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IGNOU MSWE 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU MSWE 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF. You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Answer all the five questions.

All questions carry equal marks.

Answers to question no. 1 and 2 should not exceed 600 words each.

 


 

Q.1. ‘HIV has not remained as an epidemic only, rather has become a developmental concern.’ In the light of this statement, discuss the social and economic implications of HIV& AIDS in India.

OR

Discuss socio-economic determinants which play a significant role in enhancing vulnerability to HIV infection.

An epidemic is both a medical and a social occurrence. Medically, it is the appearance of a serious, often fatal, disease in numbers far greater than normal. Socially, it is an event that disrupts the life of a community and causes uncertainty, fear, blame, and flight. The etymology of the word itself suggests the broader, social meaning: epi demos, in ancient Greek, means ”upon the people or the community.”

The epidemic of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)—which was recognized in the United States in 1981, continues today, and will continue into the foreseeable future—mirrors epidemics of the past. The medical meaning of the epidemic has been revealed in the sobering numbers reported in epidemiologic studies. During 1991, 45,506 new AIDS cases were reported to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), which brought the cumulative total of cases in the United States to 206,392; 133,233 (65 percent) deaths have been tallied (Centers for Disease Control, 1992). It is estimated that 1 million people are currently infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS (Centers for Disease Control, 1990), but this number is very uncertain (see Technical Note at the end of this chapter).

These numbers identify the first and most obvious impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on American society: the large population of infected, sick, and dying persons attacked by a previously unknown disease. Behind the epidemiologic reports and the statistical estimates lies the social disruption of the epidemic: the destroyed life for which each of the numbers stands and the changed lives of many others touched by the disease. And behind the individual lives are the manifold ways in which a variety of institutions and practices have been affected by the epidemic.

In 1987 the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences established the Committee on AIDS Research in the Social, Behavioral, and Statistical Sciences. Two of the committee’s reports, AIDS: Sexual Behavior and Intravenous Drug Use (Turner, Miller, and Moses, 1989) and AIDS: The Second Decade (Miller, Turner, and Moses, 1990), reviewed and evaluated a wide range of social and behavioral science research relevant to HIV/AIDS prevention, education, and intervention. In the course of preparing those reports, the committee noted that many of the social consequences of the epidemic were not being studied in any systematic way. It judged that systematic study would be beneficial in predicting the course of the epidemic’s path through U.S. society and in formulating policies to deal with it. Thus, in 1989 the committee established the Panel on Monitoring the Social Impact of the AIDS Epidemic, with the general mandate to study the social impact of the epidemic and to recommend how it could be monitored in order to contribute to the formulation of policies that might effectively deal with it. In the course of its work, the panel, with the agreement of the parent committee and the several federal agencies that were sponsoring its work, modified this mandate and deleted the plan to recommend systems for monitoring.

This report is an unusual undertaking for the National Research Council. Its objective is to form a picture of the effects of the AIDS epidemic on selected social and cultural institutions in the United States and to describe how those institutions have responded to the impact of the epidemic. No attempt has been made to write a comprehensive history—there are not yet adequate studies of the epidemic upon which to base such an effort. Instead we have been selective in looking at those institutions for which sufficient information is available to describe impact and response. These descriptions cannot be considered complete and authoritative; but we do believe they suggest a pattern that should be of concern to the country and command the attention of policy makers attempting to deal with the epidemic over the next decade.

Epidemics, Impacts, And Responses

The impact of AIDS has many dimensions, only a few of which are captured in official statistics or analysis by the research community. The numbers of AIDS cases and HIV infection count as an impact: cumulatively, they state the effect on the population of the United States and on particular subpopulations. Each case has many dimensions—personal, professional, and institutional—through the many social organizations that touch the life of each infected person. Each set of interactions creates an impact, and the diverse impacts have generated equally diverse responses by individuals, groups, and communities.

The panel set out to study these impacts, and it immediately confronted the problem of defining the terms of reference. “Impact” is an overused word that in common parlance has become a synonym for “effect.” In this sense, it indicates that one action or state of affairs is caused or influenced by some other action or state of affairs and is used to describe both major and minor effects. Reaching deeper into the language, however, impact has a more powerful meaning—collision. In this use of the word, an impact is an effect that radically changes the previous state of affairs or even destroys it.

