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IGNOU BECE 214 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BECE 214 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Answer all the questions
Long answer questions (word limit – 500 words). Each question carries 20 marks.
2 × 20 = 40
1. (a) Explain the different types of cropping pattern?
The major cropping pattern types include the following:
- Monocropping: Growing one agricultural species at a time in agricultural land is the meaning of monocropping. Monocropping can reduce the fertility of the soil and destroy the structure of the soil. Chemical fertilizers are required to upgrade production. This practice allows the spread of pests and diseases. Monocropping and monoculture convey the same meaning.
- Mixed Cropping: When two or more crops are grown on an equivalent land simultaneously, it’s referred to as mixed cropping. For example, growing wheat and gram on an equivalent land at an equivalent time is mixed cropping. The practice of this method helps to minimize the risk of the failure of one of the crops and provides insurance against the crop failure due to abnormal weather conditions. The crops that are grown together should have a different maturation time and different water requirements.
- Intercropping: Intercropping is the practice of growing quite one crop on an equivalent field at an equivalent time during a definite row pattern. After one row of the most crop, three rows of intercrops are often grown. This increases productivity per unit area.
- Crop Rotation: In this pattern, different crops are grown on an equivalent land in pre-planned succession. The crops are classified based on the time they are rotated one-year rotation, two-year rotation, and three-year rotation, depending upon their duration. Legumes are included within the crop rotation program to extend soil fertility. The crops which require a high fertility level are often grown after the legumes. The crops which require low inputs are often grown after the crops that need high inputs.
(b) Why do cropping pattern differ across regions? Discuss the reasons for the same.
Cropping pattern means the proportion of area under various crops at a point of time. The crop statistics published by the governments are used to denote the cropping patterns. Cropping pattern is, however, a dynamic concept as it changes over space and time.
The cropping patterns of a region are closely influenced by the geo-climatic, socio-cultural, economic, historical and political factors. The physical environment (physiographic, climate, soils and water) imposes limits on the growth and distribution of plants and animals.
The role of man in the cultivation of certain crops in a region is also quite important. Man, by his technological advancement, can ameliorate the physical limits.
The cultivation of rice in Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan (Ganganagar) testifies this fact. Nevertheless, in different parts of the world, the physical environment reduces the choice of crops, either by prohibiting the growth of certain plants or by reducing their yield per unit area.
Depending on the terrain, topography, slope, temperature, amount and reliability of rainfall, soils and availability of water for irrigation, the cropping patterns vary from region to region.
The perception and assessment of environment also guide to grow certain crops in a region. Those areas of the world where physical diversities are less, the cropping patterns are less diversified. For example, in the rainfall deficient areas of Rajasthan (India), the farmers grow bajra (bulrush millet), while in the Brahmaputra valley of Assam rice is the dominant crop.
Similarly, cotton is grown in the regur (black earth) soil of Maharashtra and Gujarat, while the loamy soils of western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab are ideally suited for wheat, rice and sugarcane crops.
Moreover, the land tenancy, ownership of land, size of holdings and size of fields also impose restrictions on the cropping patterns of a region. In the areas of small holdings, the farmers tend to be subsistent despite innovation diffusion. Contrary to this, the farmers with large holdings have more risk bearing capacity and they have relatively high degree of commercialization.
The cropping patterns of a region or areal unit may be determined on the basis of areal strength of individual crops. The first, second and third ranking crops of an areal unit may be called as the dominant crops of that unit. These crops, if occupying more or less the same percentage of the total cropped area, shall be competing for area with each other and the farmer will decide which crop may fetch him more profit in a given year under the prevailing rainfall and demand, supply and commodity price condition.
In general, for the determination of cropping patterns of a region, the minor crops (crops occupying insignificant proportion of the total cropped area) are eliminated.
Apart from the proportion of area under a particular crop, its relative yield also guides the suitability of that crop in a given geo-climatic and cultural setting.
(c) Which are the factors influencing the cropping pattern? Elaborate.
- Soil: The type of crop that would be grown using a particular type of soil is determined by the components of soil and climatic influence of a region
- Climate: In the dry regions where the rainfall is scanty and where there is high uncertainty of monsoons, the dependence is on jowar and bajra. Water logging areas cultivate rice.
- Cropping pattern also depend upon irrigation facilities. Where ever water is available, not only can a different crop be grown but even double or triple cropping will be possible.
- Economic motivation is the most important in determining the cropping pattern of the country. Among the various economic factors affecting crop pattern, the following are important:
- Price and Income Maximization: Price variations exert an important influence on acreage shifts. The variation in the inter-crop prices led to shifts in acreage as between the crops.
- Farm Size: There is a relationship between the farm size and the cropping pattern. The small farmers are first interested in producing food grain for their requirements. Small holder therefore devotes relatively small acreage to cash crops than large holders.
- Insurance against risk: The need to minimise the risk of crop failures not only explains diversification but also some specific features of crop patterns.
- Availability of Inputs: Seeds, fertilizers, water storage, marketing, transport etc. also affect the cropping pattern.
- Tenure: Under the crop sharing system, the landlord has a dominant voice in the choice of the cropping pattern and this helps in the adoption of income maximising crop adjustments.
- trade and marketing
- post-harvest handling
- processing etc
- The legislative and administrative policies of the government may also affect the cropping pattern. Food Crops Acts, Land Use Acts, intensive schemes for paddy, for cotton and oilseeds, subsidies affect the cropping pattern.
- MSP – farmers shifting to wheat, rice
- Green Revolution – skewed cropping pattern in Northern India towards wheat and rice from coarse cereals and pulses
- Food habits also play a role – East and South India prefers rice as staple food while it is wheat in North India.
2. Explain the policy measures initiated for the promotion of rural industries in India over the period 1951-1991.
Medium answer questions (word limit – 250 words). Each question carries 12 marks.
4 × 12 = 48
3. Why is ‘protecting and expanding the forest area important from the point of view of maintaining a healthy ecological balance’? Explain.
4. Discuss the major issues of water resource management in India.
5. How is productivity of Indian agricultural sector measured? Discuss the issue in terms of land labour and capital productivities.
6. Write a note on the efforts made to improve the performance of agricultural sector in India through the various Five-year plans.
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IGNOU BECE 214 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Short answer questions (word limit – 100 words). Each question carries 6 marks. 2 × 6 = 12
7. Write short notes on the following:
(a) Institutional and Technological factors for low productivity in agricultural sector in India.
(b) Panchayati Raj Institutions in India
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IGNOU BECE 214 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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