifying them, but here are some common types.
Clinical psychology integrates science, theory, and practice in order to understand, predict and relieve problems with adjustment, disability, and discomfort. It promotes adaption, adjustment, and personal development.
A clinical psychologist concentrates on the intellectual, emotional, biological, psychological, social, and behavioral aspects of human performance throughout a person’s life, across varying cultures and socioeconomic levels.
Clinical psychology can help us to understand, prevent, and alleviate psychologically-caused distress or dysfunction, and promote an individual’s well-being and personal development.
Psychological assessment and psychotherapy are central to the practice of clinical psychology, but clinical psychologists are often also involved in research, training, forensic testimony, and other areas.
Cognitive psychology investigates internal mental processes, such as problem solving, memory, learning, and language. It looks at how people think, perceive, communicate, remember, and learn. It is closely related to neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics.
Cognitive psychologists look at how people acquire, process, and store information.
Practical applications include how to improve memory, increase the accuracy of decision-making, or how to set up educational programs to boost learning.
This is the scientific study of systematic psychological changes that a person experiences over the life span, often referred to as human development.
It focuses not only on infants and young children but also teenagers, adults, and older people.
Factors include motor skills, problem solving, moral understanding, acquiring language, emotions, personality, self-concept, and identity formation.
It also looks at innate mental structures against learning through experience, or how a person’s characteristics interact with environmental factors and how this impacts development.
Developmental psychology overlaps with fields such as linguistics.
Evolutionary psychology looks at how human behavior, for example language, has been affected by psychological adjustments during evolution.
An evolutionary psychologist believes that many human psychological traits are adaptive in that they have enabled us to survive over thousands of years.
Forensic psychology involves applying psychology to criminal investigation and the law.
A forensic psychologist practices psychology as a science within the criminal justice system and civil courts.
It involves assessing the psychological factors that might influence a case or behavior and presenting the findings in court.
Health psychology is also called behavioral medicine or medical psychology.
It observes how behavior, biology, and social context influence illness and health.
A physician often looks first at the biological causes of a disease, but a health psychologist will focus on the whole person and what influences their health status. This may include their socioeconomic status, education, and background, and behaviors that may have an impact on the disease, such as compliance with instructions and medication.
Health psychologists usually work alongside other medical professionals in clinical settings.
Neuropsychology looks at the structure and function of the brain in relation to behaviors and psychological processes. A neuropsychology may be involved if a condition involves lesions in the brain, and assessments that involve recording electrical activity in the brain.
A neuropsychological evaluation is used to determine whether a person is likely to experience behavioral problems following suspected or diagnosed brain injury, such as a stroke.
The results can enable a doctor to provide treatment that may help the individual achieve possible improvements in cognitive damage that has occurred.
Occupational or organizational psychologists are involved in assessing and making recommendations about the performance of people at work and in training.
They help companies to find more effective ways to function, and to understand how people and groups behave at work.
This information can help improve effectiveness, efficiency, job satisfaction, and employee retention.
Social psychology uses scientific methods to understand how social influences impact human behavior. It seeks to explain how feelings, behavior, and thoughts are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other people.
A social psychologist looks at group behavior, social perception, non-verbal behavior, conformity, aggression, prejudice, and leadership. Social perception and social interaction are seen as key to understanding social behavior.
Other branches include military, consumer, educational, cross-cultural, and environmental psychology. The number of branches continues to grow.
In a philosophical context, psychology was around thousands of years ago in ancient Greece, Egypt, India, Persia, and China.
In 387 BCE, Plato suggested that the brain is where mental processes take place, and in 335 BCE Aristotle suggested that it was the heart.
Avicenna, the famous Muslim doctor, born in 980 AD, studied and treated epilepsy, nightmares, and poor memory. The first hospitals treating psychiatric conditions were said to have been set up by Islamic doctors in medieval times.
In 1774, Franz Mesmer proposed that hypnosis, or “mesmerism,” might help cure some types of mental illness.
In 1793, Philippe Pinel released the first patients with mental health problems from confinement in a move that signalled a move toward more humane treatment.
In 1879, Wilhelm Wundt, Germany, founded psychology as an independent experimental field of study. He set up the first laboratory that carried out psychological research exclusively at Leipzig University. Wundt is known today as the father of psychology.
In 1890, an American philosopher, William James, published a book entitled Principles of Psychology. It was discussed by psychologists worldwide for many decades. In the same year, New York State passed the State Care Act, in which people with mental health problems were to leave poor houses and enter the hospital for treatment.
In 1890, the American Psychological Association (APA) was founded, under the leadership of G. Stanley Hall.
Hermann Abbingaus, who lived from 1850 1909, and worked at the University of Berlin, was the first psychologist to study memory extensively.