After much discussion, the panel adopted a definition of impact that fits somewhere between these two meanings. “Impact” as used by the panel describes a concentrated force producing change, a compelling effect. We adopted this hybrid meaning not only because it more accurately describes the impact of AIDS on contemporary America—social institutions have not been destroyed—but because we quickly realized that social impact does not merely destroy; it evokes a reaction or a response. It is more organic than physical. Persons and societies do not merely feel the impact of an event; they remake their lives and institutions to accommodate, negate, or preserve its effects. In this report, we attempt to capture and describe the process of impact and response of selected social institutions to the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

The task of this panel was to go beyond, to the extent possible to limited human vision, the impression of the extraordinary impacts of AIDS on individual lives and on social institutions. We have tried to sort out those that will endure in such a way as to force, or to invite, Americans to take them into account in the next decade. This epidemic is not ordinary in one quite specific way: it can be determined many years in advance of the onset of actual illness in a patient that the illness will come. This epidemic is not, like many historical epidemics, an invasion of morbidity and mortality that rapidly sweeps through a population. It comes and will stay for years, not only in the population, but in the individual people infected, and its presence will often be known to them and to others long before they suffer the disabling, lethal effects. Similarly, rough estimates can be made of the numbers of people who will begin to experience those disabling, lethal effects years from now. Thus, Americans must think about this epidemic for many years into the future.

The institutions we studied appear to have absorbed the impact of AIDS and accommodated to it in a very limited way. However, even a response that is partial and apparently transitory may mark the beginning of more fundamental change. Several of the institutions we studied may follow this trajectory of limited initial response, followed some years later by very significant changes. These longer term responses would be interesting to follow, and we hope that researchers will attempt to do so. However, the panel did not attempt to suggest a methodology for longer term monitoring: the data needs and methods of observation would be very different for the individual institutions studied.

After extensive deliberation, the panel determined that it had sufficient information and understanding to describe social impact and response for six institutions (broadly defined):

  • the public health system
  • health care finance and delivery
  • clinical research and drug regulation
  • religion
  • voluntary organizations
  • the correctional system

These institutions were selected for several reasons: the panel members had the competence to study and evaluate them, we judged that sufficient empirical data and informed opinion existed to formulate our own assessment of impact and response, and they had not been treated in previous reports of the parent committee. The six institutions chosen are very different in structure, degree of centralization, and other dimensions. Such differences affect the level of generalization appropriate to each area.

In the course of our work we also began to see another kind of impact and response—on public policies not necessarily connected to institutions. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has clearly had an impact on policies related to families, and we thus decided to add to our study an examination of two policy areas: issues related to newborns and children and issues related to intimate nonmarital relationships.

Finally, in addition to examining institutional systems as a whole and selected family policies, the panel wanted to look at the impact of HIV/AIDS on communities, where several institutions converge and where the synergy resulting from that convergence is most clearly seen. Originally, three case studies were envisioned: New York, Miami, and Sacramento. We were able to complete only New York—a city that could never be described as typical, but one that does vividly illustrate the impact and response to AIDS among major social institutions.

It is not clear what an “ordinary” epidemic would be. No epidemic seems ordinary to those who experience it. The AIDS epidemic has invoked comparison with many epidemics of the past. Most commonly, the bubonic plague (the Black Death) that devastated Europe in the fourteenth century is recalled: between 1348 and 1350, some 20 million people, one-third of the population of Europe, died. (Additional tends of millions had died in Asia during the preceding decade [McNeil, 1976].) This epidemic had unquestionable impacts. Historians attribute to it, at least in part, the emergence of nation states, the rise of mercantile economies, and the religious movements that led to the Reformation (Campbell, 1931; McNeil 1976; Tuchman, 1978). As Anna Campbell (1931) noted, the Black Death “changed the minds of men” bringing new ways of understanding God, the meaning of death, the place of tradition, and the role of authority in religious and social life. Changes in the collective mind of a society might be the most profound of all impacts, for the new ideas generated by a major social tragedy can propel institutional change and outlast immediate changes to affect lives far in the future. Difficult though it might be to predict the future import of the present impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, one should not shrink from the task, especially when one must plan for that future.

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2.What are the challenges of communication in context of awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. in India? Elaborate with suitable examples.

OR

Discuss implications for social work roles in HIV/AIDS service delivery with relevant examples in the Indian context.

India has been working tremendously hard to eradicate HIV/AIDS which poses serious health challenges to a large population living in the country. Efforts are now being made to reduce the number of HIV cases to zero and the nation has already achieved a breakthrough to stop HIV prevalence in the last few years. However, there is a long way to go for an “AIDS Free India” as the country still has about 2.5 million people, aged between 15 and 49, estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS, the third largest in the world.

