You are currently viewing IGNOU BECC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BECC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BECC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , BECC 109 INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS – II Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : BECC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU BECC 109 Assignment 2022-23, BECC 109 Assignment 2022-23 , BECC 109 Assignment , BECC 109 INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS – II Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- BACHELOR OF ARTS Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for BACHELOR OF ARTS Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. Study of Political Science is very important for every person because it is interrelated with the society and the molar values in today culture and society. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23, ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .

IGNOU BECC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BECC 109 INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS – II Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We have worked in this field for so long. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920

Important Note – IGNOU BECC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-2023  Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Download Question Paper 

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Answer the following Descriptive Category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks. Word limit does not apply in case of numerical questions in Assignment One.

Answer the following Middle Category questions in about 250 words each. Each question carries 10 marks. Word limit does not apply in case of numerical questions in Assignment Two.

Answer the following Short Category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 6 marks in Assignment Three.

Answer all the questions.

Assignment One


1.What type of inconsistency is observed in cross-sectional and time series data on
consumption? Explain how the permanent income hypothesis reconciles it.

The permanent income hypothesis is a theory of consumer spending stating that people will spend money at a level consistent with their expected long-term average income. The level of expected long-term income then becomes thought of as the level of “permanent” income that can be safely spent. A worker will save only if their current income is higher than the anticipated level of permanent income, in order to guard against future declines in income.

Something similar can be said of individuals who are informed that they are to receive an inheritance. Their personal expenditures could change to take advantage of the anticipated influx of funds, but per this theory, they may maintain their current spending levels in order to save the supplemental assets. Or, they may seek to invest those supplemental funds to provide long-term growth of their money rather than spend it immediately on disposable products and services.

Understanding the Permanent Income Hypothesis

The permanent income hypothesis was formulated by the Nobel Prize-winning economist Milton Friedman in 1957. The hypothesis implies that changes in consumption behavior are not predictable because they are based on individual expectations. This has broad implications concerning economic policy.

Under this theory, even if economic policies are successful in increasing income in the economy, the policies may not kick off a multiplier effect in regards to increased consumer spending. Rather, the theory predicts that there will not be an uptick in consumer spending until workers reform expectations about their future incomes.

Milton believed that people will consume based on an estimate of their future income as opposed to what Keynesian economics proposed; people will consume based on their in the moment after-tax income. Milton’s basis was that individuals prefer to smooth their consumption rather than let it bounce around as a result of short-term fluctuations in income.

Spending Habits Under the Permanent Income Hypothesis

If a worker is aware that they are likely to receive an income bonus at the end of a particular pay period, it is plausible that the worker’s spending in advance of that bonus may change in anticipation of the additional earnings. However, it is also possible that workers may choose to not increase their spending based solely on a short-term windfall. They may instead make efforts to increase their savings, based on the expected boost in income.

Something similar can be said of individuals who are informed that they are to receive an inheritance. Their personal expenditures could change to take advantage of the anticipated influx of funds, but per this theory, they may maintain their current spending levels in order to save the supplemental assets. Or, they may seek to invest those supplemental funds to provide long-term growth of their money rather than spend it immediately on disposable products and services.

Liquidity and the Permanent Income Hypothesis

The liquidity of the individual can play a role in future income expectations. Individuals with no assets may already be in the habit of spending without regard to their income; current or future.

Changes over time, however—through incremental salary raises or the assumption of new long-term jobs that bring higher, sustained pay—can lead to changes in permanent income. With their expectations elevated, employees may allow their expenditures to scale up in turn.


2). Why is debt stabilisation important for an economy? On the basis of government
budget constraint explain how debt-to-GDP ratio can be maintained.

The debt-to-GDP ratio is the metric comparing a country’s public debt to its gross domestic product (GDP). By comparing what a country owes with what it produces, the debt-to-GDP ratio reliably indicates that particular country’s ability to pay back its debts. Often expressed as a percentage, this ratio can also be interpreted as the number of years needed to pay back debt if GDP is dedicated entirely to debt repayment.