Ivan Pavlov, who lived from 1849 to 1936, carried out the famous experiment which showed that dogs salivated when they expected food, introducing the concept of “conditioning.”
The Austrian Sigmund Freud, who lived from 1856 to 1939, introduced the field of psychoanalysis, a type of psychotherapy. He used interpretive methods, introspection, and clinical observations to gain understanding of the mind.
He focused on resolving unconscious conflict, mental distress, and psychopathology. Freud argued that the unconscious was responsible for most of people’s thoughts and behavior, and for mental health problems.
E. B Titchener, an American, strongly believed in structuralism, which focuses on the question: “What is consciousness?”
William James and John Dewey were strong believers in functionalism, which addressed the “What is consciousness for?”
The debate between the functionalists and structuralists led to a rapid growth in interest in psychology in the United States and elsewhere, and the establishment of the first psychology laboratory in the U.S., at Johns Hopkins University.
2. Discuss the different theories of Intelligence.
Society often confuses academic achievement with intelligence and believes that only good grades will help us become successful in life. But sometimes even the best-performing students are unable to become achievers in life. Academic or other achievements don’t necessarily reflect or define one’s intelligence.
The concept of intelligence is quite complex and can’t be easily evaluated or measured. However, it can be understood in the context of psychology. Let’s find out how.
What Is Intelligence In Psychology?
Intelligence has been a topic of debate and contention throughout history, especially in the field of psychology. There isn’t any standard definition of intelligence to date. The concept of intelligence can be understood in multiple ways. While some theorists and researchers suggest that intelligence is a single and general ability, others believe that it encompasses a range of skills and aptitudes.
The debate around intelligence in psychology dates back to the early 18th century when French psychologists Alfred Binet and Théodore Simon developed what is considered to be the first intelligence test. They were helping out the French government differentiate quick learners from the slow ones in schools when they developed their intelligence test. It’s believed that their test prompted other psychologists to develop multiple theories of intelligence.
Different Theories Of Intelligence
Over time, researchers have developed several contrasting theories of intelligence in psychology. Although these theories of intelligence tried to explain the nature of intelligence, disagreements continue to persist among psychologists.
Here Are Some Of The Major Theories Of Intelligence Developed By Some Of The Most Well-Known Psychologists:
1. Two-Factor Theory Of Intelligence
Charles Spearman, a British psychologist, came up with one of the earliest theories of intelligence. He studied the results of the test conducted by Binet and Simon. He noticed that students who performed well in one subject were likely to perform well in corresponding subjects.
For example, he saw that a student who performed well in math also performed well in music. He hypothesized that there’s a single underlying factor that helps an individual utilize corresponding abilities. He called this ‘generalized’ form of intelligence the ‘g’ factor, which can lead to a ‘specialized’ form of intelligence called the ‘s’ factor. In other words, the ‘g’ factor is the sum of multiple s-factor scores. This came to be known as the Two-Factor Theory of intelligence in psychology.
IQ or intelligence quotient tests, which measures one’s general cognitive abilities, are derived from Spearman’s theory of general intelligence.
2. Gardener’s Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner, a developmental psychologist, was best known for his multiple intelligences theory. He believed that the traditional test of intelligence didn’t accurately depict a person’s abilities. He outlined eight major types of intelligence:
- Naturalistic Intelligence
Having a strong connection with the outside world and the ability to categorize objects in nature.
- Musical Intelligence
Having the ability to recognize and produce sound, rhythm, pitch and timbre.
- Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
The ability to think conceptually and use deductive reasoning to identify logical patterns or concepts.
- Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
The ability to control the physical form, like your bodily movements, and be effective physical communicators.
- Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence
The ability to convey or communicate ideas, feelings or theories. There’s sensitivity to sound and meaning of words.
- Visual-Spatial Intelligence
The ability to relate well to the surrounding environment. It’s the capacity to visualize thoughts and draw mental maps.
- Interpersonal Intelligence
The ability to understand others by using emotional intelligence. It’s the capacity to detect the mood and motivation of others.
- Intrapersonal Intelligence
The ability to be self-aware and self-knowing. It’s also called the intelligence of the self.
3. Triarchic Theory Of Intelligence
American psychologist Robert Sternberg proposed the Triarchic Theory just two years after Gardener’s theory. It was a three-category approach that addressed the gaps in Gardner’s theory of intelligence in psychology. He found Gardner’s definition of intelligence as a much broader, single and general ability. According to Sternberg, the concept of intelligence involves three different factors:
- Analytical Intelligence
It refers to a person’s ability to assess information and how they use the information to analyze problems and arrive at solutions.
- Creative Intelligence
The ability to do something in a novel or innovative way in order to create new ideas or experiences. It involves imagination and problem-solving skills.