Based on the HIV Estimation 2012, India has demonstrated an overall reduction of 57% in the annual new HIV infections (among adult population) from 2.74 lakhs in 2000 to 1.16 lakhs in 2011, reflecting the impact of various interventions and scaled-up prevention strategies under the National AIDS Control Programme. The adult HIV prevalence has decreased from 0.41% in 2001 to 0.27% in 2011. Also, the estimated number of people living with HIV has decreased from 24.1 lakh in 2000 to 20.9 lakhs in 2011. Wider access to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) has resulted in 29% reduction in estimated annual deaths due to AIDS related causes between 2007 and 2011. It is estimated that around 1.5 lakhs lives have been saved due to ART till 2011.

India has used extensive and ever increasing sources of HIV related data to plan programmes and monitor the impact of HIV prevention and care interventions.

Latest estimates from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) show that the world continues to close in on the goal of ending the AIDS epidemic by stopping HIV transmission and halting AIDS-related deaths. Remarkable progress has been made over the last decade-yet significant challenges remain.

HIV PREVALENCE TREND AND STRATEGIES

Prevention is the mainstay of the strategic response to HIV/AIDS in India as 99 percent population of the country is uninfected. The HIV prevalence pattern in the remaining one percent population largely determines the prevention and control strategy for the epidemic in the country.

AWARENESS RAISING

HIV infection is entirely preventable through awareness raising. Therefore, awareness raising about its occurrence and spread is very significant in protecting the people from the epidemic. It is for this reason that the National AIDS Control Programme lays maximum emphasis on the widespread reach of information, education and communication on HIV/AIDS prevention. Changing knowledge, attitudes and behavior as a prevention strategy of HIV/AIDS thus is a key thrust area of the National AIDS Control Programme.

AIDS IN INDIA

In India, the first case of HIV was detected in 1986, mostly among sex workers. The virus then spread rapidly across the nation, with 135 more cases coming to light by among which 14 had already progressed towards AIDS2. In this scenario, the Government of India took the first step towards combating HIV with setting up screening centres. These centres were meant to monitor the citizens as well as the blood banks. Later in the year, a National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) was launched to coordinate the national responses of surveillance, blood screening details and programmes of health education.

However, the beginning of 1990 witnessed a sudden increase in the number of HIV cases, triggering the set up of National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) by the Government of India. The NACO was delegated with the responsibility of formulating, implementing and monitoring policies concerning prevention and control of HIV and AIDS in the country; in addition, it took control of the NACP implementation for HIV prevention. Under NACP, administrative and technical basis for programme management was established and State AIDS Control Societies (SACS)s and 7 union territories.

In 1992, the Government of India demonstrated its commitment to combat the disease with the launch of the first National AIDS Control Programme (NACP-I). The programme, implemented during 1992-1999 with an IDA Credit of $84 million, had the objective to slow down the spread of HIV infections so as to reduce morbidity, mortality and impact of AIDS in the country. To strengthen the management capacity, a National AIDS Control Board (NACB) was constituted and National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) was set up for project implementation.

The Phase II of the National AIDS Control Programme was launched in 1999. It was a 100% centrally sponsored scheme implemented in 32 States/UTs and 3 Municipal Corporations namely Ahmedabad, Chennai and Mumbai through AIDS Control Societies.

The government designed and implemented NACP III (2007-2012) with an objective to “halt and reverse the HIV epidemic in India”. All these efforts helped in a steady decline in overall prevalence and decrease in new infections over last ten years.


3. Answer any two of the following questions in about 300 words each:
a) Explain the role of gendered power relations in accessing information related to HIV/AIDS.
b) What are rights of the child suffering from HIV/AIDS.
c) How workers in the unorganized sector are vulnerable to HIV/AIDS? Discuss with suitable examples.
d) Describe importance of the counselling with special reference to HIV/AIDS.


4. Answer any four of the following in about 150 words each:
a) What are the facts and myths associated with HIV/AIDS?
b) Discuss the epidemiological aspect of HIV in the Indian context.
c) Enlist skills and characteristics of a counsellor with special reference to HIV/AIDS.
d) How stigma and discrimination associated with people living with HIV/AIDS impede the efforts of caregivers.
e) What are the ethical issues involved in HIV testing?
f) Discuss stigma and discrimination associated with a woman living with HIV/AIDS.


5. Write short notes on any five of the following in about 100 words each:
a) Symptomatic HIV Infection
b) Hunter Theory
c) Palliative Care
d) National AIDS Control Organization (NACO)
e) Community Care
f) Behaviour Change Communication (BCC)
g) Perceived Self-Efficacy
h) Stereotyping


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IGNOU MSWE 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
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IGNOU MSWE 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

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