What the Debt-to-GDP Ratio Can Tell You

When a country defaults on its debt, it often triggers financial panic in domestic and international markets alike. As a rule, the higher a country’s debt-to-GDP ratio climbs, the higher its risk of default becomes.

Although governments strive to lower their debt-to-GDP ratios, this can be difficult to achieve during periods of unrest, such as wartime or economic recession. In such challenging climates, governments tend to increase borrowing to stimulate growth and boost aggregate demand. This macroeconomic strategy is attributed to Keynesian economics.

Economists who adhere to modern monetary theory (MMT) argue that sovereign nations capable of printing their own money cannot ever go bankrupt, because they can simply produce more fiat currency to service debts. However, this rule does not apply to countries that do not control their monetary policies, such as European Union (EU) nations, who must rely on the European Central Bank (ECB) to issue euros.

Good vs. Bad Debt-to-GDP Ratios

A study by the World Bank found that countries whose debt-to-GDP ratios exceed 77% for prolonged periods experience significant slowdowns in economic growth. Pointedly, every percentage point of debt above this level costs countries 0.017 percentage points in economic growth. This phenomenon is even more pronounced in emerging markets, where each additional percentage point of debt over 64% annually slows growth by 0.02%.

The U.S. has had a debt-to-GDP over 77% since 1Q 2009.3 To put these figures into perspective, the U.S.’s highest debt-to-GDP ratio was previously 106% at the end of World War II, in 1946.

Debt levels gradually fell from their post-World War II peak, before plateauing between 31% and 40% in the 1970s—ultimately hitting a historic 23% low in 1974. Ratios have steadily risen since 1980 and then jumped sharply following 2007’s subprime housing crisis and the subsequent financial meltdown.

The landmark 2010 study entitled “Growth in a Time of Debt,” conducted by Harvard economists Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff, painted a gloomy picture for countries with high debt-to-GDP ratios.5 However, a 2013 review of the study identified coding errors, as well as the selective exclusion of data, which purportedly led Reinhart and Rogoff to make errant conclusions.


Assignment Two


3) Give a brief overview of the Romer growth model.
4) In the Solow model of economic growth, discuss the factors that determine long run
living standard.
5) Bring out the salient features of new-classical macroeconomics.


IGNOU Handwritten Hardcopy , WhatsApp – 8130208920

IGNOU BECC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BECC 109 INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS – II Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920


GET IGNOU Handwritten Hardcopy , WhatsApp – 8130208920

Assignment Three


6) What are the various types of demand for money according to Keynes?
7) Explain the motives of holding inventory.
8) Bring out the important features of business cycles.
9) Give a brief account of the policy lags that affect smooth functioning of the economy.
10) Write a short note on the concept of Ricardian equivalence.


Get IGNOU BECC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Now  here from this website.

IGNOU BECC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 get here all ignou solved assignment 2022-23 , ignou guess paper , ignou help books and ignou exam related material. We help students to get their assignment done with our handwritten services, BECC 109 INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS – II Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free you can access our all material and services through WhatsApp also , 8130208920


GET SOLVED PDF – Click Here


IGNOU Instructions for the BECC 109 INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS – II Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BECC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

IGNOU BECC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BECC 109 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BECC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BECC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

IGNOU Assignment Front Page

The top of the first page of your response sheet should look like this: Get IGNOU Assignment Front page through. And Attach on front page of your assignment. Students need to compulsory attach the front page in at the beginning of their handwritten assignment.

ENROLMENT NO: …………………………………………………….

NAME: ……………………………………………………………………

ADDRESS: ………………………………………………………………

COURSE TITLE: ………………………………………………………

ASSIGNMENT NO: …………………………………………………

STUDY CENTRE: …………………………………………….……..

DATE: ……………………………………………………………………



BECC 109 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BECC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 – We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. BECC 109 INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS – II Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BECC 109 INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS – II Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done –8130208920

Related Material Also –

BUY PDF & Handwritten

  • Solved PDF Cost – @50 rs per Paper / Subject
  • Handwritten Hardcopy – @350 rs per paper/ subject

WhatsApp – 813020892

Leave a Reply