- Practical Intelligence
The ability to solve problems in daily life and adapt to changing environments. People with practical intelligence are also called ‘street smart’.
Everybody’s intelligence is unique and everyone thinks and reasons differently. If you ever find someone comparing their achievements to yours, remember that you can do things that person can’t. What matters at the end of the day is how we use our intelligence.
Harappa Education’s Thinking Critically course will help you put your intelligence to best use. The Ladder of Inference framework will help you understand how a four-step approach to learning can make your thought-process mature and measured. Start thinking strategically and start problem-solving effectively.
Understanding Conflict of Interest
Conflict of interest is a common issue in the workplace. Most of us have heard someone say, “It’s who you know, not what you know.” We have heard co-workers complain that a manager’s relative always gets the biggest raise or the best assignment. We might have seen colleagues accept gifts from potential vendors. Maybe a co-worker leaves work 20 minutes early every day so she can get to her second job. A supervisor may give a co-worker time off from work to do volunteer work or might allow employees to solicit donations and funds in the workplace, whether for the Girl Scouts or a local school function. Even though these situations are very different, they all fall under the heading of “conflict of interest.”
What is a Conflict of Interest?
A conflict of interest occurs when an individual’s personal interests – family, friendships, financial, or social factors – could compromise his or her judgment, decisions, or actions in the workplace. Government agencies take conflicts of interest so seriously that they are regulated. Industry organizations, corporations, and universities, including our university, follow that lead by including conflicts of interest in our policies, regulations, and standards of operating procedures. For our university, we must follow Florida’s Code of Ethics for Public Officers and Employees that includes standards of conduct and reporting requirements.
Conflicts of interest are a clash that most often occurs between requirements and interests. Various types of conflicts of interest can occur because of the nature of relationships versus rules of organizations or federal and state laws. People can easily become biased (have an unfair preference) because of small things like friendship, food, or flattery, or they may be influenced to make a decision because of the potential to gain power, prestige, or money. Conflicts can occur when an individual makes or influences a decision and does so for some personal gain that may be unfair, unethical, or even illegal. The important part is what you do in each of those situations. Do you allow your family, friendship, financial, or inside knowledge affect your actions? If you do, you could be violating state statute and university policy.
In our work lives, we also have interests that could influence the way we do our jobs and the decisions we make. Even if we never act on them, there may be an appearance that a conflict of interest has influenced our decisions. Consider this example. Your supervisor is promoted to department director. His daughter-in-law is hired as a new supervisor within the college but is not reporting to him. Maybe the new supervisor is the best candidate for that position, and maybe the new department director had nothing to do with her hire. Even if this hire met all of the requirements under our Employment of Relatives policy, the situation appears suspicious and employees may think that something was unfair or unethical about her hire.
Transparency (being completely open and frank) becomes important when dealing with both actual and potentially perceived conflicts of interest. Perception happens when an individual observes something (behavior or activity) and comes to a conclusion. Perceiving a conflict of interest does not make it a conflict of interest. The true test of verifying whether a matter is just a potentially perceived conflict of interest, or an actual conflict of interest, is disclosure.
When it comes to conflicts of interest, appearance is as important as reality. This is why disclosing conflicts of interest is important. Disclosure is typically a more formal and documented process that most organizations have adopted in policy to address conflicts of interest. The disclosure process is intended to help the work force be transparent and accountable for (explain or justify) their actions and decisions. Disclosure of a potential conflict of interest does not make it an actual conflict, but may help eliminate the perception. On the other hand, disclosure of an actual conflict of interest does not remove the conflict, but helps get it in the open to be properly addressed. It’s important to disclose both potentially perceived and actual conflicts of interest to allow others to evaluate the matter and make the decision, rather than keep it to oneself and then create an ethical or legal situation. The individual cannot make the determination as to whether it is a conflict or not because he or she does not have an independent or objective point of view.
When you identify a situation that may be a conflict, or could be perceived as a conflict, notify your supervisor or University Compliance, Ethics, and Risk at firstname.lastname@example.org. They can help advise you on how to either remove the conflict by recusing yourself from the situation altogether, or develop a management plan to manage the conflict.
Final Point to Consider
“When in doubt, ask” is an old saying that makes a great deal of sense when working through conflicts of interest. There is no harm in asking, but there could be a great deal of harm to an individual, the organization, or both, by not asking. It is always best to be transparent and accountable to ensure we eliminate either the perceived or actual conflict of interest.
Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks
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Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks
9. Psychology and Economics
10. Tasks of Psychology
12. Perceptual Organization
13. Language Acquisition
14. Steven’s Power Law
16. Higher order Conditioning
17. Heider’s balance theory of attitude organization
18. Form and Content of Communication
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IGNOU BPC 001 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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